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PRESENTED <J^*W' 



TO THE 



Holbrook Public Library, 

BY 






9 £/ ££- - S^zi 



No.. 



A Brave Black Regiment. 



/ know not when, in all human history, to any given thousand men 
in arms there has been committed a work at once so proud, so firecious l 
so full of hope and glory. — Gov. John A. Andrew. 

The regiment whose bayonets pricked the na?ne of Colonel Shaw 
into the roll of immortal honor. — Theodore Tilton. 

Right in the van, 
On the red ramparfs slippery sivell 
With heart that beat a charge, he fell 

Forward, as fits a man ; 
But the high soul burns on to light men's feet 
Where death for noble ends makes dying sweet. 

James Russell Lowell. 



■ ...■.■. 




_________ _ ■ __ _______ _.____J 

TV^e old flag never touched the ground, boys.' 

Sergt. William II. Carney, of Co. C. 
With the flag he saved at Wagner. 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



Fifty-Fourth Regiment 



OF 



0la&gaci)vi^tts Itolunteer JQniantty, 



1863-1865. 



BY 

LUIS F. EMILIO. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED, 

WITH APPENDIX UPON TREATMENT OF COLORED PRISONERS OF WAR. 



BOSTON: 

THE BOSTON BOOK COMPANY. 

1894. 



Copyright, 1891. 
By Luis F. Emilio. 

Copyright, 1894. 
By Luis F. Emilio, 



Sambersitg Press: 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



At the annual meeting of the Association of Officers of 
the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, held 
at Boston, Oct. 26, 1893, the following resolution was 
adopted : — 

Resolved, That the Association of Officers of the Fifty-Fourth 
Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, after examination of Capt. 
Emilio's History of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts (entitled "A 
Brave Black Begiment"), adopt and sanction it as the authorized 
history of the organization, and request the publishers to issue a 
new edition, correcting the Boster to date, and embodying in an 
appendix or otherwise Capt. Emilio's record of the treatment of 
colored prisoners by the rebel authorities. 

A true copy. 

W L. Whitney, Jr., 

Secretary. 

In compliance with this request the publishers have cor- 
rected the Boster to date, as well as the typographical errors 
therein and in the text which have been pointed out by 
friends, and have added in an appendix the author's record 
of the treatment of the colored prisoners-of-war belonging 
to the regiment. They present the history in this revised 
and enlarged form as a second edition, trusting that it will 
preserve and extend the interest aroused by the original 
publication. 

February, 1894. 



PREFACE. 



THIS record has grown out of the researches 
and material gathered for the preparation of 
papers read before the officers of the Fifty-fourth 
and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry and other 
veteran associations at reunions in recent years, as 
well as newspaper articles. It is founded upon the 
compiler's daily record of events, his letters of the 
period, contemporaneous records, and the very full 
journal of Lieut. John Ritchie, as well as a briefer 
one of Capt. Lewis Reed. To both these officers 
grateful acknowledgments are rendered. Thanks 
are also due to Lieut.-Cols. H. N. Hooper and 
George Pope for valuable records. Sergt.-Major 
John H. Wilson, and Sergts. William H. Carney 
and Charles W Lenox have furnished important 
particulars. Mention should be made of Capt. 



PKEFACE. vil 

William C. Manning, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, 
whose field notes were most thankfully received. 
Throughout the compilation Gen. A. S. Hartwell, 
Col. N. P Hallowell, and Capt. Charles C. Soule, 
all of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry, have 
manifested unflagging interest. 

L. F. E. 



No. 6 East 58th Street, 

New York City, Dec. 22, 1890. 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. 



TT is twenty-six years since our Civil War ended, — 
nearly the span of a generation of men. There has 
been almost a surfeit of war literature. Every new book 
issued to-day on war topics ought to be able to give good 
reason for its existence. 

Although this volume is only a regimental history, the 
peculiar circumstances of the organization, character, repre- 
sentative position, and soldierly conduct of the regiment 
whose story is told, seem to give the history a sufficiently 
wide and permanent interest to warrant its publication, 
even at so late a day. 

It will be sure to interest the surviving members of the 
regiment whose life it chronicles. To them it should be 
said that the author has spent many years in gradually 
collecting material for this record, and in arranging it 
methodically. What he here presents is the condensed 
digest of a great mass of print and manuscript carefully 
collated with the government records and with other regi- 
mental histories. He has not been willing to publish his 
material until this work of collection, arrangement, and 
collation could be thoroughly accomplished. 

To the present generation of the race from which the 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers was recruited, the 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. ix 

history of the regiment should have peculiar interest. 
The author's treatment of the subject is simple and 
straightforward, with hardly a word of eulogy; and yet 
the plain narrative of the soldierly achievements of this 
black regiment is better evidence of the manly qualities 
of the race than volumes of rhetoric and panegyric could 
convey. 

For those veterans who served in the Department of the 
South, the maps of this volume, and the author's minute 
account of actions and operations not elsewhere fully de- 
scribed, will have more than transient interest and value. 

For the general public, — for the surviving soldiers of 
other regiments, white and black, and for the younger 
men to whom the story of the Civil War is history, — this 
book should also have great significance and interest. The 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts was a typical regiment — it 
might almost be called the typical regiment — of our 
army. It illustrated the patriotism of the period as well as 
any organization in the service. It required of its mem- 
bers even more resolution and courage at enlistment than 
white regiments ; because at the time of its formation the 
chances seemed to be that black soldiers and their officers, 
if captured, would not be treated according to the usages 
of civilized war, but would be massacred as at Fort Pillow. 
Facing this risk at the outset, the men of the Fifty-fourth 
proved their courage in so many battles and with such 
serious losses as to earn a place among the three hundred 
fighting regiments chronicled in Fox's " Regimental Losses 
in the American Civil War." 

But while the men of the Fifty-fourth shared the cour- 
age and patriotism which characterized all our citizen 
soldiery, they also represented more conspicuously, per- 



X PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. 

haps, than any other colored regiment the political policy 
of emancipation into which the war forced us, and the in- 
teresting military experience embodied in the organization, 
from a mob of freed slaves, of a disciplined and effective 
army of two hundred thousand men. Though it was not 
absolutely the first black regiment in the field, and though 
there were others which saw severe service, the early dis- 
tinction won in the assault on Wagner, together with the 
gallant death of Colonel Shaw on the ramparts, and his 
burial with his black soldiers where they fell, created a 
wider and stronger interest in the Fifty-fourth than any 
other colored regiment was fortunate enough to attract. 

It was also the lot of the Fifty-fourth to bear the brunt 
of the struggle against the bitter injustice of inferior pay 
to which black troops were subjected, and the further 
struggle to secure for the enlisted men who earned it by 
intelligence and bravery, the right to rise from the ranks 
and serve as officers. 

The following editorial from the New York " Tribune," 
of Sept. 8, 1865, apparently from the pen of Horace 
Greeley, bears contemporaneous testimony to the repu- 
tation of the regiment : — 

" The Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers 
was welcomed back to Boston on Saturday. There was a pub- 
lic reception, a review by the Governor and Council at the 
State House, another on the Common by the mayor, an address 
to his officers and men by Colonel Hallowell ; and then the regi- 
ment was disbanded. The demonstrations of respect were 
rather more than have usually been awarded to returning regi- 
ments, even in Massachusetts, which cherishes her soldiers with 
an unforgetting affection. They were so honored in this case, 
we presume, because the regiment is a representative one. 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. XI 

There were regiments from that State which had seen more 
fighting than this, though none which had done any better fight- 
ing when occasion offered ; none which had a higher reputation 
for discipline, patient endurance, and impetuous valor. But 
the true reason why Massachusetts singled out this regiment 
for peculiar honor is because this was the first colored regiment 
organized in the North, and was that one on whose good con- 
duct depended for a long time the success of the whole experi- 
ment of arming black citizens in defence of the Republic. It 
is not too much to say that if this Massachusetts Fifty-fourth 
had faltered when its trial came, two hundred thousand colored 
troops for whom it was a pioneer would never have been put 
into the field, or would not have been put in for another year, 
which would have been equivalent to protracting the war into 
1866. But it did not falter. It made Fort Wagner such a 
name to the colored race as Bunker Hill has been for ninety 
years to the white Yankees, — albeit black men fought side by 
side with white in the trenches on that 17th of June. 

' ' To this Massachusetts Fifty- fourth was set the stupendous 
task to convince the white race that colored troops would fight, 
— and not only that they would fight, but that they could be 
made, in every sense of the word, soldiers. It is not easy to 
recall at this day the state of public opinion on that point, — 
the contemptuous disbelief in the courage of an enslaved race, 
or rather of a race with a colored skin. Nobody pretends now 
that the negro won't fight. Anglo-Saxon prejudice takes an- 
other shape, — and says he won't work, and don't know how to 
vote ; but in the spring of 1863, when this regiment marched 
down State Street in Boston, though it was greeted with cheers 
and borne on by the hopes of the loyal city which had trusted 
the fame and lives of its noblest white sons to lead their black 
comrades, yet that procession was the scoff of every Demo- 
cratic journal in America, and even friends feared half as much 
as they hoped. Many a white regiment had shown the white 
feather in its first battle ; but for this black band to waver once 



xii PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. 

was to fall forever, and to carry down with it, perhaps, the 
fortunes of the Republic. It had to wait months for an oppor- 
tunity. It was sent to a department which was sinking under 
the prestige of almost uninterrupted defeats. The general who 
commanded the department, the general who commanded the 
division, and the general who commanded the brigade to which 
this regiment found itself consigned, — neither of them believed 
in the negro. When the hour came for it to go into action, 
there was probably no officer in the field outside of its own 
ranks who did not expect it — and there were many who de- 
sired it — to fail. When it started across that fatal beach 
which led to the parapet of Wagner, it started to do what had 
not been successfully attempted by white troops on either side 
during the war. It passed through such an ordeal successfully ; 
it came out not merely with credit, but an imperishable fame. 

" The ordinary chances of battle were not all which the Mas- 
sachusetts Fifty-fourth had to encounter. The hesitating policy 
of our government permitted the Rebels to confront every black 
soldier with the threat of death or slavery if he were taken pris- 
oner. If he escaped the bullet and the knife, he came back to 
camp to learn that the country for which he had braved that 
double peril intended to cheat him out of the pay on which his 
wife and children depended for support. We trust Mr. Secre- 
tary Stanton is by this time heartily ashamed of the dishonesty 
which marked his dealings with the black troops, — but we are 
not going into that question. We said then, and we reiterate 
now, that the refusal of pay to the colored soldiers was a 
swindle and a scandal, so utterly without excuse that it might 
well have seemed to them as if intended to provoke a mutiny. 
Few white regiments would have borne it for a month ; the 
blacks maintained their fidelity in spite of it for a year and a 
half. When the Fifty-fourth was offered a compromise, the 
men replied with one voice : ' No. We need the money you 
offer ; our families are starving because the government does not 
pay us what it promised ; but we demand to be recognized as 



PUBLISHERS' PREFACE. xiii 

soldiers of the Republic, entitled to the same rights which white 
soldiers have. Until you grant that, we will not touch a dol- 
lar.' It was a sublimer heroism, a loftier sentiment of honor, 
than that which inspired them at Wagner. They would not 
mutiny because of injustice, but they would not surrender one 
iota of their claim to equal rights. Eventually they compelled 
the government to acknowledge their claim, and were paid in 
full by a special act of Congress. 

" The name of Col. Robert G-. Shaw is forever linked with 
that of the regiment which he first commanded, and which he 
inspired with so much of his own gentle and noble spirit as to 
make it a perpetual legacy to the men who fought under and 
loved him. His death at Wagner did as much perhaps for his 
soldiers as his life afterwards could have done. Colonel Hal- 
lowell, who succeeded him, proved the faithful and intelligent 
friend of the regiment. Its other officers, with no exception 
that we know of, were devoted and capable. They are en- 
titled to a share of the renown which belongs to the regi- 
ment, — they would be unworthy of it if they did not esteem 
that their highest testimonial." 

Because the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts occupied this 
prominent position, the publishers deem it proper that the 
history of its services which Captain Emilio has compiled 
should be put into print. They have given the volume a 
title the author was too modest to suggest, but which the 
record fully justifies, — "A Brave Black Regiment." 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter Page 

I. Recruiting 1 

II. Readville Camp 19 

III. The Sea Islands 35 

IV. Descent on James Island 51 

V. The Greater Assault on Wagner 67 

VI. Siege of Wagnek 105 

VII. Bombardment of Charleston 128 

VIII. Olustee 148 

IX. Morris Island 186 

X. Attack ox James Island 199 

XI. Siege of Charleston 217 

XII. Honey Hill 236 

XIII. Operations about Pocotaligo 254 

XIV. Charleston and Savannah 277 

XV. Potter's Raid 289 

XVI. Final Service 310 



Roster 327 

Appendix «... 393 

Index 435 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Ampey, Isom (Co. K) 
Appleton, Maj. J. W. M. 
Appleton, Capt. Thomas L. 
Arnum, Charles H. (Co. E) 
Bowman, Sergt. Thomas (Co. I) 
Bridge, Capt. Watson W. 
Hviigha,m,Ass't-Surg. Charles B. 
Bridgham, Lieut. Thomas S. 
Briggs, Surg. Charles E. 
Brown, Abraham (Co. E) 
Carney, Sergt. William H. 
(Co. C) Front 

Chipman, Capt. Charles G. 
Conant, Lieut. John H. 
Cotton, Sergt. Asa (Co. K) 
Cousens, Capt. Joseph E. 
Duren, Lieut. Charles M. 
Edmands, Lieut. Benjamin B. 
Emerson, Capt. Edward B. 
Emilio, Capt. Luis F. 
Freeland, Milo J. (Co. A) 
Gomes, Richard (Co. H) 
Goosberry, John (Mus. Co. E) 
Grace, Capt. James W 
Hallett, Lieut. Charles 0. 
Hallowell, Col. Edward N. 
Harrison, Chaplain Samuel 
Helman, Corp. Preston (Co. E) 
Higginson, Capt. Francis L. 
Homans, Capt. William H. 
Hooper, Lieut. -Col. Henry N. 
Howard, Capt. Willard 



PAGE 


W ' 


PAGE 


128 


Jackson, Sergt. Moses (Co. E) 


208 


48 


James, Capt. Garth W 


192 


144 


Jewett, Lieut. Charles, Jr. 


280 


176 


Jewett, Capt. R. H. L. 


184 


128 


Johnston, Lieut. Alexander 


288 


144 


Jones, Capt. Edward L. 


232 


B. 136 


Jones, Robert J. (Co. I) 


32 


280 


Joy, Capt. Charles F. 


184 


136 


Kelly, James A. (Co. E) 


208 


176 


Knowles, Lieut. Alfred. H. 


288 




Lee, Com'y Sergt. Arthur B. 


256 


ispiece 


Lee, Harrison (Co. D) 


256 


232 


Lenox, Color Sergt. Charles W. 




272 


(Co. A) 


176 


176 


Leonard, Lieut. Andrew W. 


272 


144 


Lipscomb, Corp. George (Co. I) 


128 


280 


Littlefield, Lieut. Henry W. 


288 


272 


McDermott, Lieut. William 


280 


184 


Moore, Miles (Mus. Co. H) 


32 


192 


Netson, William J. (Principal 




176 


Mus. Co. K) 


32 


256 


Newell, Capt. Robert R. 


184 


32 


Partridge, Capt. David A. 


144 


232 


Pease, Ass't-Surg. Giles M. 


64 


280 


Pope, Lieut.- Col. George 


48 


16 


Pratt, Lieut. James A. 


272 


8 


Radzinsky, Ass't-Surg. Louis U. 


136 


208 


Peed, Capt. Lewis 


144 


232 


Ritchie, Quartermaster John 


136 


184 


Rogers, Lieut. Frederick E. 


288 


48 


Rolls, Sergt. Jeremiah (Co. I) 


128 


192 


Russel, Capt. Cabot J. 


96 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Shaw, Col. Robert G. 1 

Simms, Corp. Abram C. (Co. I) 128 

Simpkins, Capt. William H. 96 

Smith, Charles A. (Co. C) 256 

Smith, Capt. Orin E. 192 

Spear, Lieut. Daniel G. 288 

Stevens, Lieut. Edward L. 96 

Stewart, Sergt. Henry (Co. E) 32 

Stone, Surg. Lincoln It. 64 

Swails, Lieut. Stephen A. 8 

Tomlinson, Lieut. Ezekiel G. 280 



pAGB 

Treadwell, Ass't-Surg. JoshuaB. & 4 

Tucker, Capt. Charles E. 184 

Vogelsang, Lieut. Peter 8 

"Walton, Maj. James M. 48 

Weaver, George (Co. K) 208 

Webster, Lieut. Frederick H. 96 

Welch, Lieut. Frank M. 8 

Whitney, Lieut. William L. 272 

Willard (Mann), Capt. Samuel 144 

Wilson, Sergt.-Major John H. 128 

Wilson, Joseph T. (Co. C) 256 



LIST OF MAPS. 



James Island 

Fort Wagner. — Charge of 54th Mass. 

Plan of Siege Operations against Fort Wagner 

Plan of Battle of Olustee, Fla. 

Charleston, S. C. — Lines of Attack and Defence 

Approach to Honey Hill 

Battle of Honey Hill 

Action at Boykin's Mills 

Field of Operations of 54th Mass. Begiment 



PAGE 

56 
80 
112 
160 
224 
240 
248 
304 
End 




Colonel Robert G. Shaw. 



FIFTY-FOURTH 
MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



CHAPTER I. 



EECRUITING. 



A T the close of the year 1862, the military situation 
was discouraging to the supporters of the Federal 
Government. We had been repulsed at Fredericksburg 
and at Yicksburg, and at tremendous cost had fought the 
battle of Stone River. Some sixty-five thousand troops 
would be discharged during the ensuing summer and fall. 
Volunteering was at a standstill. On the other hand, the 
Confederates, having filled their ranks, were never better 
fitted for conflict. Politically, the opposition had grown for- 
midable, while the so-called " peace-faction " was strong, 
and active for mediation. 

In consequence of the situation, the arming of negroes, 
first determined upon in October, 1862, was fully adopted 
as a military measure; and President Lincoln, on Jan. 
1, 1863, issued the Emancipation Proclamation. In 
September, 1862, General Butler began organizing the 
Louisiana Native Guards from free negroes. General 
Saxton, in the Department of the South, formed the First 
South Carolina from contrabands in October of the same 
year. Col. James Williams, in the summer of 1862, 



Z FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

recruited the First Kansas Colored. After these regi- 
ments next came, in order of organization, the Fifty -fourth 
Massachusetts, which was the first raised in the Northern 
States east of the Mississippi River. Thenceforward the 
recruiting of colored troops, North and South, was rapidly 
pushed. As a result of the measure, 167 organizations 
of all arms, embracing 186,097 enlisted men of African 
descent, were mustered into the United States service. 

John A. Andrew, the war Governor of Massachusetts, 
very early advocated the enlistment of colored men to aid 
in suppressing the Rebellion. The General Government 
having at last adopted this policy, he visited Washing- 
ton in January, 1863, and as the result of a conference 
with Secretary Stanton, received the following order, 
under which the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Infantry was organized : — 

War Department, 
Washington City, Jan. 2G, 1863. 

Ordered That Governor Andrew of Massachusetts is au- 
thorized, until further orders, to raise such number of vol- 
unteers, companies of artillery for duty in the forts of Massa- 
chusetts and elsewhere, and such corps of infantry for the 
volunteer military service as he may find convenient, such 
volunteers to be enlisted for three years, or until sooner dis- 
charged, and may include persons of African descent, organized 
into special corps. He will make the usual needful requisitions 
on the appropriate staff bureaus and officers, for the proper 
transportation, organization, supplies, subsistence, arms and 
equipments of such volunteers. 

Edwin M. Stanton, 

Secretary of War 

With this document the Governor at once returned to 
Boston, anxious to begin recruiting under it before the 



RECRUITING. 3 

Government could reconsider the matter. One of his first 
steps was to transmit the following letter, outlining his 
plans : — 

Boston, Jan. 30, 1863. 
Feancis G. Shaw, Esq., Staten Island, N. Y. 

Dear Sir, — As you may have seen by the newspapers, T 
am about to raise a colored regiment in Massachusetts. This I 
cannot but regard as perhaps the most important corps to be 
organized during the whole war, in view of what must be the 
composition of our new levies ; and therefore I am very anxious 
to organize it judiciously, in order that it may be a model for all 
future colored regiments. I am desirous to have for its officers 
— particularly for its field-officers — young men of military ex- 
perience, of firm antislavery principles, ambitious, superior to 
a vulgar contempt for color, and having faith in the capacity 
of colored men for military service. Such officers must neces- 
sarily be gentlemen of the highest tone and honor ; and I shall 
look for them in those circles of educated antislavery society 
which, next to the colored race itself, have the greatest interest 
in this experiment. 

Reviewing the young men of the character I have described, 
now in the Massachusetts service, it occurs to me to offer the 
colonelcy to your son, Captain Shaw, of the Second Massachu- 
setts Infantry, and the lieutenant-colonelcy to Captain Hal- 
lowell of the Twentieth Massachusetts Infantry, the son of 
Mr. Morris L. Hallowed of Philadelphia. With my deep con- 
viction of the importance of this undertaking, in view of the 
fact that it will be the first colored regiment to be raised iu the 
free States, and that its success or its failure will go far to 
elevate or depress the estimation in which the character of the 
colored Americans will be held throughout the world, the com- 
mand of such a regiment seems to me to be a high object of 
ambition for any officer. How much your son may have re- 
flected upon such a subject I do not know, nor have I any 
information of his disposition for such a task except what ] 



4 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

have derived from his general character and reputation ; nor 
should I wish him to undertake it unless he could enter upon it 
with a full sense of its importance, with an earnest determi- 
nation for its success, and with the assent and sympathy and 
support of the opinions of his immediate family. 

I therefore enclose you the letter in which I make him the 
offer of this commission ; and I will be obliged to you if you 
will forward it to him, accompanying it with any expression to 
him of your own views, and if you will also write to me upon 
the subject. My mind is drawn towards Captain Shaw by 
many considerations. I am sure he would attract the support, 
sympathy, and active co-operation of many among his imme- 
diate family relatives. The more ardent, faithful, and true 
Republicans and friends of liberty would recognize in him a 
scion from a tree whose fruit and leaves have always con- 
tributed to the strength and healing of our generation. So it 
is with Captain Hallowell. His father is a Quaker gentleman 
of Philadelphia, two of whose sons are officers in our army, 
and another is a merchant in Boston. Their house in Phila- 
delphia is a hospital aud home for Massachusetts officers ; and 
the family are full of good work3 ; and he was the adviser and 
confidant of our soldiery when sick or on duty in that city. I 
need not add that young Captain Hallowell is a gallant and 
fine fellow, true as steel to the cause of humanity, as well as 
to the flag of the country. 

I wish to engage the field-officers, and then get their aid in 
selecting those of the line. I have offers from Oliver T. Beard 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., late Lieutenant-Colonel of the Forty- 
eighth New York Volunteers, who says he can already furnish 
six hundred men ; aud from others wishing to furnish men 
from New York and from Connecticut ; but I do not wish to 
start the regiment under a stranger to Massachusetts. If in 
any way, by suggestion or otherwise, you can aid the purpose 
which is the burden of this letter, I shall receive your co-opera- 
tion with the heartiest gratitude. 



RECRUITING. 5 

I do not wish the office to go begging ; and if the offer is 
refused, 1 would prefer it being kept reasonably private. 
Hoping to hear from you immediately on receiving this letter, 
1 am, with high regard, 

Your obedient servant and friend, 

John A. Andrew- 

Francis G. Shaw himself took the formal proffer to his 
son, then in Virginia. After due deliberation, Captain 
Shaw, on February 6, telegraphed his acceptance. 

Robert Gould Shaw was the grandson of Robert G. 
Shaw of Boston. His father, prominently identified with 
the Abolitionists, died in 1882, mourned as one of the 
best and noblest of men. His mother, Sarah Blake 
Sturgis, imparted to her only son the rare and high traits 
of mind and heart she possessed. 

He was born Oct. 10, 1837, in Boston, was carefully 
educated at home and abroad in his earlier years, and 
admitted to Harvard College in August, 1856, but discon- 
tinued his course there in his third year. After a short 
business career, on April 19, 1861, he marched with his 
regiment, the Seventh New York National Guard, to the 
relief of Washington. He applied for and received a 
commission as second lieutenant in the Second Massachu- 
setts Infantry ; and after serving with his company and on 
the staff of Gen. George H. Gordon, he was promoted to a 
captaincy. Colonel Shaw was of medium height, with 
light hair and fair complexion, of pleasing aspect and 
composed in his manners. His bearing was graceful, as 
became a soldier and gentleman. His family connections 
were of the highest social standing, character, and influ- 
ence. He married Miss Haggerty, of New York City, on 
May 2, 1863. 



6 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Captain Shaw arrived in Boston on February 15, and at 
once assumed the duties of his position. Captain Hallo- 
well was already there, daily engaged in the executive 
business of the new organization ; and about the middle of 
February, his brother, Edward N. Hallowell, who had 
served as a lieutenant in the Twentieth Massachusetts 
Infantry, also reported for duty, and was made major of 
the Fifty-fourth before its departure for the held. 

Line-officers were commissioned from persons nominated 
by commanders of regiments in the field, by tried friends 
of the movement, the field-officers, and those Governor 
Andrew personally desired to appoint. This freedom of 
selection, — unhampered by claims arising from recruits 
furnished or preferences of the enlisted men, so powerful in 
officering white regiments, — secured for this organization 
a corps of officers who brought exceptional character, ex- 
perience, and ardor to their allotted work. Of the twenty- 
nine who took the field, fourteen were veteran soldiers 
from three-years regiments, nine from nine-months regi- 
ments, and one from the militia ; six had previously been 
commissioned. They included representatives of well- 
known families; several were Harvard men; and some, 
descendants of officers of the Revolution and the War of 
1812. Their average age was about twenty-three years. 

At the time a strong prejudice existed against arming 
the blacks and those who dared to command them. The 
sentiment of the country and of the army was opposed to 
the measure. It was' asserted that they would not fight, 
that their employment would prolong the war, and that 
white troops would refuse to serve with them. Besides 
the moral courage required to accept commissions in the 
Fifty-fourth at the time it was organizing, physical cour- 



RECRUITING. 7 

age was also necessary, for the Confederate Congress, on 
May 1, 1833, passed an act, a portion of which read as 

follows : — 

" Section IV That every white person being a commissioned 
officer, or acting as such, who, during the present war, shall 
command negroes or mulattoes in arms against the Confederate 
States, or who shall arm, train, organize, or prepare negroes 
or mulattoes for military service against the Confederate States, 
or who shall voluntarily aid negroes or mulattoes in any mili- 
tary enterprise, attack, or conflict in such service, shall be 
deemed as inciting servile insurrection, and shall, if captured, 
be put to death or be otherwise punished at the discretion of 
the Court." 

The motives which influenced many of those appointed 
are forcibly set forth in the following extracts from a 
letter of William H. Simpkins, then of the Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts Infantry, who was killed in action when a 
captain in the Fifty -fourth : — 

" I have to tell you of a pretty important step that I have 
just taken. I have given my name to be forwarded to Massa- 
chusetts for a commission in the Fifty-fourth Negro Eegiment, 
Colonel Shaw. This is no hasty conclusion, no blind leap of 
an enthusiast, but the result of much hard thinking. It will 
not be at first, and probably not for a long time, an agreeable 
position, for many reasons too evident to state. Then this 

is nothing but an experiment after all ; but it is an experiment 
that I think it high time we should try, — an experiment which, 
the sooner we prove fortunate the sooner we can count upon 
an immense number of hardy troops that can stand the effect 
of a Southern climate without injury ; an experiment which the 
sooner we prove unsuccessful, the sooner we shall establish an 
important truth and rid ourselves of a false hope." 



8 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Prom first to last the original officers exercised a con- 
trolling influence in the regiment. To them — field, staff, 
and line — was largely due whatever fame was gained by 
the Fifty-fourth as the result of efficient leadership in 
camp or on the battlefield. 

In his " Memoirs of Governor Andrew " the Hon. Peleg 
W Chandler writes : — 

" When the first colored regiment was formed, he [Governor 
Andrew] remarked to a friend that in regard to other regi- 
ments, he accepted men as officers who were sometimes rough 
and uncultivated, ' but these men,' he said, ' shall be com- 
manded by officers who are eminently gentlemen.' " 

So much for the selection of officers. When it came to 
filling the ranks, strenuous efforts were required outside 
the State, as the colored population could not furnish the 
number required even for one regiment. 

Pending the effort in the wider field available under 
the plan proposed, steps were taken to begin recruiting 
within the State. John W M. Appleton, of Boston, a 
gentleman of great energy and sanguine temperament, was 
the first person selected for a commission in the Fifty- 
fourth, which bore date of February 7. He reported to 
the Governor, and received orders to begin recruiting. 
An office was taken in Cambridge Street, corner of North 
Russell, upstairs, in a building now torn down. On 
February 16, the following call was published in the 
columns of the " Boston Journal " : — 

To Colored Men. 

Wanted. Good men for the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Mas- 
sachusetts Volunteers of African descent, Col. Robert G. Shaw. 











% 


J 


*J* 










jfeAk^t * 










■■•' ■ ' 




*'.<: 







- -1 r ~ ~ ~ " 




Colored Officers. 



Chaplain Samuel Harrison. 



Lieut. Frank M. Welch. 
Lieut. Peter Vogelsang. 



RECRUITING. 9 

$100 bounty at expiration of term of service. Pay $13 per 

month, and State aid for families. All necessary information 

can be obtained at the office, corner Cambridge and North 

Russell Streets. 

Lieut. J. W M. Appleton, 

Recruiting Officer. 

In five days twenty-five men were secured ; and Lieu- 
tenant Appleton's work was vigorously prosecuted, with 
measurable success. It was not always an agreeable 
task, for the rougher element was troublesome and insult- 
ing. About fifty or sixty men were recruited at this office, 
which was closed about the last of March. Lieutenant 
Appleton then reported to the camp established and took 
command of Company A, made up of his recruits and 
others afterward obtained. 

Early in February quite a number of colored men were 
recruited in Philadelphia, by Lieut. E. N. Hallowell, 
James M. Walton, who was subsequently commissioned 
in the Fifty-fourth, and Robert R. Corson, the Massa- 
chusetts State Agent. Recruiting there was attended with 
much annoyance. The gathering- place had to be kept 
secret, and the men sent to Massachusetts in small parties 
to avoid molestation or excitement. Mr. Corson was 
obliged to purchase railroad tickets himself, and get the 
recruits one at a time on the cars or under cover of dark 
ness. The men sent and brought from Philadelphia went 
to form the major part of Company B. 

New Bedford was also chosen as a fertile field. James 
W Grace, a young business man of that place, was se- 
lected as recruiting officer, and commissioned February 10. 
He opened headquarters on Williams Street, near the post- 
office, and put out the United States flag across the street. 



10 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Colored ministers of the city were informed of his plans ; 
and Lieutenant Grace visited their churches to interest the 
people in his work. He arranged for William Lloyd Garri- 
son, Wendell Phillips, Frederick Douglass, and other noted 
men to address meetings. Cornelius Rowland, C. B. H. 
Fessenden, and James B. Congdon materially assisted and 
were good friends of the movement. While recruiting, 
Lieutenant Grace was often insulted by such remarks as, 
"There goes the captain of the Negro Company! He 
thinks the negroes will fight ! They will turn and run at 
the first sight of the enemy ! " His little son was scoffed 
at in school because his father was raising a negro com- 
pam r to fight the white men. Previous to departure, the 
New Bedford recruits and their friends gathered for a 
farewell meeting. William Berry presided; prayer was 
offered by Rev. Mr. Grimes ; and remarks were made by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell, Lieutenant Grace, C. B. H. 
Fessenden, Ezra Wilson, Rev. Mr. Kelly, Wesley Furlong, 
and Dr. Bayne. A collation at A. Taylor and Company's 
followed. Temporarily the recruits took the name of 
"Morgan Guards," in recognition of kindnesses from S. 
Griffiths Morgan. At camp the New Bedford men, — some 
seventy-five in number, — with others from that place 
and elsewhere, became Company C, the representative 
Massachusetts company. 

Only one other commissioned officer is known to the 
writer as having performed effective recruiting service. 
This is Watson W Bridge, who had been first sergeant, 
Company D, Thirty-seventh Massachusetts Infantry. His 
headquarters were at Springfield, and he worked in Wes- 
tern Massachusettts and Connecticut. When ordered to 
camp, about April 1, he had recruited some seventy men. 



RECRUITING. 11 

Much the larger number of recruits were obtained 
through the organization and by the means which will 
now be described. About February 15, Governor Andrew 
appointed a committee to superintend the raising of re- 
cruits for the colored regiment, consisting of George L. 
Stearns, Amos A. Lawrence, John M. Forbes, William I. 
Bowditch, Le Baron Russell, and Richard P Hallowell, of 
Boston; Mayor Howland and James B. Congdon, of New 
Bedford; Willard P Phillips, of Salem; and Francis G. 
Shaw, of New York. Subsequently the membership was 
increased to one hundred, and it became known as the 
"Black Committee." It was mainly instrumental in pro- 
curing the men of the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts Infantry, the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, besides 
3,967 other colored men credited to the State. All the 
gentlemen named were persons of prominence. Most of 
them had been for years in the van of those advanced 
thinkers and workers who had striven to help and free 
the slave wherever found. 

The first work of this committee was to collect money ; 
and in a very short time five thousand dollars was received, 
Gerrit Smith, of New York, sending his check for five 
hundred dollars. Altogether nearly one hundred thousand 
dollars was collected, which passed through the hands of 
Richard P. Hallowell, the treasurer, who was a brother of 
the Hallowells commissioned in the Fifty-fourth. A call 
for recruits was published in a hundred journals from 
east to west. Friends whose views were known were 
communicated with, and their aid solicited; but the 
response was not for a time encouraging. 

With the need came the man. Excepting Governor 
Andrew, the highest praise for recruiting the Fifty-fourth 



12 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

belongs to George L. Stearns, who had been closely iden- 
tified with the struggle in Kansas and John Brown's 
projects. He was appointed agent for the committee, and 
about February 23 went west on his mission. Mr. Stearns 
stopped at Rochester, N. Y., to ask the aid of Fred Doug- 
lass, receiving hearty co-operation, and enrolling a son of 
Douglass as his first recruit. His headquarters were made 
at Buffalo, and a line of recruiting posts from Boston to 
St. Louis established. 

Soon such success was met with in the work that after 
filling the Fifty-fourth the number of recruits was suffi- 
cient to warrant forming a sister regiment. Many news- 
papers gave publicity to the efforts of Governor Andrew 
and the committee. Among the persons who aided the 
project by speeches or as agents were George E. Stephens, 
Daniel Calley, A. M. Green, Charles L. Remond, William 
Wells Brown, Martin R. Delany, Stephen Myers, 0. S. B. 
Wall, Rev. William Jackson, John S. Rock, Rev. J. B. 
Smith, Rev. H. Garnett, George T. Downing, and Rev. J. 
W Loqueer. 

Recruiting stations were established, and meetings held 
at Nantucket, Fall River, Newport, Providence, Pittsfield, 
New York City, Philadelphia, Elmira, and other places 
throughout the country. In response the most respectable, 
intelligent, and courageous of the colored population every- 
where gave up their avocations, headed the enlistment 
rolls, and persuaded others to join them. 

Most memorable of all the meetings held in aid of 
recruiting the Fifty-fourth was that at the Joy Street 
Church, Boston, on the evening of February 16, which was 
enthusiastic and largely attended. Robert Johnson, Jr., 
presided; J. R. Sterling was the Vice-President, and Fran- 



RECRUITING. 13 

cis Fletcher Secretary. In opening, Mr. Johnson stated 
the object of the gathering. He thought that another 
year would show the importance of having the black man 
in arms, and pleaded with his hearers, by the love they 
bore their country, not to deter by word or deed any 
person from entering the service. Judge Russell said in 
his remarks, "You want to be line-officers yourselves." 
He thought they had a right to be, and said, — 

" If you want commissions, go, earn, and get them. [Cheers.] 
Never let it be said that when the country called, this reason 
kept back a single man, but go cheerfully." 

Edward L. Pierce was the next speaker; and he re- 
minded them of the many equalities they had in common 
with the whites. He called on them to stand by those 
who for half a century had maintained that they would 
prove brave and noble and patriotic when the opportunity 
came. Amid great applause Wendell Phillips was intro- 
duced. The last time he had met such an audience was 
when he was driven from Tremont Temple by a mob. 
Since then the feeling toward them had much changed. 
Some of the men who had pursued and hunted him and 
them even to that very spot had given up their lives on 
the battlefields of Virginia. He said • — 

" Now they offer you a musket and say, ' Come and help 
us.' The question is, will you of Massachusetts take hold? I 
hear there is some reluctance because you are not to have offi- 
cers of your own color. This may be wrong, for I think you 
have as much right to the first commission in a brigade as a 
white man. No regiment should be without a mixture of the 
races. But if you cannot have a whole loaf, will you not take 
a slice ? " 



14 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

He recited reasons why it would be better to have white 
officers, stating among other things that they would be 
more likely to have justice done them and the prejudice 
more surely overcome than if commanded by men of their 
own race. He continued : — 

" Your success hangs on the general success. If the Union 
lives, it will live with equal races. If divided, and you have 
done your duty, then you will stand upon the same platform 
with the white race. [Cheers.] Then make use of the offers 
Government has made you ; for if you are not willing to 
fight your way up to office, you are not worthy of it. Put 
yourselves under the stars and stripes, and fight yourselves 
to the marquee of a general, and you shall come out with a 
sword. [Cheers.] " 

Addresses were then made by Lieutenant-Colonel Hal- 
lowell, Robert C. Morris, and others. It was a great 
meeting for the colored people, and did much to aid 
recruiting. 

Stirring appeals and addresses were written by J. M. 
Langston, Elizur Wright, and others. One published by 
Frederick Douglass in his own paper, at Rochester, N. Y., 
was the most eloquent and inspiring. The following is 
extracted : — 

"We can get at the throat of treason and slavery through 
the State of Massachusetts. She was first in the War of Inde- 
pendence ; first to break the chains of her slaves ; first to make 
the black man equal before the law ; first to admit colored chil- 
dren to her common schools. She was first to answer with her 
blood the alarm-cry of the nation when its capital was menaced 
by the Rebels. You know her patriotic Governor, and you know 
Charles Sumner. I need add no more. Massachusetts now 
welcomes you as her soldiers." 



RECRUITING. 15 

In consequence of the cold weather there was some 
suffering in the regimental camp. When this became 
known, a meeting was held at a private residence on 
March 10, and a committee of six ladies and four gentle- 
men was appointed to procure comforts, necessities, and 
a flag. Colonel Shaw was present, and gave an account of 
progress. To provide a fund, a levee was held at Chicker- 
ing Hall on the evening of March 20, when speeches were 
made by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Wendell Phillips, Rev. 
Dr. Neale, Rev. Father Taylor, Judge Russell, and Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hallowell. Later, through the efforts of 
Colonel Shaw and Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell, a special 
fund of five hundred dollars was contributed to purchase 
musical instruments and to instruct and equip a band. 

Besides subscriptions, certain sums of money were re- 
ceived from towns and cities of the State, for volunteers 
in the Fifty-fourth credited to their quota. The members 
of the committee contributed liberally to the funds re- 
quired, and the following is a partial list of those who 
aided the organization in various ways : — 

George Putnam, George Higginson, 

Charles G. Loring, Thomas Russell, 

J. Huntington Wolcott, Edward S. Philbrick, 

Samuel G. Ward, Oliver Ellsworth, 

James M. Barnard, Robert W Hooper, 

William P. Weld, John H. Stevenson, 

J. Wiley Edmands, John H. Silsbee, 

William Endicott, Jr., Manuel Penollosa, 

Francis L. Lee, G. Mitchell, 

Oakes Ames, John W Brooks, 

James L. Little, Samuel Cahot, Jr., 

Marshall S. Scudder, John Lowell, 



16 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



James T. Fields, 

Henry Lee, Jr., 

George S. Hale, 

William Dwight, 

Richard P Waters, 

Avery Plummer, Jr., 

Alexander H. Rice, 

John J. May, 

John Gardner, 

Mrs. Chas. W Sumner, 

Albert G. Browne, 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, 

William B. Rogers, 

Charles Buffum, 

John S. Emery, 

Gerritt Smith, 

Albert G. Browne, Jr., 

Mrs. S. R. Urbino, 

Edward W- Kinsley, 

Uriah and John Ritchie, 

Pond & Duncklee, 

John H. and Mary E. Cabot, 

Mary P Payson, 

Manuel Emilio, 



Miss Halliburton, 
Frederick Tudor, 
Samuel Johnson, 
Mary E. Stearns, 
Mrs. William J. Loring, 
Mrs. Governor Andrew, 
Mrs. Robert C. Waterston, 
Wright & Potter, 
James B. Dow, 
William Cumston, 
John A. Higginson, 
Peter Smith, 
Theodore Otis, 
Avery Plummer, 
James Savage, 
Samuel May, 
Mrs. Samuel May, 
Josiah Quincy, 
William Clanin, 
Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis, 
George Bemis, 
Edward Atkinson, 
Professor Agassiz, 
John G. Palfrey, 



Henry W Holland, 
besides several societies and fraternities. 

Most of the papers connected with the labors of the 
committee were destroyed in the great Boston fire, so 
that it is difficult now to set forth properly in greater 
detail the work accomplished. 



In the proclamation of outlawry issued by Jefferson 
Davis, Dec. 23, 1862, against Major-General Butler, was 
the following clause : — 




Col. Edward N. Hallowell. 

BREVET BRIG. GEN. CSV. 



RECRUITING. 17 

" Third. That all negro slaves captured in arms be at once 
delivered over to the executive authorities of the respective 
States to which they belong, to be dealt with according to the 
laws of said States." 

The act passed by the Confederate Congress previously 
referred to, contained a section which extended the same 
penalty to negroes or mulattoes captured, or who gave aid 
or comfort to the enemies of the Confederacy. Those 
who enlisted in the Fifty-fourth did so under these acts 
of outlawry bearing the penalties provided. Aware of 
these facts, confident in the protection the Government 
would and should afford, but desirous of having official 
assurances, George T. Downing wrote regarding the 
status of the Fifty-fourth men, and received the follow- 
ing reply : — 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Department, 
Boston, March 23, 1863. 

George T. Downing, Esq , New York. 

Dear Sir, — In reply to your inquiries made as to the posi- 
tion of colored men who may be enlisted into the volunteer 
service of the United States, I would say that their position in 
respect to pay, equipments, bounty, or any aid or protection 
when so mustered is that of any and all other volunteers. 

I desire further to state to you that when I was in Washing- 
ton on one occasion, in an interview with Mr. Stanton, the 
Secretary of War, he stated in the most emphatic manner that 
he would never consent that free colored men should be ac- 
cepted into the service to serve as soldiers in the South, until 
he should be assured that the Government of the United States 
was prepared to guarantee and defend to the last dollar and the 
last man, to these men, all the rights, privileges, and immu- 
nities that are given by the laws of civilized warfare to other 
soldiers. Their present acceptance and muster-in as soldiers 

2 



18 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

pledges the honor of the nation in the same degree and to the 
same rights with all. They will be soldiers of the Union, 
nothing less and nothing different. I believe they will earn 
for themselves an honorable fame, vindicating their race and 
redressing their future from the aspersions of the past. 

I am, yours truly, 

John A. Andrew. 

Having recited the measures and means whereby the 
Fifty-fourth was organized, the history proper of the 
regiment will now be entered upon. 



CHAPTER II. 



READVILLE CAMP. 



LIEUTENANT E. N. HALLOWELL, on Feb. 21, 
1863, was ordered to Readville, Mass., where, at 
Camp Meigs, by direction of Brig. -Gen. R. A. Peirce, 
commandant of camps, he took possession with twenty- 
seven men of the buildings assigned to the new regi- 
ment. Readville is on the Boston and Providence Rail- 
road, a few miles from Boston. The ground was flat, and 
well adapted for drilling, but in wet weather was muddy, 
and in the winter season bleak and cheerless. The 
barracks were great barn-like structures of wood with 
sleeping-bunks on either side. The field, staff, and com- 
pany officers were quartered in smaller buildings. In 
other barracks near by was the larger part of the Second 
Massachusetts Cavalry, under Col. Charles R. Lowell, Jr. , 
a brother-in-law of Colonel Shaw. 

During the first week seventy -two recruits were received 
in camp, and others soon began to arrive with a steady 
and increasing flow ; singly, in squads, and even in detach- 
ments from the several agencies established throughout 
the country. 

Surgeon-General Dale, of Massachusetts, reported on the 
Fifty-fourth recruits as follows : — 

" The first recruits were sent to Camp Meigs, Eeadville, in 
February, 1863 ; their medical examination was most rigid and 
thorough, nearly one third of the number offering being peremp- 



20 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

torily rejected. As a consequence, a more robust, strong, and 
healthy set of men were never mustered into the service of the 
United States." 

Companies A and B were filled by March 15 ; Company 
D was then formed ; Company C came to camp from New 
Bedford on March 10. These four companies were mus- 
tered into the United States service on March 30. Lieu- 
tenant Partridge on March 28 was assigned to begin 
Company E; Lieutenant Bridge, reporting from recruit- 
ing service, was placed in command of Company F, just 
forming; Lieutenant Smith, on April 10, was chosen to 
organize Company G. As recruits came in during April 
at the rate of one hundred per week, these three compa- 
nies were ready for muster on April 23. Companies H, I, 
and K were mustered May 13, completing the regiment. 

With some twenty-one officers and four hundred men 
in camp, on April 1, the regiment was fairly under way. 
The material of which it was to be composed could fairly 
be judged from what was at hand. There Avere ample 
grounds for encouragement even to the most sceptical. 
It is pleasant to record that the soldier appointed to the 
command was early assured of the fact that he had not 
dared to lead in a hopeless task, for on March 25, Colonel 
Shaw wrote : — 

u If the success of the Fifty-fourth gives you so much 
pleasure, I shall have no difficulty in giving you good words of 
it whenever I write. Everything goes on prosperously. The 
intelligence of the men is a great surprise to me. They learn 
all the details of guard duty and camp service infinitely more 
readily than most of the Irish I have had under my command. 
There is not the least doubt that we shall leave the State with 
as good a regiment as any that has marched." 



EEADVILLE CAMP. 21 

A considerable number of the men had prepared them- 
selves in some measure for bearing arms, others had been 
officers' servants or camp followers; and as has been 
noted in all times and in all races of men, some were 
natural soldiers. Passive obedience — a race trait — 
characterized them. During their whole service their 
esprit du coiys was admirable. 

Only a small proportion had been slaves. There were 
a large number of comparatively light-complexioned men. 
In stature they reached the average of white volunteers. 
Compared with the material of contraband regiments, they 
were lighter, taller, of more regular features. There were 
men enough found amply qualified to more than supply all 
requirements for warrant officers and clerks. As a rule, 
those first selected held their positions throughout service. 
The co-operation of the non-commissioned officers helped 
greatly to secure the good reputation enjoyed by the Fifty- 
fourth ; and their blood was freely shed, in undue propor- 
tion, on every battlefield. Surgeon-General Dale, in the 
report previously quoted from, speaks further of the Fifty- 
fourth as follows : — 

"From the outset, the regiment showed great interest in 
drilling, and on guard duty it was always vigilant and active. 
The barracks, cook-houses, and kitchens far surpassed in 
cleanliness any I have ever witnessed, and were models of 
neatness and good order. The cooks, however, had many of 
them been in similar employment in other places, and had 
therefore brought some skill to the present responsibility. 

" In camp, these soldiers presented a buoyant cheerfulness 
and hilarity, which impressed me with the idea that the mo- 
notony of their ordinary duties would not dampen their feeling 
of contentment, if they were well cared for. On parade, their 



22 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

appearance was marked with great neatness of personal ap- 
pearance as concerned dress and the good condition in which 
their arms and accoutrements were kept. Their habits being 
imitative, it was natural that they should be punctilious in 
matters of military etiquette, and such observances as the well- 
disciplined soldier, in his subordinate position, pays to his 
superior. And fortunately for them, they had the teachings 
of those who were not only thoroughly imbued with the im- 
portance of their trusts, but were gentlemen as well as 
soldiers. 

"It was remarked that there was less drunkenness in this 
regiment than in any that had ever left Massachusetts ; but this 
may have been owing to the fact that the bounty was not paid 
them until a day or two previous to their departure. Never- 
theless, it is my dispassionate and honest conviction that no 
regiments were ever more amenable to good discipline, or were 
more decorous and proper in their behavior than the Fifty- 
fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Colored Volunteers." 

Owing to heavy and frequent rains in March and the 
early days of April, the mud was often very deep between 
the barracks and officers' quarters, requiring much labor 
to clean paths. During cold weather the quarters were 
kept warm by wood fires. In stormy weather squad and 
company drills went on in vacant barracks. Later in the 
season the companies under commissioned officers were 
taken several times each week to bathe in a pond near by 
to insure personal cleanliness. 

Fast Day, April 2, was largely given up to rest and 
recreation, with religious services in the afternoon. The 
first dress parade took place the next day, when four com- 
panies were in line. Every day, but especially on Sun- 
days, large numbers of visitors were present. Many ladies 
graced the camp with their presence. People came from 



EEADVILLE CAMP. 23 

distant places to witness the novel sight of colored sol- 
diers in quarters and on the drill ground. For the pur- 
pose of securing familiarity with drill and tactics, and to 
obtain uniformity in the unwritten customs of the service, 
an officers' school was begun April 20, at headquarters, 
and held frequent sessions thereafter, until the regiment 
departed for field service. There were a few deaths 
and a moderate amount of sickness while at Readville, 
mainly from pneumonia and bronchitis, as the men were 
first exposed in the trying months of February and 
March. 

Now and then the monotony of camp life was broken by 
some noteworthy event. On April 21, a visit was received 
from the "Ladies' Committee." Mrs. Governor An- 
drew, Mrs. W B. Rogers, Mrs. E. D. Cheney, Mrs. C. 
M. Severance, Miss Abby W May, Judge Russell, Rev., 
Mr. Grimes, Charles W Slack, and J. H. Stevenson were 
of the party. Another event was the review by Governor 
Andrew and Secretary Chase in the afternoon of April 30,, 
the President's Fast Day. The line was formed with, 
eight hundred and fifty men; and the distinguished visi- 
tors were received with due honors. Dr. Howe, Robert 
Dale Owen, Mr. Garrison, and other gentlemen were also 
present. 

On April 30, the regiment drew nine hundred and 
fifty Enfield rifled muskets and a suitable number of non- 
commissioned officers' swords. Lieutenant Jewett, ap- 
pointed ordnance officer, issued the arms on the following 
day. May 2, the regiment was drilled for the first time 
in the School of the Battalion. General Peirce, accom- 
panied by Surgeon-General Dale and the Governor's 
Council, reviewed the Fifty-fourth on May 4. Brig. -Gen. 



24 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Edward A. Wild, who was authorized to recruit a brigade 
of colored troops, visited the camp informally on the 
11th. That portion of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry 
at Readville left for the field on May 12. At noon the 
Fifty-fourth formed in great haste to escort the cavalry, 
and marched to their camp, only to learn that the Second 
had already departed. 

By May 11, more recruits had arrived than were re- 
quired, and the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts was begun 
with the surplus on the succeeding day. They occupied 
the old cavalry camp. Of the following officers trans- 
ferred to it from the Fifty-fourth, N. P Hallowell be- 
came colonel ; Alfred S. Hartwell, colonel and brevet 
brigadier-general ; William Nutt, colonel ; and Joseph 
Tilden, captain, during service with the Fifty -fifth. Sev- 
eral non-commissioned officers and privates were also 
transferred to the new regiment to assist in its organiza- 
tion. Details for guard duty at the new camp were for a 
time furnished from the Fifty-fourth. Rolls were made 
out on May 14 for the bounty of fifty dollars for each 
enlisted man, voted by the State. 

Friends had procured flags, and it was determined to 
make the occasion of their presentation, on May 18, a 
memorable one. The day was fine and cloudless. Yery 
early, friends of the command began to arrive in private 
carriages, and by the extra trains run to Readville. 
Many prominent persons were present, including Surgeon- 
General Dale, Hon. Thomas Russell, Professor Agassiz, 
Prof. William B. Rogers, Hon. Josiah Quincy, George 
S. Hale, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, 
Samuel May, Rev. Dr. Neale, Frederick Douglass, and 
many others. The parade was thronged with white and 



READVILLE CAMP. 25 

colored people of both sexes, to the number of over a 
thousand. 

Line was formed at eleven o'clock, and the regiment 
was broken into square by Colonel Shaw. Governor 
Andrew, with his military staff in full uniform, took 
position inside the square. Brilliant in color and of the 
finest texture, fluttering in the fresh breeze blowing, the 
flags destined for the regiment were ready for presenta- 
tion. They were four in number, — a national flag, a 
State color, an emblematic banner of white silk with the 
figure of the Goddess of Liberty, and the motto, " Liberty, 
Loyalty, and Unity," and another with a cross upon a 
blue field, and the motto, In Hoc SLgno Vinces. 

By invitation, the Rev. Mr. Grimes offered an appropri- 
ate prayer. Governor Andrew then stepped forward ; and 
the flow of eloquent words delivered with the earnestness 
which characterized him, heightened by the occasion, will 
never be forgotten by those that heard his voice. Stand- 
ing in plain attire, and facing Colonel Shaw, he spoke as 
follows : — 

Colonel Shaw : As the official representative of the Com- 
monwealth, and by favor of various ladies and gentlemen, citi- 
zens of the Commonwealth, and friends of the Fifty-fourth 
Kegiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, I have the honor and 
the satisfaction of being permitted to join you this morning for 
the purpose of presenting to your regiment the national flag, 
the State colors of Massachusetts, and the emblematic banners 
which the cordial, generous, and patriotic friendship of its 
patrons has seen fit to present to you. Two years of expe- 
rience in all the trials and vicissitudes of war, attended with 
the repeated exhibition of Massachusetts regiments marching 
from home to the scenes of strife, have left little to be said or 
suggested which could give the interest of novelty to an occa- 



26 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

sion like this. But, Mr. Commander, one circumstance per- 
taining to the composition of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 
exceptional in its character, when compared with anything we 
have seen before, gives to this hour an interest and importance, 
solemn and yet grand, because the occasion marks an era in 
the history of the war, of the Commonwealth, of the country, 
and of humanity. I need not dwell upon the fact that the 
enlisted men constituting the rank and file of the Fifty-fourth 
Massachusetts Regiment are drawn from a race not hitherto 
connected with the fortunes of the war ; and yet I cannot forbear 
to allude to the circumstance for a brief moment, since it is 
uppermost in your thoughts, and since this regiment, which for 
many months has been the desire of my own heart, is present 
now before this vast assembly of friendly citizens of Massa- 
chusetts, prepared to vindicate by its future, — as it has already 
begun to do by its brief history of camp life here, — to vin- 
dicate in its own person, and in the presence, I trust, of all who 
belong to it, the character, the manly character, the zeal, the 
manly zeal, of the colored citizens of Massachusetts, and of 
those other States which have cast their lot with ours. 

I owe to you, Mr. Commander, and to the officers who, asso- 
ciated with you, have assisted in the formation of this noble 
corps, composed of men selected from among their fellows for 
fine qualities of manhood, — I owe to you, sir, and to those of 
your associates who united with me in the original organization 
of this body, the heartiest and most emphatic expression of 
my cordial thanks. I shall follow you, Mr. Commander, your 
officers, and your men, with a friendly and personal solicitude, 
to say nothing of official care, which can hardly be said of any 
other corps which has marched from Massachusetts. My own 
personal honor, if I have any, is identified with yours. I stand 
or fall, as a man and a magistrate, with the rise or fall in the 
history of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment. T pledge 
not only in behalf of myself, but of all those whom I have the 
honor to represent to-day, the utmost generosity, the utmost 



READVILLB CAMP. 27 

kindness, the utmost devotion of hearty love, not only for the 
cause, but for you that represent it. We will follow your for- 
tunes in the camp and in the field with the anxious eyes of 
brethren, and the proud hearts of citizens. 

To those men of Massachusetts and of surrounding States 
who have now made themselves citizens of Massachusetts, I 
have no word to utter fit to express the emotions of my heart. 
These men, sir, have now, in the Providence of God, given to 
them an opportunity which, while it is personal to themselves, 
is still an opportunity for a whole race of men. With arms 
possessed of might to strike a blow, they have found breathed 
into their hearts an inspiration of devoted patriotism and regard 
for their brethren of their own color, which has inspired them 
with a purpose to nerve that arm, that it may strike a blow 
which, while it shall help to raise aloft their country's flag — 
their country's flag, now, as well as ours — by striking down 
the foes which oppose it, strikes also the last shackle which 
binds the limbs of the bondmen in the Rebel States. 

I know not, Mr. Commander, when, in all human history, 
to any given thousand men in arms there has been committed 
a work at once so proud, so precious, so full of hope and glory 
as the work committed to you. And may the infinite mercy of 
Almighty God attend you every hour of every day through all 
the experiences and vicissitudes of that dangerous life in which 
you have embarked ; may the God of our fathers cover your 
heads in the day of battle ; may He shield you with the arms of 
everlasting power ; may He hold you always — most of all, first 
of all, and last of all — up to the highest and holiest concep- 
tion of duty, so that if, on the field of stricken fight, your souls 
shall be delivered from the thraldom of the flesh, your spirits 
shall go home to God, bearing aloft the exulting thought of 
duty well performed, of glory and reward won, even at the 
hands of the angels who shall watch over you from above ! 

Mr. Commander, you, sir, and most of your officers, have 
been carefully selected from among the most intelligent and 



28 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

experienced officers who have already performed illustrious ser- 
vice upon the field during the two years of our national conflict. 
I need not say, sir, with how much confidence and with how 
much pride we contemplate the leadership which this regiment 
will receive at your hands. In yourself, sir, your staff and 
line officers, we are enabled to declare a confidence which knows 
no hesitation and no doubt. Whatever fortune may betide yon, 
we know from the past that all will be done for the honor of 
the cause, for the protection of the flag, for the defence of the 
right, for the glory of your country, and for the safety and the 
honor of these men whom we commit to you, that shall he 
either in the human heart, or brain, or arm. 

And now, Mr. Commander, it is my most agreeable duty and 
high honor to hand to you, as the representative of the Fifty- 
fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, the American 
flag, "the star-spangled banner" of the Republic. Wherever 
its folds shall be unfurled, it will mark the path of glory. Let 
its stars be the inspiration of yourself, your officers, and your 
men. As the gift of the young ladies of the city of Boston to 
their brethren in arms, they will cherish it as the lover cherishes 
the recollection and fondness of his mistress ; and the white 
stripes of its field will be red with their blood before it shall 
be surrendered to the foe. 

I have also the honor, Mr. Commander, to present to you 
the State colors of Massachusetts, — the State colors of the 
old Bay State, borne already by fifty-three regiments of Mas- 
sachusetts soldiers, white men thus far, now to be borne by 
the Fifty-fourth Regiment of soldiers, not less of Massachu- 
setts than the others. Whatever may be said, Mr. Comman- 
der, of any other flag which has ever kissed the sunlight or 
been borne on any field, I have the pride and honor to be 
able to declare before you, your regiment, and these wit- 
nesses, that from the beginning till now, the State colors of 
Massachusetts have never been surrendered to any foe. The 
Fifty-fourth now holds in possession this sacred charge, in 



READVILLE CAMP. 29 

the performance of their duties as citizen soldiers. You will 
never part with that flag so long as a splinter of the staff or 
a thread of its web remains within your grasp. The State 
colors are presented to the Fifty-fourth by the Relief Society, 
composed of colored ladies of Boston. 

And now let me commit to you this splendid emblematic 
banner. It is prepared for your acceptance by a large and 
patriotic committee, representing many others besides them- 
selves, — ladies and gentlemen of Boston, to whose hearty 
sympathy and powerful co-operation and aid much of the 
success which has hitherto attended the organization of this 
regiment is due. The Goddess of Liberty erect in beautiful 
guise and form ; Liberty, Loyalty, and Unity, — are the em- 
blems it bears. The Goddess of Liberty shall be the lady-love, 
whose fair presence shall inspire your hearts ; Liberty, Loy- 
alty, Unity, the watchwords in the fight. 

And now, Mr. Commander, the sacred, holy Cross, repre- 
senting passion, the highest heroism, I scarcely dare trust 
myself to present to you. It is the emblem of Christianity. 
I have parted with the emblems of the State, of the nation, — 
heroic, patriotic emblems they are, dear, inexpressibly dear to 
all our hearts ; but now In hoc signo vinces, — the Cross 
which represents the passion of our Lord, I now dare to pass 
into your soldier hands ; for we are fighting now a battle, not 
merely for country, not merely for humanity, not only for 
civilization, but for the religion of our Lord itself. When 
this cause shall ultimately fail, if ever failure at the last 
shall be possible, it will only fail when the last patriot, the 
last philanthropist, and the last Christian shall have tasted 
death, and left no descendants behind them upon the soil of 
Massachusetts. 

This flag, Mr. Commander, has connected with its history 
the most touching and sacred memories. It comes to your 
regiment from the mother, sister, friends, family relatives, of 
one of the dearest and noblest boys of Massachusetts. I 



30 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

need not utter the name of Lieutenant Putnam in order to 
excite in every heart the tenderest emotions of fond regard, or 
the strongest feeling of patriotic fire. May you, sir, and 
these, follow not only on the field of battle, but in all the 
walks and ways of life, in camp and hereafter, when, on return- 
ing peace, you shall resume the more quiet and peaceful duties 
of citizens, — may you but follow the splendid example, the sweet 
devotion, mingled with manly, heroic character, of which the 
life and death of Lieutenant Putnam was one example ! How 
many more there are we know not, — the record is not yet com- 
plete ; but oh, how many there are of these Massachusetts 
sons, who, like him, have tasted death for this immortal cause ! 
Inspired by such examples, fired by the heat and light of love 
and faith which illumined and warmed these heroic and noble 
hearts, may you, sir, and these march on to glory, to victory, 
and to every honor ! This flag I present to you, Mr. Commander, 
and your regiment. In hoc signo vinces. 

At the conclusion of the Governor's remarks, when 
the applause had subsided, Colonel Shaw responded 
as follows : — 

Your Excellency : We accept these flags with feelings of 
deep gratitude. They will remind us not only of the cause 
we are fighting for, and of our country, but of the friends we 
have left behind us, who have thus far taken so much interest 
in this regiment, and whom we know will follow us in our 
career. Though the greater number of men in this regiment 
are not Massachusetts men, I know there is not one who will 
not be proud to fight and serve under our flag. May we have 
an opportunity to show that you have not made a mistake in 
intrusting the honor of the State to a colored regiment, — the 
first State that has sent one to the war. 

I am very glad to have this opportunity to thank the offi- 
cers and men of the regiment for their untiring fidelity and 



READVILLE CAMP. 31 

devotion to their work from the very beginning. They have 
shown that sense of the importance of the undertaking without 
which we should hardly have attained our end. 

After the command was reviewed by the Governor, the 
battalion was dismissed, and officers and men devoted 
themselves to the entertainment of their guests. 

Gen. David Hunter, commanding the Department of the 
South, desired the Fifty-fourth sent to South Carolina. 
His wishes were gratified; for on May 18 the Secretary 
of War telegraphed Governor Andrew to have the Fifty- 
fourth report to General Hunter at once. With a field of 
service under a commander who had shown such faith 
in colored soldiers, the regiment prepared to depart upon 
the arrival of a steamer ordered from New York. 

May 28, at 6. 30 A. M. , the regiment formed line for the 
last time at Readville, and marching to the railroad 
station, embarked on cars, arriving at Boston about nine 
o'clock. As the companies filed into the street from the 
station, the command was received with cheers from a 
large gathering. One hundred policemen, under the chief, 
Colonel Kurtz, were present, to clear the streets. Un- 
known to the general public, reserves of police were 
held in readiness, under cover, to repress any riotous 
proceedings. 

Preceded by Gilmore's band, the line of march was 
taken up through Pleasant, Boylston, Essex, Chauncy, 
Summer, High, Federal, Franklin, Washington, School, 
and Tremont streets, Pemberton Square, Somerset and 
Beacon streets to the State House. All along the route 
the sidewalks, windows, and balconies were thronged with 
spectators, and the appearance of the regiment caused 



32 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

repeated cheers and waving of flags and handkerchiefs. 
The national colors were displayed everywhere. Passing 
the house of Wendell Phillips, on Essex Street, William 
Lloyd Garrison was seen standing on the balcony, his 
hand resting on the head of a bust of John Brown. Only 
hearty greetings were encountered ; not an insulting word 
was heard, or an unkind remark made. At a point on 
Essex Street, Colonel Shaw was presented with a bouquet 
by a lady. 

Halting at the State House, Governor Andrew, his 
staff, and many distinguished gentlemen were received 
with due honor, and thence escorted along Beacon Street 
to the Common, which was entered by the Charles Street 
gateway. This historic parade-ground was crowded with 
spectators. 

After a short rest, Governor Andrew, with Major- 
Generals Sutton and Andrews, and their respective staffs, 
Senator Wilson, the Executive Council, the Mayor of 
Boston, officers of other regiments, and other distin- 
guished persons, took position at the reviewing stand. 
When all was ready, Colonel Shaw led his regiment in 
column over the intervening ground, and past the review- 
ing stand. 

Again a rest; until, about noon, the regiment moved 
from the Common by the West Street gate, marched 
through Tremont, Court, State, and Commercial streets, 
and arrived at Battery Wharf. Entering State Street, the 
band played the stirring music of John Brown's hymn, 
while passing over ground moistened by the blood of 
Crispus Attucks, and over which Anthony Burns and 
Thomas Sims had been carried back to bondage. It is 
a curious fact that Sims himself witnessed the march of 




Miles Moore, Mus., Co. H. 



John Goosberry, Mus., Co. E. 



William J. Netson, Principal Mus., Co. K. 
Robert J. Jones, Pvt., Co. I. Henry Stewart, Sergt, Co. E. 



EEADVILLE CAMP. 33 

the Fifty-fourth. All along this street the reception 
accorded was most hearty; and from the steps of the 
Exchange, crowded with business men, the appearance of 
the regimental colors was the signal for repeated and 
rousing cheers. 

Of this march the papers of the day were full of items 
and accounts. One journal said : — 

" No regiment has collected so many thousands as the Fifty- 
fourth. Vast crowds lined the streets where the regiment was 
to pass, and the Common was crowded with an immense number 
of people such as only the Fourth of July or some rare event 
causes to assemble. No white regiment from Massachu- 

setts has surpassed the Fifty-fourth in excellence of drill, while 
in general discipline, dignity, and military bearing the regiment 
is acknowledged by every candid mind to be all that can be 
desired." 

Upon arriving at Battery Wharf, the lines were main- 
tained by the police. Many friends were allowed to re- 
main with the officers for parting words until the vessel 
sailed. 

It was about one o'clock in the afternoon when the regi- 
ment embarked on the steamer "De Molay, " and four 
o'clock before the lines were cast off and the vessel 
slowly moved from the wharf, where friendly and loving 
hands waved adieus, to which those on board responded. 
A few friends, including Adjutant-General Schouler and 
Frederick Douglass, remained until the steamer was well 
away, when they too said their farewells, and returned 
to the city on a tugboat. 

Soon the city, the islands, and the shores faded from 
view, as the " De Molay " steamed rapidly out of harbor. 
The Fifty-fourth was en route for rebellious soil. 



34 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The following roster of officers of the Fifty-fourth com- 
prises all those who departed for the field with the regi- 
ment on May 28, and their respective rank and assignment 
at the time — 

Colonel, — Robert G. Shaw. 
Major, — Edward N. Hallowell. 
Surgeon, — Lincoln R. Stone. 
Assistant- Surgeon, — Charles B. Bridgham. 
Adjutant, — Garth W James. 
Quartermaster, — John Ritchie. 

Company A. Company F. 

CapK, John W M. Appleton. Capt., Watson W Bridge. 

1st Lieut., Wm, H. Homans. 2d Lieut., Alexander Johnston. 

Company B. Company G. 

Cop£., Samuel Willard [Mann]. 1st Lieut., Orin E. Smith. 
1st Lieut., James M. Walton. 2d Lieut., James A. Pratt. 
2d Lieut., Thomas L. Appleton. 

Company C. Company H. 

1st Lieut., James W Grace. Capt., Cabot J. Russel. 
2d Lieut., Benjamin F. Dexter. 2d Lieut., Willard Howard. 

Company D. Company I. 

Capt., Edward L. Jones. Capt., George Pope. 

1st Lieut., R. H. L. Jewett. 1st Lieut., Francis L. Higginson. 

2d Lieut., Charles E. Tucker. 

Company E. Company K. 

Capt., Luis F. Emilio. Capt., William H. Simpkins. 

2d Lieut., David Reid. 2d Lieut., Henry W Littlefield. 

Lewis H. Douglass, a son of Frederick Douglass, was 
the original sergeant-major. Arthur B. Lee, of Company 
A, was made commissary-sergeant; and Theodore J. 
Becker, hospital steward. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 



MANY of the Fifty-fourth, born in the interior, never 
had seen the ocean ; others had not voyaged upon 
it. Several of the officers, however, had been over the 
course, or a portion of it, before. For all it was a season 
of rest. The " De Molay " was a commodious, new, and 
excellent transport. The staterooms were comfortable, 
the cabin finely furnished, and the table well provided. 
For the men bunks were arranged between decks for sleep- 
ing, and large coppers for cooking purposes; plenty of 
condensed but unpalatable water was furnished. May 29, 
the sea was smooth all day, and the weather fine but not 
clear. Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket were passed in 
the morning. At night a fine moon rose. Foggy weather 
prevailed on the 30th, with an increasing ground-swell, 
causing some seasickness. The next day the steamer 
struggled against a head wind. At midnight the craft 
narrowly escaped grounding on Point Lookout shoals. 
Some one had tampered with the sounding-line. June 1, 
pleasant weather enabled the seasick to take some interest 
in life. The air was soft and balmy, as we ran down the 
North Carolina coast, which was dimly visible. A few 
porpoises and a shark or two followed the ship. Distant 
sails were sighted at times. When evening came, the sun 
sank into the sea, red and fiery, gilding the horizon. A 



36 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

stiff breeze blew from ahead, which freshened Inter. Fine 
weather continued throughout daylight of June 2. With 
the evening, however, it clouded up in the south, and a 
squall came up, with lightning and some rain, driving all 
below. 

Morning dawned the next day, with the sun shining 
through broken clouds. At reveille, some fifteen sail of 
outside blockaders off Charleston were seen far away, and 
soon passed. The sandy shores of South Carolina were in 
full view, fringed here and there with low trees. A warm 
wind was blowing, ruffling the water beneath a clouded 
sky. Every one was busy with preparations for landing, 
— writing letters, packing knapsacks, and rolling blank- 
ets. Running below Hilton Head, a pilot came alongside 
in a boat rowed by contrabands, and took the vessel back 
into Port Royal, completing a voyage at 1 P. M., which 
was without accident or death to mar its recollection. 
Colonel Shaw, personally reporting to General Hunter, was 
ordered to proceed to Beaufort and disembark. On that 
day General Hunter wrote the following letter : — 

Headquarters Dep't of the South, 
Hilton Head, Port Royal, S. C, June 3, 18G3. 
His Excellency, Governor Andrew, Massachusetts. 

Governor, — I have the honor to announce that the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts (colored) troops, Colonel Shaw command- 
ing, arrived safely in this harbor this afternoon and have been 
sent to Port Royal Island. The regiment had an excellent pas- 
sage, and from the appearance of the men I doubt not that this 
command will yet win a reputation and place in history deserv- 
ing the patronage you have given them. Just as they were 
steaming up the bay I received from Col. James Montgomery, 
commanding Second South Carolina Regiment, a telegraphic 
despatch, of which certiliud copy is enclosed. Colonel Mont- 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 37 

gomery's is but the initial step of a system of operations which 
will rapidly compel the Rebels either to lay down their arms and 
sue for restoration to the Union or to withdraw their slaves into 
the interior, thus leaving desolate the most fertile and pro- 
ductive of their counties along the Atlantic seaboard. 

The Fifty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers shall 
soon be profitably and honorably employed ; and I beg that 
you will send for service in this department the other colored 
regiment which Colonel Shaw tells me you are now organizing 
and have in forward preparation. 

Thanking you heartily for the kindness and promptness with 
which you have met my views in this matter, and referring you 
to my letter to Mr. Jefferson Davis as a guarantee that all sol- 
diers fighting for the flag of their country in this department 
will be protected, irrespective of any accident of color or birth, 
I have the honor to be, Governor, with the highest esteem, 
Your very obedient servant, 

D. Hunter, 
Major- General Commanding. 

It was 4 P. M. when the "De Molay " started for Beau- 
fort, leaving the storehouses, quarters, and long pier mak 
ing up the military station of Hilton Head. The steamer 
crossed the grand harbor with some seventy sail moored 
upon its waters, including the frigates "Wabash" and 
"Vermont," a monitor, several gunboats, and a French 
steamer, and reached Beaufort before dark. Col. James 
Montgomery, with the Second South Carolina Colored, was 
just debarking from a successful foray up the Combahee 
Eiver, bringing several hundred contrabands. Brig. -Gen. 
Rufus Saxton was temporarily absent, and Col. W W H. 
Davis was in command of the district. June 4, at 5 a. m., 
the regiment landed too early m the day to attract the 
attention of any but a few loiterers. Passing through the 



38 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

town to a point about half a mile from the river, the com- 
mand bivouacked in an old cotton-field of the Thompson 
plantation. Shelters from the hot sun were made from 
bushes or blankets. During this first afternoon on South 
Carolina soil Colonel Shaw thoughtfully sent to the 
officers a present of champagne. 

Beaufort was our abiding-place for only four days, and 
the Fifty- fourth never returned to it. Sandy streets 
shaded with fine oaks crossed one another at right 
angles. There were some fine old houses and gardens 
skirting the shell road running along the low bluffs, 
with churches, public buildings, and a spacious green. 
Scattered about the island were some white and the 
two South Carolina colored regiments, besides some 
cavalry and artillery. The landward side of Port Royal 
Island, fronting Rebel territory, was strongly picketed 
and fortified. 

While camped there, the days were intensely hot, with 
cooler nights. Troublesome insects infested our camp. 
Shelter tents for the men were issued and put up. Our 
first taste of fatigue work in the field was on June 6, when 
Companies A, D, and H were sent out on the shell road to 
work on fortifications. The Second South Carolina had 
departed for the Georgia coast. Late in the day orders 
came to embark, Colonel Shaw having applied for active 
service. 

Camp was struck at sunrise on the 8th, after a rainy 
night, and an hour later saw the regiment in line in accord- 
ance with orders establishing the positions of the several 
companies for the first time. The formation was with 
Company B on the right as follows : — 

HFGDEKCIAB. 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 39 

Having marched to the wharf, embarkation took place 
at once ; but the start was not made until 9 a. m. , when 
the steamer swung into the stream and ran down river, 
the men singing " John Brown " gayly. About a mile 
below town the steamer grounded, delaying arrival at 
Hilton Head until noon. There Colonel Shaw was in- 
structed by General Hunter to report to Colonel Mont- 
gomery, at St. Simon's Island, Ga., and the "De Molay " 
steamed out of harbor at 5. 30 p. m. 

After a rather rough voyage of some eighty miles dur- 
ing the night, the " De Molay " dropped anchor at 6 a. m. 
in the sound off the southern point of St. Simon's Island. 
Colonel Shaw landed and rode across the island to report 
to Colonel Montgomery. At noon the steamer " Sentinel, " 
a small craft that looked like a canal-boat with a one- 
story house built upon it, came alongside, and eight 
companies were transferred, Companies A and C under 
Captain Appleton remaining to get the cargo in readiness 
for a second trip. 

The little steamer took the regiment up the winding 
river, along the west and inland shore of the island, past 
Gascoign's Bluff, where the Second South Carolina was 
encamped, to Pike's Bluff, some eight or ten miles, where 
the regiment disembarked on an old wharf. It was a 
pretty spot on a plantation formerly owned by a Mr. 
Gould. There was a large two-story house surrounded 
by fine trees, and situated close to the wharf, which was 
taken for use as headquarters. Close by it was an old 
barn in which the supplies were stored when they arrived. 
On the edge of a cleared field the men pitched shelters 
for the night. 

Col. James Montgomery, commanding the post, was a 



40 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY". 

noted man. He was born in Ohio, in 1814. In Kansas, 
from 1856 to 1861, he was the central figure in the Free 
State party. Early in the war he was for a time colonel 
of a Kansas regiment. By bold raids into the enemy's 
country in 1863, he recruited his colored regiment. He 
was a man of austere bearing, cool, deliberate, and of 
proved courage. In personal appearance he was tall, 
spare, rather bowed, with gentle voice and quiet manner. 
After his resignation in September, 1864, he returned to 
Kansas, and died there in December, 1871. 

Colonel Montgomery, with five companies of his regi- 
ment, on June 6, had made an expedition from St. Simon's 
up the Turtle River to Brunswick and beyond, and destroyed 
a span of the railroad bridge over Buffalo Creek. Quarter- 
master Ritchie issued A and wall tents to the Fifty-fourth 
on June 10 ; and all were at work pitching camp and 
clearing the ground, when a steamer came to the wharf. 
Colonel Montgomery was on board, and hailing Colonel 
Shaw from the deck, said, " How soon can you be ready to 
start on an expedition ? " Colonel Shaw replied, " In half 
an hour," and at once caused the long-roll to be sounded. 
Hurried preparations were at once made, and at 6 P. M. 
eight companies of the regiment embarked on the " Senti- 
nel. " Companies F and C were left behind as a camp 
guard. 

Running down the river to Montgomery's camp, the 
armed transport "John Adams" was found with troops 
on board. Besides the Fifty-fourth, five companies of the 
Second South Carolina, and a section of Light Battery C, 
Third Rhode Island Artillery, under Lieut. William A. 
Sabin, took part in the expedition. Owing to the " Sen- 
tinel " grounding after proceeding a short distance farther, 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 41 

and the "Adams " also running on a shoal, there was long 
delay waiting for the flood-tide. Not until 1 a. m. did 
the " Sentinel " run up the coast, entering Doboy Sound at 
sunrise. There the gunboat " Paul Jones " and the 
"Harriet A. Weed" joined. Entering the Altamaha 
River, with the gunboats occasionally shelling houses and 
clumps of woods, the vessels proceeded until the town of 
Darien appeared in sight. Then the gunboats searched 
it with their shells and fired at a few pickets seen east of 
the place. 

At 3 p. m. the troops landed without resistance at some 
of the deserted wharves. Pickets were posted, and the 
troops formed in the public square. Only two white 
women and a few negroes were found. The inhabitants 
were living at the "Ridge," a few miles inland. Some fif- 
teen or twenty men of the Twentieth Georgia Cavalry, under 
Capt. W A. Lane, picketed the vicinity, but had retired. 

Darien, the New Inverness of early days, was a most 
beautiful town as Montgomery's forayers entered it that 
fateful June day. A broad street extended along the 
river, with others running into it, all shaded with mul- 
berry and oak trees of great size and beauty. Storehouses 
and mills along the river-bank held quantities of rice and 
resin. There might have been from seventy-five to one 
hundred residences in the place. There were three 
churches, a market-house, jail, clerk's office, court-house, 
and an academy. 

After forming line, orders came for the Fifty-fourth to 
make details and secure from the houses such things as 
would be useful in camp, besides live-stock, resin, lumber, 
etc. Soon the plundering thus legitimized began. An 
officer thus describes the scene : — ■ 



42 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

"The men began to come in by twos, threes, and dozens, 
loaded with every species and all sorts and quantities of furni- 
ture, stores, trinkets, etc., till one would be tired enumerating. 
We had sofas, tables, pianos, chairs, mirrors, carpets, beds, 
bedsteads, carpenter's tools, cooper's tools, books, law-books, 
account-books in unlimited supply, china sets, tiuware, earthen- 
ware, Confederate shinplasters, old letters, papers, etc. A 
private would come along with a slate, yard-stick, and a brace 
of chickens in one hand, and in the other hand a rope with a 
cow attached." 

But the crowning act of vandalism is thus set forth in 
one of Colonel Shaw's letters : — 

" After the town was pretty thoroughly disembowelled, he 
[Montgomery] said to me, ' I shall burn this town.' He speaks 
in a very low tone, and has quite a sweet smile when addressing 
j r ou. I told him I did not want the responsibility of it, and 
he was only too happy to take it all on his own shoulders. 
The reasons he gave me for destroying Darien were that the 
Southerners must be made to feel that this was a real war, and 
that they were to be swept away by the hand of God like the 
Jews of old. In theory it may seem all right to some ; but 
when it comes to being made the instrument of the Lord's ven- 
geance, I myself don't like it. Then he says, ' "We are out- 
lawed, and therefore not bound by the rules of regular war- 
fare.' But that makes it none the less revolting to wreak our 
vengeance on the innocent and defenceless." 

By Montgomery's express orders, therefore, the town 
was fired, only one company of the Fifty -fourth partici- 
pating with the Second South Carolina, Montgomery ap- 
plying the torch to the last buildings with his own hand. 
Fanned by a high wind, the flames eventually destroyed 
everything but a church, a few houses, and some lumber- 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 43 

works owned in the North. The schooner "Pet," with 
fifty-five bales of cotton for Nassau, lying in a small creek 
four miles above, was captured, and a flatboat with twenty- 
five bales near by was also secured. 

Our transports had been loaded with plunder, and late 
in the afternoon the troops re-embarked. Some ware- 
houses had been fired, and the river-bank was a sheet of 
flame. A few moments' delay or a change of wind might 
have resulted disastrously. The heat was so intense that 
all were driven to the farther side of our boat, and gun- 
barrels became so hot that the men were ordered to hold 
them upward. Five miles below the town the steamer 
anchored. The light of the fire was seen that night at St. 
Simon's, fifteen miles away. Colonel Shaw wrote two 
official letters bearing upon this expedition. One was 
to Governor Andrew, giving an account of the expedition, 
wherein he expressed his disapprobation of Colonel Mont- 
gomery's course. The other is as follows : — 

St. Simon's Island, Ga., June 14, 1863. 
Liectenant-Colonel H alpine, A. A. G. Tenth Army Corps, 
and Department of the South. 

Dear Sir, — Will you allow me to ask you a private ques- 
tion, which of course you are at liberty to answer or not? Has 
Colonel Montgomery orders from General Hunter to burn and 
destroy all town and dwelling houses he may capture? 

On the 11th inst., as you know, we took the town of Darien 
without opposition, the place being occupied, as far as we ascer- 
tained, by non-combatants ; Colonel Montgomery burned it to 
the ground, and at leaving finally, shelled it from the river. 

If he does this on his own responsibility, I shall refuse to 
have a share in it, and take the consequences ; but, of course, 
if it is an order from headquarters, it is a different matter, as in 
that case I suppose it to have been found necessary to adopt 



44 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

that policy. He ordered me, if separated from him, to burn all 
the plantation houses I came across. 

Now, I am perfectly ready to burn any place which resists, 
and gives some reason for such a proceeding ; but it seems to 
me barbarous to turn women and children adrift in that way ; 
and if I am only assisting Colonel Montgomery in a private 
enterprise of his own, it is very distasteful to me. 

I am aware that this is not a military way of getting informa- 
tion ; and I hope you will feel that I shall not be hurt if you 
refuse to answer my question. 

Believe me, very truly yours, 

Robert G Shaw, 
Colonel Commanding Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment. 

It is not known to the writer that any answer was 
vouchsafed to this letter ; but Colonel Shaw afterward as- 
certained that Colonel Montgomery acted in accordance 
with General Hunter's orders. 

The " Sentinel " at 3 a. m. got under way, landing the 
Fifty-fourth, after a passage of twelve hours, at the camp. 
Our first mail since leaving home came that afternoon. 
Colonel Montgomery had gone to Hilton Head, leaving 
Colonel Shaw in command of the post. 

Camped on the Gould place, the Fifty-fourth quietly 
remained until its departure from St. Simon's. The plun- 
der acquired afforded many comforts and even luxuries. 
Officers and men lived on army fare, supplemented with 
poor fresh beef, as a few cattle had been found. Religious 
services were sometimes held in the yard of a little church 
near by, most beautifully situated amid a wealth of foli- 
age which overshadowed many old, decayed tombstones. 
Hardly a day passed without more or less rain falling. 
It was very warm at midday, but later came cool breezes 
from seaward. 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 45 

Besides the usual camp guard the Fifty-fourth furnished 
details for a long picket line, and a number of posts 
watching the river. 

St. Simon's came nearer a realization of the ideal Eden 
than one could hope to find the second time. There was 
a subtile languor in the hum of insects, the song and flight 
of birds, the splash of the warm green water upon the 
shore. Grand old oaks, laden with moss and vines, cano- 
pied the flowers and verdure beneath. Perfume of shrubs, 
plants, trees, and grass filled the air, vying with the 
fresher and more invigorating sweetness from marsh and 
sea. One could almost see and hear the growth of plant 
and cane, as the life-giving sun warmed the sap, burst the 
blossom, and drew the tendril skyward. Gigantic ferns 
covered the shadier places, while the pools and swamps 
were beautiful with lilies. 

There were a number of deserted plantations on the 
island, the most notable of which were those of T. Butler 
King, James E. Couper, and Pierce Butler. The latter 
was the husband of Fanny Kemble, and his place the one 
of which she wrote in her "Journal of a Residence on a 
Georgian Plantation, in 1838-39. " All these places were 
neglected and abandoned, except by a few old negroes. 

Historically, St. Simon's Island was noted ground. 
Near the camp of the Fifty -fourth were the " tabby " walls 
of Frederica, founded by Governor Oglethorpe in 1736, of 
which John Wesley was the minister. In the centre of 
the island was "Bloody Swamp," where the invading 
Spaniards were defeated July 7, 1742. It is a fact not 
widely known that with the Spanish force was a regi- 
ment of negroes and another of mulattoes. During the 
Revolution the British overran the island. On the next 



46 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

island to the south Lamar landed his last cargo of slaves 
from the "Wanderer." St. Simon's had been fortified 
early in the Civil War; but in February, 1862, the arma- 
ment was removed, and then the few remaining inhabi- 
tants went away. 

While the Fifty-fourth were enjoying the delights of St. 
Simon's, Brig. -Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore had relieved 
General Hunter. Admiral John A. Dahlgren was to 
replace Admiral Dupont. Tidings of these changes, of 
Lee having crossed the Rappahannock, the capture of 
Harper's Ferry, and the investment of Port Hudson, 
were received by the "Harriet A. Weed," on June 23. 
Orders also came for the Fifty-fourth to report at Hilton 
Head. 

During the afternoon and evening of June 24, the regi- 
ment was taken in detachments on the " Mayflower " to 
the ocean steamer, "Ben Deford," lying off Montgomery's 
camp, whence it sailed early the next day for Hilton 
Head. Colonel Montgomery's regiment was also ordered 
away. About noon, Colonel Shaw reported his arrival 
and was ordered to St. Helena Island, across the harbor. 
A new object of interest was the Confederate iron- 
clad "Atlanta," captured June 17 by the monitor 
"Weehawken." 

Rain was falling as the Fifty-fourth landed on the 
wharf. Marching for a mile or so, we camped in an old 
cotton-field near the water. Many regiments were on the 
island preparing for active operations. The post was 
commanded by Brig. -Gen. George C. Strong, a brilliant 
young officer who had recently arrived. The Fifty-fourth, 
with the Second South Carolina camped near by, consti- 
tuted the "Colored Brigade," under Colonel Montgomery. 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 47 

Although it rained very frequently, the moisture was 
speedily absorbed by the sandy soil. There was a terrible 
thunder-storm on the 28th, accompanied with such violent 
wind that many tents were blown down. One man was 
killed, and several stunned, by lightning, in adjoining 
camps. 

Being near the water, sea-bathing was convenient and 
thoroughly enjoyed. A few trees, shrubbery, and some 
negro houses bounded the prospect landward. There was 
swampy ground in front of the camp. Beyond and back 
from the shore line were many plantations and fine woods. 
Remains of former camps were found everywhere. Many 
contrabands were employed planting under Northern 
men. 

While at this camp the condition of the regiment was 
excellent, and the men in high spirits, eager for service. 
Drills went on incessantly. A musician of the Forty- 
eighth New York was instructing the band. On the 30th, 
the Fifty-fourth was mustered for pay. It was then first 
rumored that the terms of enlistment would not be adhered 
to by the Government. The situation is best evidenced 
by the following letter of Colonel Shaw : — 

St. Helena Island, S. C, July 2, 1863. 
His Excellency Governor Andrew. 

Dear Sir, — Since I last wrote you, the Fifty-fourth has left 
St. Simon's Island and returned to St. Helena near Hilton 
Head. We are now encamped in a healthy place, close to the 
harbor, where we get the sea breeze. 

You have probably seen the order from Washington which 
cuts down the pay of colored troops from $13 to $10. Of 
course if this affects Massachusetts regiments, it will be a great 
piece of injustice to them, as they were enlisted on the express 



48 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

understanding that they were to be on precisely the same foot- 
ing as all other Massachusetts troops. In my opinion they 
should be mustered out of the service or receive the full pay 
which was promised them. The paymaster here is inclined to 
class us with the contraband regiments, and pay the men only 
$10. If he does not change his mind, I shall refuse to have 
the regiment paid until I hear from you on the subject. And 
at any rate I trust you will take the matter in hand, for every 
pay-day we shall have the same trouble unless there is a special 
order to prevent it. 

Another change that has been spoken of was the arming of 
negro troops with pikes instead of firearms. Whoever proposed 
it must have been looking for a means of annihilating negro 
troops altogether, I should think — or have never been under a 
heavy musketry fire, nor observed its effects. The project is 
now abandoned, I believe. 

My men are well and in good spirits. We have only five 
in hospital. "We are encamped near the Second South Carolina 
near General Strong's brigade, and are under his immediate 
command. He seems anxious to do all he can for us, and if 
there is a fight in the Department will no doubt give the black 
troops a chance to show what stuff they are made of. 

With many wishes for your good health and happiness, I 
remain, 

Very sincerely and respectfully yours, 

Robert G. Shaw. 

A deserter from the Second South Carolina was brought 
by Lieut. George W Brush of his regiment before Colonel 
Montgomery on June 28. After questioning him, the 
colonel ordered him to be taken away and shot, which was 
done at once. Montgomery was never taken to task for 
this illegal action. Most of the troops at St. Helena had 
departed for Folly Island by July 3. Fears prevailed that 
the colored regiments were not to take part in active 







Lt.-Col. Henry N. Hooper 
Maj. J. W M. Appleton. 



Lt.-Coe. George Pope. 
Maj. J/mes M. W'ai.iox. 



THE SEA ISLANDS. 49 

operations. Colonel Shaw's disappointment found cour- 
teous expression as follows : — 

St. Helena Island, July 6, 1863. 
Brig. -Gen. Geoege C. Strong. 

General, — I did not pay my respects to you before you 
left this post because I did not wish to disturb you when mak- 
ing your preparations for departure. 

I desire, however, to express to you my regret that my regi- 
ment no longer forms a part of the force under your command. 
I was the more disappointed at being left behind, that I had 
been given to understand that we were to have our share in the 
work in this department. I feel convinced too that my men 
are capable of better service than mere guerilla warfare, and 
I hoped to remain permanently under your command. 

It seems to me quite important that the colored soldiers 
should be associated as much as possible with the white troops, 
in order that they may have other witnesses besides their own 
officers to what they are capable of doing. I trust that the 
present arrangement is not permanent. 

With many wishes for your success, believe me very sincerely 
and respectfully 

Your obedient servant, 

Robert G-. Shaw, 
Colonel Commanding Fifty-fourth Regiment Mass. Infantry. 

Upon the national holiday all unnecessary duty was 
dispensed with. Everywhere on land and water the stars 
and stripes were displayed and saluted. At the camp 
many men were permitted to pass the lines. Several 
officers visited the camp of the Second South Carolina. 
Colonel Shaw and others attended a celebration of the day 
held by the freedmen in the yard of the Baptist Church, 
some six miles distant, where the Declaration of Indepen- 



50 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

dence was read, hymns sung, and addresses made. Rev. 
Mr. Lynch, a colored clergyman from Baltimore, held 
religious services for the Fifty-fourth on Sunday, the 5th. 
News was received of the promotion of Major Hallowell 
to be lieutenant-colonel in place of his brother, promoted 
colonel of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts. 



CHAPTER IV 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 



ALL suspense regarding the employment of the Fifty- 
fourth ended July 8, with the receipt, about noon, 
of orders to move at an hour's notice, taking only blankets 
and rations. Three hours after, the regiment began to 
embark, headquarters with seven companies finding trans- 
portation on the steamer " Chasseur, " the remaining ones 
on the steamer "Cossack," with Colonel Montgomery 
and staff. 

Lieutenant Littlefield, with a guard of one hundred 
men, was detailed to remain at St. Helena in charge of 
the camp. Assistant-Surgeon Bridgham also remained 
with the sick. Captain Bridge and Lieutenant Walton 
were unable to go on account of illness. A start was 
made late in the afternoon in a thunder-storm, the " Cos- 
sack " stopping at Hilton Head to take on Captain Emilio 
and a detail of ninety men there. The following night 
was made miserable by wet clothes, a scarcity of water, 
and the crowded condition of the small steamers. 

About 1 a. M. on the 9th, the transports arrived off 
Stono Inlet; the bar was crossed at noon; and anchors 
were cast off Folly Island. The inlet was full of trans- 
ports, loaded with troops, gunboats, and supply vessels, 
betokening an important movement made openly. 

General Gillmore's plans should be briefly stated. He 
desired to gain possession of Morris Island, then in the 



52 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

enemy's hands, and fortified. He had at disposal ten 
thousand infantry, three hundred and fifty artillerists, and 
six hundred engineers; thirty-six pieces of field artillery, 
thirty Parrott guns, twenty-seven siege and three Cohorn 
mortars, besides ample tools and material. Admiral 
Dahlgren was to co-operate. On Folly Island, in our 
possession, batteries were constructed near Lighthouse 
Inlet, opposite Morris Island, concealed by the sand hil- 
locks and undergrowth. Gillmore's real attack was to 
be made from this point by a coup de main, the infantry 
crossing the inlet in boats covered by a bombardment 
from land and sea. Brig. -Gen. Alfred H. Terry, with four 
thousand men, was to make a demonstration on James 
Island. Col. T. W Higginson, with part of his First 
South Carolina Colored and a section of artillery, was to 
ascend the South Edisto River, and cut the railroad at 
Jacksonboro. This latter force, however, was repulsed 
with the loss of two guns and the steamer " Governor 
Milton." 

Late in the afternoon of the 9th Terry's division moved. 
The monitor " Nantucket, " gunboats " Pawnee " and 
"Commodore McDonough, " and mortar schooner " C. P 
Williams " passed up the river, firing on James Island to 
the right and John's Island to the left, followed by thir- 
teen transports carrying troops. Col. W W H. Davis, 
with portions of his regiment — -the One Hundred and 
Fourth Pennsylvania — and the Fifty-second Pennsyl- 
vania, landed on Battery Island, advancing to a bridge 
leading to James Island. 

Heavy cannonading was heard in the direction of Morris 
Island, at 5 a. m. on the 10th. Before night word came 
that all the ground south of Fort Wagner on Morris Island 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 53 

was captured with many guns and prisoners. This news 
vas received with rousing cheers by Terry's men and the 
jailors. At dawn Colonel Davis's men crossed to James 
Island, his skirmishers driving a few cavalry. At an 
old house the main force halted with pickets advanced. 
While this movement was taking place, a portion of the 
other troops landed. That day a mail brought news of 
Vicksburg's capture and Lee's defeat at Gettysburg. 
Lieut. Edward B. Emerson joined the Fifty-fourth from 
the North. 

About noon of the 11th, the regiment landed, marched 
about a mile, and camped in open ground on the furrows, 
of an old field. The woods near by furnished material for 
brush shelters as a protection against the July sun. By 
that night all troops were ashore. Terry's division con- 
sisted of three brigades, — Davis's, of the Fifty-second and: 
One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania and Fifty-sixth 
New York; Brig. -Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson's, of the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, Tenth Connecticut, and 
Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania; and Montgomery's, of the 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts and Second South Carolina. 

James Island is separated from the mainland by Wappoo 
Creek. From the landing a road led onward, which soon 
separated into two: one running to the right through 
timber, across low sandy ground to Secessionville ; the 
other to the left, over open fields across the low ground, 
past Dr. Thomas Grimball's house on to the Wappoo. 
The low ground crossed by both these roads over cause- 
ways formed the front of Terry's lines, and was com- 
manded by our naval vessels. Fort Pemberton, on the 
Stono, constituted the enemy's right. Thence the line 
was retired partially behind James Island Creek, con- 



54 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

sisting of detached light works for field-guns and infantry. 
Their left was the fortified camp of Secessionville, where, 
before Battery Lamar, General Benham was repulsed in 
the spring of 1S62. 

General Beauregard, the Confederate Department com- 
mander, considered an attack on Charleston by way of 
James Island as the most dangerous to its safety. He 
posted his forces accordingly, and on July 10 had 2,92b' 
effectives there, with 927 on Morris Island, 1,158 on Sulli- 
van's Island, and 850 in the city. Few troops from other 
points were spared when Morris Island was attacked on 
the 10th ; therefore Terry's diversion had been effec- 
tive. Had Beauregard's weakness been known, Terry's 
demonstration in superior force might have been con- 
verted into a real attack, and James Island fallen before 
it, when Charleston must have surrendered or been 
destroyed. 

Captain Willard, on the 11th, with Company B, was sent 
to John's Island at Legareville to prevent a repetition of 
firing upon our vessels by artillery such as had occurred 
that morning. 

In the afternoon the Tenth Connecticut and Ninety- 
seventh Pennsylvania, covered by the "Pawnee's" fire, 
advanced the picket line. Word was received of an un- 
successful assault on Fort Wagner, with considerable loss 
to us. Abraham F. Brown of Company E accidentally 
shot himself to death with a small pistol he was cleaning. 
Late that afternoon Lieutenant-Colonel Ilallowell, with 
Companies D, F, I, and K, went out on picket in front 
of our right, remaining throughout a dark and stormy 
night. During the night of the 13th, Captain Emilio, 
with Company E, picketed about Legareville. Capt. A. 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 55 

P, Rockwell's First Connecticut Battery arrived from 
Beaufort on the 14th. 

Between the 10th and 16th there had arrived for the 
enemy from Georgia and North Carolina two four-gun 
batteries and six regiments of infantry. Beauregard also 
reduced his force on Morris Island and concentrated on 
James, under command of Brig. -Gen. Johnson Hagood. 
Gillmore still kept Terry there, inviting attack, although 
the purpose of the diversion had been accomplished. On 
the 15th the enemy demonstrated in front of the Tenth 
Connecticut pickets. It was rumored that two scouts had 
been seen about our lines. 

Some thought had been given to securing a line of re- 
treat; for the engineers were reconstructing the broken 
bridge leading from James Island, and repairing cause- 
ways, dikes, and foot-bridges across the marshes along 
the old road to Cole's Island, formerly used by the 
Confederates. 

Companies B, H, and K, of the Fifty-fourth, under 
command of Captain Willard, were detailed for picket on 
the 15th, and about 6 p. m. relieved men of Davis's bri- 
gade. Captain Russel and Lieutenant Howard, with Com- 
pany H, held the right from near a creek, over rolling 
ground and rather open country covered with high grass 
and thistles. Captain Simpkins and Lieut. R. H. L. 
Jewett held the left of the Fifty-fourth line with Company 
K and a portion of Company B. It was over lower ground, 
running obliquely through a growth of small timber and 
brush. There was a broken bridge in the front. A re- 
serve, consisting of the remainder of Company B, under 
Lieut. Thomas L. Appleton, was held at a stone house. 
Captain Willard's force was five officers and about two 



56 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

hundred men. From Simpkins's left to the Stono the 
picket line was continued by men of the Tenth Connecti- 
cut, holding a dangerous position, as it had a swamp in 
rear. Frequent showers of rain fell that evening. All 
night following, the enemy was uneasy. Lurking men 
were seen, and occasional shots rang out. Captain Wil- 
lard, mounting the roof of the house, could see great 
activity among the signal corps of the enemy. He sent 
word to his officers to be vigilant, and prepared for attack 
in the morning. 

About midnight the men were placed in skirmishing 
order, and so remained. Sergeant Stephens of Company B 
relates that George Brown of his company, a "dare-devil 
fellow, " crawled out on his hands and knees and fired at 
the enemy's pickets. 

An attack was indeed impending, arranged on the fol- 
lowing plan: Brig. -Gen. A. H. Colquitt, with the Twenty- 
fifth South Carolina, Sixth and Nineteenth Georgia, and 
four companies Thirty-second Georgia, about fourteen 
hundred men, supported by the Marion Artillery, was to 
cross the marsh at the causeway nearest Secessionville, 
"drive the enemy as far as the lower causeway [nearest 
Stono] rapidly recross the marsh at that point by a flank 
movement, and cut off and capture the force encamped at 
Grimball's." Col. C. H. Way, Fifty-fourth Georgia, with 
eight hundred men, was to follow and co-operate. A re- 
serve of one company of cavalry, one of infantry, and a 
section of artillery, was at Rivers's house. Two Napoleon 
guns each, of the Chatham Artillery, and Blake's Battery, 
and four twelve-pounders of the Siege Train, supported 
by four hundred infantry, were to attack the gunboats 
"Pawnee " and "Marblehead " in the Stono River. 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 57 

In the gray of early dawn of July 16, the troops in 
bivouac on James Island were awakened by dropping 
shots, and then heavy firing on the picket line to the 
right. Clambering to the top of a pile of cracker-boxes, 
an officer of the Fifty-fourth, looking in the direction of 
the firing, saw the flashes of musketry along the out- 
posts. In a few moments came the sharp metallic ex- 
plosions from field-guns to the left by the river-bank. 
Wilkie James, the adjutant, rode in post-haste along the 
line, with cheery voice but unusually excited manner, 
ordering company commanders to form. " Fall in ! fall 
in ! " resounded on all sides, while drums of the several 
regiments were beating the long-roll. But a few moments 
sufficed for the Fifty-fourth to form, when Colonel Shaw 
marched it to the right and some little distance to the 
rear, where it halted, faced to the front, and stood in line 
of battle at right angles to the Secessionville road. 

Rapid work was going on at the outposts. Before dawn 
the pickets of the Fifty-fourth had heard hoarse commands 
and the sound of marching men coming from the bank of 
darkness before them. Soon a line of men in open order 
came sweeping toward them from the gloom into the 
nearer and clearer light. 

Colquitt, with six companies of the Eutaw Regiment 
(Twenty-fifth South Carolina), skirmishing before his in- 
fantry column, crossing Rivers's causeway, was rapidly 
advancing on the black pickets. 

Simpkins's right was the first point of contact ; and the 
men, thus suddenly attacked by a heavy force, discharged 
their pieces, and sullenly contested the way, filing as they 
went, over rough and difficult ground, which obstructed 
the enemy's advance as well as their own retirement. 



58 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Soon the enemy gained the road at a point in rear of 
Russel's right. Some of the men there, hardly aware 
of their extremity, were still holding their positions 
against those of the enemy who appeared in the immediate 
front. It seemed to Sergt. Peter Vogelsang of Company 
H, who had his post at a palmetto-tree, that in a moment 
one hundred Rebels were swarming about him. He led his 
comrades to join men on his left, where they advanced, 
firing. With effect too, for they came to the body of a 
dead Rebel, from whom Vogelsang took a musket. 

Russel's right posts, thus cut off, were followed by a 
company of the Nineteenth Georgia, and after the desul- 
tory fighting were driven, to escape capture, into the 
creek on the right of the line, where some were drowned. 
Those most courageous refused to fall back, and were 
killed or taken as prisoners. Sergt. James D. Wilson of 
Company H was one of the former. He was an expert 
in the use of the musket, having been employed with the 
famous Ellsworth Zouaves of Chicago. Many times he 
had declared to his comrades that he would never retreat 
or surrender to the enemy. On that morning, when at- 
tacked, he called to his men to stand fast. Assailed by 
five men, he is said to have disabled three of them. Some 
cavalrymen coming up, he charged them with a shout as 
they circled about him, keeping them all at bay for a 
time with the bayonet of his discharged musket, until the 
brave fellow sank in death with three mortal besides 
other wounds. 

Captain Russel, finding that the enemy had turned his 
flank before he could face back, had to retire with such 
men as were not cut off, at double-quick, finding the foe 
about the reserve house when he reached it. A mounted 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 59 

officer charged up to Russel, and cut twice at his head 
with his sword. Preston Williams of Company H caught 
the second sweep upon his bayonet and shot the Confed- 
erate through the neck, thus saving his captain's life. 
From the reserve house Russel and his men retired, fight- 
ing as they could. 

Captain Simpkins's right, as has been told, first bore the 
force of the attack. By strenuous efforts and great per- 
sonal exposure that cool and gallant officer collected some 
men in line. With them he contested the way back step 
by step, halting now and then to face about and fire, thus 
gaining time, the loss of which thwarted the enemy's 
plan. Of his men, Corp. Henry A. Field of Company K 
especially distinguished himself. 

Captain Willard at the reserve house at once sent back 
word, by a mounted orderly, of the situation. To the 
support of his right he sent Lieutenant Appleton with 
some men, and to the left First Sergeant Simmons of 
Company B with a small force, and then looked for aid 
from our main body. He endeavored to form a line of 
skirmishers, when the men began coming back from the 
front, but with little success. The men could not be 
kept in view because of the underbrush nearly as high as 
a man. As the expected succor did not come, the officers 
and the remaining men made their way back to the 
division. 

It will be remembered that with the first musket-shots 
came the sound of field-guns from the Stono. The enemy's 
four Napoleons had galloped into battery within four hun- 
dred yards of the gunboats, and fired some ten rounds be- 
fore they were replied to ; their shots crashed through the 
" Pawnee " again and again, with some loss. It was im- 



60 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

possible for the gunboats to turn in tlie narrow stream, and 
their guns did not bear properly. To drop down was 
dangerous, but it was done ; when out of close range, the 
" Marblehead, " "Pawnee," and "Huron" soon drove their 
tormentors away from the river-bank. 

To capture the Tenth Connecticut, the enemy, after 
dealing with the Fifty -fourth, sent a portion of his force ; 
but the resistance made by Captain Simpkins had al- 
lowed time for the Tenth Connecticut to abandon its 
dangerous position at the double-quick. None too soon, 
however, for five minutes' delay would have been fatal. 
A correspondent of " The Reflector, " writing from Morris 
Island a few days later, said : — 

" The boys of the Tenth Connecticut could not help loving 
the men who saved them from destruction. I have been deeply 
affected at hearing this feeling expressed by officers and men 
of the Connecticut regiment ; and probably a thousand homes 
from Windham to Fairfield have in letters been told the story 
how the dark-skinned heroes fought the good fight and covered 
with their own brave hearts the retreat of brothers, sons, and 
fathers of Connecticut." 

The valuable time gained by the resistance of the Fifty- 
fourth pickets had also permitted the formation of Terry's 
division in line of battle. Hardly had the Fifty-fourth 
taken its position before men from the front came strag- 
gling in, all bearing evidence of struggles with bush and 
brier, some of the wounded limping along unassisted, 
others helped by comrades. One poor fellow, with his 
right arm shattered, still carried his musket in his left 
hand. 

Captain Russel appeared in sight, assisting a sergeant, 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 61 

badly wounded. Bringing up the rear came Captains 
Willard and Simpkins, the latter with his trousers and 
rubber coat pierced with bullets. As the pickets and their 
officers reached the regiment, they took their places in 
line. 

A few minutes after these events, the enemy, having 
advanced to a position within about six hundred yards of 
the Federal line, opened fire with guns of the Marion 
Artillery, making good line shots, but fortunately too 
high. 

It was a supreme moment for the Fifty-fourth, then 
under fire as a regiment for the first time. The sight of 
wounded comrades had been a trial ; and the screaming shot 
and shell flying overhead, cutting the branches of trees to 
the right, had a deadly sound. But the dark line stood 
stanch, holding the front at the most vital point. Not 
a man was out of place, as the officers could see while they 
stood in rear of the lines, observing their men. 

In reply to the enemy's guns the Connecticut battery 
fired percussion-shells, and for some time this artillery 
duel continued. To those who were anticipating an attack 
by infantry, and looking for the support of the gunboats, 
their silence was ominous. Every ear was strained to 
catch the welcome sound, and at last it came in great 
booms from Parrott guns. Very opportunely, too, on the 
night before, the armed transports " John Adams " and 
" Mayflower " had run up the creek on our right flank, 
and their guns were fired twelve or fifteen times with good 
effect before the enemy retired. 

The expected attack on Terry's line by infantry did not 
take place, for after about an hour the enemy retired in 
some confusion. By General Terry's order, the Fifty- 



62 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

fourth was at once directed to rcoccupy the old picket 
line. Captain Jones with two companies advanced, 
skirmishing; and the main body followed, encountering 
arms and equipments of the enemy strewn over a broad 
trail. At the reserve house the regiment halted in sup- 
port of a strong picket line thrown out. Parties were 
sent to scour the ground, finding several wounded men 
lying in the brush or in the marsh across the creek. 
They also brought in the body of a Confederate, almost a 
child, with soft skin and long fair hair, red with his own 
blood. This youthful victim of the fight was tenderly 
buried soon after. 

Some of our dead at first appeared to be mutilated; but 
closer inspection revealed the fact that the fiddler-crabs, 
and not the enemy, did the work. It was told by some of 
those who lay concealed, that where Confederate officers 
were, the colored soldiers had been protected ; but that in 
other cases short shrift was given, and three men had 
been shot and others bayonetted. 

Colonel Shaw had despatched Adjutant James to re- 
port that the old line was re-established. He returned 
with the following message from General Terry : " Tell 
your colonel that I am exceedingly pleased with the 
conduct of your regiment. They have done all they 
could do." 

During the afternoon a mail was received. After read- 
ing their letters Colonel Shaw and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hallowell conversed. The colonel asked the major if he 
believed in presentiments, and added that he felt he 
would be killed in the first action. Asked to try to 
shake off the feeling, he quietly said, "I will try." 

General Beauregard reported his loss as three killed, 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 63 

twelve wounded, and three missing, which is believed 
to be an under-estimate. We found two dead Confederates, 
and captured six prisoners representing four regiments. 
The Adjutant-General of Massachusetts gives the Fifty- 
fourth loss as fourteen killed, eighteen wounded, and thir- 
teen missing. Outside our regiment the casualties were 
very light. 

General Terry in his official report says : — 

" I desire to express my obligations to Captain Balch, United 
States Navy, commanding the naval forces in the river, for the 
very great assistance rendered to me, and to report to the com- 
manding general the good services of Captain Rockwell and 
his battery, and the steadiness and soldierly conduct of the 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment who were on duty at 
the outposts on the right and met the brunt of attack." 

General Terry was ordered to evacuate James Island 
that night. At about five o'clock P. M., the Fifty-fourth 
was relieved by the Fifty-second Pennsylvania, and re- 
turned to the bivouac. While awaiting the marching 
orders, several officers and men of the Tenth Connecticut 
came to express their appreciation of the service rendered 
by the Fifty -fourth companies attacked in the morning, by 
which they were enabled to effect a safe retreat. After- 
ward, upon Morris Island the colonel of that regiment 
made similar expressions. 

Col. W W H. Davis, with his own and Montgomery's 
brigades, and the Tenth Connecticut, was to retire by the 
land route. Brigadier-General Stevenson's Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts and Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania were or- 
dered to take transports from James Island. 

By Colonel Davis's order the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts 



64 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

was given the advance, moving at 9.30 o'clock that night, 
followed by the other regiments, the route being pointed 
out by guides from the engineers, who accompanied the 
head of column. 

All stores, ammunition, and horses of the Fifty-fourth 
were put on board the steamer " Boston " by Quartermaster 
Ritchie, who, with his men, worked all night in the mud 
and rain. Surgeon Lincoln R. Stone of the Fifty-fourth 
and Surgeon Samuel A. Green of the Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts saw that all the wounded were properly 
cared for, and also embarked. 

It was a stormy night, with frequent flashes of light- 
ning, and pouring rain. Colonel Davis, at the proper 
time, saw to the withdrawal of the Fifty-second Pennsyl- 
vania, which held the front lines. So silently was the 
operation accomplished that the enemy did not discover 
our evacuation until daylight. When the Fifty-sixth 
New York, the rear-guard, had crossed the bridge leading 
from James Island, at 1 a. m., on the 17th, it was effec- 
tually destroyed, thus rendering pursuit difficult. 

That night's march was a memorable one, for the diffi- 
culties of the way were exceptional, and only to be encoun- 
tered upon the Sea Islands. After passing the bridge, 
the road led along narrow causeways and paths only wide 
enough for two men to pass abreast; over swamps, and 
streams bridged for long distances by structures of frail 
piling, supporting one or two planks with no hand-rail. 
A driving rain poured down nearly the whole time, and 
the darkness was intense. Blinding flashes of lightning 
momentarily illumined the way, then fading but to render 
the blackness deeper. 

Throughout most of the march the men were obliged to 






Surg. Lincoln R. Stone. 
Asst.-Surg. Giles M. Pease. Asst.-Surg. Joshua B. Treadwell. 



DESCENT ON JAMES ISLAND. 65 

move in single file, groping their way and grasping their 
leader as they progressed, that they might not separate or 
go astray. Along the foot-bridges the planks became 
slippery with mire from muddy feet, rendering the footing 
insecure, and occasioning frequent falls, which delayed 
progress. Through the woods, wet branches overhanging 
the path, displaced by the leaders, swept back with bitter 
force into the faces of those following. Great clods of 
clay gathered on the feet of the men. 

Two hours were consumed in passing over the dikes 
and foot-bridges alone. In distance the route was but a 
few miles, yet it was daybreak when the leading compa- 
nies reached firmer ground. Then the men flung them- 
selves on the wet ground, and in a moment were in deep 
sleep, while the column closed up. Reunited solidly 
again, the march was resumed, and Cole's Island soon 
reached. The regiments following the Fifty-fourth had 
the benefit of daylight most of the way. 

Footsore, weary, hungry, and thirsty, the regiment was 
halted near the beach opposite Folly Island about 5 A. M., 
on the 17th. Sleep was had until the burning sun awak- 
ened the greater number. Regiments had been arriving 
and departing all the morning. Rations were not pro- 
curable, and they were fortunate who could find a few 
crumbs or morsels of meat in their haversacks. Even 
water was hard to obtain, for crowds of soldiers collected 
about the few sources of supply. By noon the heat and 
glare from the white sand were almost intolerable. 

In the evening a moist cool breeze came; and at eight 
o'clock the regiment moved up the shore to a creek in 
readiness to embark on the " General Hunter, " lying in 
the stream. It was found that the only means of board- 

5 



66 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing the steamer was by a leaky long-boat which would 
hold about thirty men. Definite orders came to report the 
regiment to General Strong at Morris Island without de- 
lay, and at 10 p. M. the embarkation began. By the light 
of a single lantern the men were stowed in the boat. 

Rain was pouring down in torrents, for a thunder- 
storm was raging. Throughout that interminable night 
the long-boat was kept plying from shore to vessel and 
back, while those on land stood or crouched about in 
dripping clothes, awaiting their turn for ferriage to the 
steamer, whose dim light showed feebly in the gloom. 
The boat journey was made with difficulty, for the current 
was strong, and the crowded soldiers obstructed the rowers 
in their task. It was an all night's work. Colonel Shaw 
saw personally to the embarkation ; and as daylight was 
breaking he stepped in with the last boat-load, and him- 
self guided the craft to the "Hunter." Thus with rare 
self-sacrifice and fine example, he shared the exposure of 
every man, when the comfortable cabin of the steamer 
was at his disposal from the evening before. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 

ON the " General Hunter " the officers procured break- 
fast ; but the men were still without rations. Re- 
freshed, the officers were all together for the last time 
socially; before another day three were dead, and three 
wounded who never returned. Captain Simpkins, whose 
manly appearance and clear-cut features were so pleasing 
to look upon, was, as always, quiet and dignified; Cap- 
tain Russel was voluble and active as ever, despite all 
fatigue. Neither appeared to have any premonition of 
their fate. It was different with Colonel Shaw, who 
again expressed to Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell his ap- 
prehension of speedy death. 

Running up Folly River, the steamer arrived at Pawnee 
Landing, where, at 9 a. m., the Fifty-fourth disembarked. 
Crossing the island through woods, the camps of several 
regiments were passed, from which soldiers ran out, shout- 
ing, " Well done ! we heard your guns ! " Others cried, 
" Hurrah, boys ! you saved the Tenth Connecticut ! " 
Leaving the timber, the Fifty-fourth came to the sea 
beach, where marching was easier. Stretching away to 
the horizon, on the right, was the Atlantic; to the left, 
sand hillocks, with pine woods farther inland. Occasional 
squalls of rain came, bringing rubber blankets and coats 
into use. At one point on the beach, a box of water- 
soaked hard bread was discovered, and the contents speedily 



68 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

divided among the hungry men. Firing at the front had 
been heard from early morning, which toward noon was 
observed to have risen into a heavy cannonade. 

After a march of some six miles, we arrived at Light- 
house Inlet and rested, awaiting transportation. Tuneful 
voices about the colors started the song, u When this 
Cruel War is Over," and the pathetic words of the chorus 
were taken up by others. It was the last song of many ; 
but few then thought it a requiem. By ascending the 
sand-hills, we could see the distant vessels engaging 
Wagner. When all was prepared, the Fifty -fourth boarded 
a small steamer, landed on Morris Island, about 5 p. m., 
and remained near the shore for further orders. 

General Gillmore, on the 13th, began constructing 
four batteries, mounting forty-two guns and mortars, to 
damage the slopes and guns of Wagner, which were com- 
pleted under the enemy's fire, and in spite of a sortie at 
night, on the 14th. He expected to open with them on 
the 16th; but heavy rains so delayed progress that all 
was not prepared until the 18th. Beyond this siege line, 
which was 1,350 yards south of Wagner, stretched a nar- 
row strip of land between the sea and Vincent's Creek, 
with its marshes. At low tide, the beach sand afforded 
a good pathway to the enemy's position ; but at high tide, 
it was through deep, loose sand, and over low sand hil- 
locks. This stretch of sand was unobstructed, until at 
a point two hundred yards in front of Wagner, the 
enemy had made a line of rifle tranches. Some fifty 
yards nearer Wagner, an easterly bend of the marsh 
extended to within twenty-five yards of the sea at high 
tide, forming a defile, through which an assaulting column 
must pass. 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 69 

Nearly covered by this sweep of the marsh, and com- 
manding it as well as the stretch of sand beyond to the 
Federal line, was "Battery Wagner," so named by the 
Confederates, in memory of Lieut. -Col. Thomas M. 
Wagner, First South Carolina Artillery, killed at Fort 
Sumter. This field work was constructed of quartz sand, 
with turf and palmetto log revetment, and occupied the 
whole width of the island there, — some six hundred and 
thirty feet. Its southern and principal front was double- 
bastioned. Next the sea was a heavy traverse and cur- 
tain covering a sally-port. Then came the southeast 
bastion, prolonged westerly by a curtain connected with 
the southwest bastion. At the western end was another 
sally-port. An infantry parapet closed the rear or north 
face. It had large bombproof s, magazines, and heavy 
traverses. 

Wagner's armament was reported to its commander, 
July 15, as follows: on sea face, one ten-inch Columbiad, 
and two smooth-bore thirty -two-pounders ; on southeast 
bastion, operating on land and sea, one rifled thirty-two- 
pounder; on south point of bastion operating on land, 
one forty-two-pounder carronade ; in the curtain, with 
direct fire on land approach to embrasure, two eight-inch 
naval shell-guns, one eight-inch sea-coast howitzer, and 
one thirty-two-pounder smooth-bore ; on the flank defences 
of the curtain, two thirty-two-pounder carronades in em- 
brasures; on the southerly face, one thirty-two-pounder 
carronade in embrasure ; in southwest angle, one ten-inch 
sea-coast mortar ; on bastion gorge, one thirty-two-pounder 
carronade. There were also four twelve-pounder howit- 
zers. All the northerly portion of Morris Island was in 
range of Fort Sumter, the eastern James Island and the 



70 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Sullivan's Island batteries, besides Fort Gregg, on the 
northerly extremity of Morris Island, which mounted three 
guns. 

Brig. -Gen. William B. Taliaferro, an able officer, who 
had served with distinction under u Stonewall " Jackson, 
was in command of Morris Island, for the Confederates. 
"Wagner's garrison, on the 18th, consisted of the Thirty- 
first and Fifty-first North Carolina, the Charleston Bat- 
talion, two companies Sixty-third Georgia Heavy Artillery, 
and two companies First South Carolina Infantry, acting as 
artillery, and two guns each of the Palmetto and Blake's 
Artillery, — a total force of seventeen hundred men. 
Such was the position, armament, and garrison of the 
strongest single earthwork known in the history of 
warfare. 

About 10 a. m., on the 18th, five wooden gunboats 
joined the land batteries in shelling Wagner, lying out of 
the enemy's range. At about 12.30 p. m. , five monitors 
and the "New Ironsides" opened, and the land batteries 
increased their fire. A deluge of shot was now poured 
into the work, driving the main portion of its garrison 
into the bombproofs, and throwing showers of sand from 
the slopes of Wagner into the air but to fall back in place 
again. The enemy's flag was twice shot away, and, until 
replaced, a battle-flag was planted with great gallantry 
by daring men. From Gregg, Sumter, and the James 
Island and Sullivan's Island batteries, the enemy returned 
the iron compliments ; while for a time Wagner's can- 
noneers ran out at intervals, and served a part of the 
guns, at great risk. 

A fresh breeze blew that day; at times the sky was 
clear; the atmosphere, lightened by recent rains, resounded 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON "WAGNER. 71 

with the thunders of an almost incessant cannonade. 
Smoke-clouds hung over the naval vessels, our batteries, 
and those of the enemy. During this terrible bombard- 
ment, the two infantry regiments and the artillery com- 
panies, except gun detachments, kept in the bombproofs. 
But the Charleston Battalion lay all day under the para- 
pets of Wagner, — a terrible ordeal, which was borne 
without demoralization. In spite of the tremendous fire, 
the enemy's loss was only eight men killed and twenty 
wounded, before the assault. 

General Taliaferro foresaw that this bombardment was 
preliminary to an assault, and had instructed his force 
to take certain assigned positions when the proper time 
came. To three companies of the Charleston Battalion 
was given the Confederate right along the parapet; the 
Fifty-first North Carolina, along the curtain; and the 
Thirty-first North Carolina, the left, including the south- 
east bastion. Two companies of the Charleston Battal- 
ion were placed outside the work, covering the gorge. 
A small reserve was assigned to the body of the fort. 
Two field-pieces were to fire from the traverse flanking 
the beach face and approach. For the protection of the 
eight-inch shell-guns in the curtain and the field-pieces, 
they were covered with sand-bags, until desired for ser- 
vice. Thoroughly conversant with the ground, the Con- 
federate commander rightly calculated that the defile would 
break up the formation of his assailants at a critical 
moment, when at close range. 

General Gillmore, at noon, ascended the lookout on a 
hill within his lines, and examined the ground in front. 
Throughout the day this high point was the gathering- 
place of observers. The tide turned to flow at 4 p. M., 



72 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

and about the same time firing from Wagner ceased, and 
not a man was to be seen there. During the afternoon 
the troops were moving from their camps toward the 
front. Late in the day the belief was general that the 
enemy had been driven from his shelter, and the arma- 
ment of Wagner rendered harmless. General Gillmore, 
after calling his chief officers together for conference, 
decided to attack that evening, and the admiral was so 
notified. Firing from land and sea was still kept up 
with decreased rapidity, while the troops were preparing. 

Upon arriving at Morris Island, Colonel Shaw and 
Adjutant James walked toward the front to report to 
General Strong, whom they at last found, and who an- 
nounced that Fort Wagner was to be stormed that evening. 
Knowing Colonel Shaw's desire to place his men beside 
white troops, he said, " You may lead the column, if you 
say 'yes.' Your men, I know, are worn out, but do as 
you choose." Shaw's face brightened, and before reply- 
ing, he requested Adjutant James to return and have 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell bring up the Fifty-fourth. 
Adjutant James, who relates this interview, then departed 
on his mission. Receiving this order, the regiment 
marched on to General Strong's headquarters, where a 
halt of five minutes was made about 6 o'clock p. m. 
Noticing the worn look of the men, who had passed two 
days without an issue of rations, and no food since morn- 
ing, when the weary march began, the general expressed 
his sympathy and his great desire that they might have 
food and stimulant. It could not be, however, for it 
was necessary that the regiment should move on to the 
position assigned. 

Detaining Colonel Shaw to take supper with him. 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 73 

General Strong sent the Fifty-fourth forward under the 
lieutenant-colonel toward the front, moving by the middle 
road west of the sand-hills. Gaining a point where these 
elevations gave place to low ground, the long blue line 
of the regiment advancing by the flank attracted the atten- 
tion of the enemy's gunners on James Island. Several 
solid shot were fired at the column, without doing any 
damage, but they ricochetted ahead or over the line in 
dangerous proximity. Realizing that the national colors 
and the white flag of the State especially attracted the 
enemy's fire, the bearers began to roll them up on the 
staves. At the same moment, Captain Simpkins, com- 
manding the color company (K) turned to observe his 
men. His quick eye noted the half-furled flags, and his 
gallant spirit took fire in a moment at the sight. Point- 
ing to the flags with uplifted sword, he commanded in 
imperative tones, " Unfurl those colors ! " It was done, 
and the fluttering silks again waved, untrammelled, in 
the air. 

Colonel Shaw, at about 6.30 p. m., mounted and accom- 
panied General Strong toward the front. After proceed- 
ing a short distance, he turned back, and gave to Mr. 
Edward L. Pierce, a personal friend, who had been Gen- 
eral Strong's guest for several days, his letters and some* 
papers, with a request to forward them to his family if 
anything occurred to him requiring such service. That 
sudden purpose accomplished, he galloped away, overtook 
the regiment, and informed Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell 
of what the Fifty-fourth was expected to do. The direc- 
tion was changed to the right, advancing east toward the 
sea. By orders, Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell broke the 
column at the sixth company, and led the companies of 



74 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the left wing to the rear of those of the right wing. 
When the sea beach was reached, the regiment halted and 
came to rest, awaiting the coming up of the supporting 
regiments. 

General Gillmore had assigned to General Seymour the 
command of the assaulting column, charging him with 
its organization, formation, and all the details of the 
attack. II is force was formed into three brigades of in- 
fantry : the first under General Strong, composed of the 
Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, Sixth Connecticut, Forty- 
eighth New York, Third New Hampshire, Ninth Maine, 
and Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania ; the second, under Col. 
Haldimand S. Putnam, of his own regiment, — the Sev- 
enth New Hampshire, — One Hundredth New York, Sixty- 
second and Sixty-seventh Ohio; the third, or reserve 
brigade, under Brig. -Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson, of the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, Tenth Connecticut, Ninety- 
seventh Pennsylvania, and Second South Carolina. Four 
companies of the Seventh Connecticut, and some regular 
and volunteer artillery-men manned and served the guns 
of the siege line. 

Formed in column of wings, with the right resting near 
the sea, at a short distance in advance of the works, the 
•men of the Fifty-fourth were ordered to lie down, their 
muskets loaded but not capped, and bayonets fixed. There 
the regiment remained for half an hour, while the forma- 
tion of the storming column and reserve was perfected. 
To the Fifty -fourth had been given the post of honor, 
not by chance, but by deliberate selection. General 
Seymour has stated the reasons why this honorable but 
dangerous duty was assigned the regiment in the follow- 
ing words : — 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 75 

"It was believed that the Fifty- fourth was in every respect 
as efficient as any other body of men ; and as it was one of the 
strongest and best officered, there seemed to be no good reason 
why it should not be selected for the advance. This point was 
decided by General Strong and myself." 

In numbers the Fifty-fourth had present but six hun- 
dred men, for besides the large camp guard and the sick 
left at St. Helena Island, and the losses sustained on 
James Island, on the 16th, a fatigue detail of eighty men 
under Lieut. Francis L. Higginson, did not participate in 
the attack. 

The formation of the regiment for the assault was, as 
shown in the diagram below, with Companies B and E 
on the right of the respective wings. 

Right Wing. K C I A B 



Left Wing. H F G D E 



Colonel Shaw, Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell, Adjutant 
James, seven captains, and twelve lieutenants, — a total 
of twenty-two officers, — ■ advanced to the assault. 

Surgeon Stone and Quartermaster Ritchie were present 
on the field. Both field officers were dismounted; the 
band and musicians acted as stretcher-bearers. 

To many a gallant man these scenes upon the sands 
were the last of earth; to the survivors they will be ever 
present. Away over the sea to the eastward the heavy 
sea-fog was gathering, the western sky bright with the 
reflected light, for the sun had set. Far away thunder 
mingled with the occasional boom of cannon. The 
gathering host all about, the silent lines stretching away 
to the rear, the passing of a horseman now and then carry- 



76 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing orders, — all was ominous of the impending onslaught. 
Far and indistinct in front was the now silent earthwork, 
seamed, scarred, and ploughed with shot, its flag still 
waving in defiance. 

Among the dark soldiers who were to lead veteran 
regiments which were equal in drill and discipline to 
any in the country, there was a lack of their usual light- 
heartedness, for they realized, partially at least, the dan- 
gers they were to encounter. But there was little 
nervousness and no depression observable. It took but a 
touch to bring out their irrepressible spirit and humor in 
the old way. When a cannon-shot from the enemy came 
toward the line and passed over, a man or two moved 
nervously, calling out a sharp reproof from Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hallowell, whom the men still spoke of as "the 
major." Thereupon one soldier quietly remarked to his 
comrades, " I guess the major forgets what kind of balls 
them is ! " Another added, thinking of the foe, " I guess 
they kind of 'spec's we 're coming ! " 

Naturally the officers' thoughts were largely regarding 
their men. Soon they would know whether the lessons 
they had taught of soldierly duty would bear good fruit. 
Would they have cause for exultation or be compelled 
to sheathe their swords, rather than lead cowards ? Un- 
known to them, the whole question of employing three 
hundred thousand colored soldiers hung in the balance. 
But few, however, doubted the result. Wherever a white 
officer led that night, even to the gun-muzzles and bayo- 
net-points, there, by his side, were black men as brave and 
steadfast as himself. 

At last the formation of the column was nearly per- 
fected. The Sixth Connecticut had taken position in 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 77 

column of companies just in rear of the Fifty-fourth. 
About this time, Colonel Shaw walked back to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hallowell, and said, " 1 shall go in advance with 
the National flag. You will keep the State flag with you ; 
it will give the men something to rally round. We shall 
take the fort or die there ! Good-by ! " 

Presently, General Strong, mounted upon a spirited gray 
horse, in full uniform, with a yellow handkerchief bound 
around his neck, rode in front of the Fifty-fourth, accom- 
panied by two aids and two orderlies. He addressed the 
men' and his words, as given by an officer of the regi- 
ment, were : " Boys, I am a Massachusetts man, and I 
know you will fight for the honor of the State. I am 
sorry you must go into the fight tired and hungry, but 
the men in the fort are tired too. There are but three 
hundred behind those walls, and they have been fighting 
all day. Don't fire a musket on the way up, but go in 
and bayonet them at their guns. " Calling out the color- 
bearer, he said, " If this man should fall, who will lift the 
flag and carry it on ? " Colonel Shaw, standing near, 
took a cigar from between his lips, and said quietly, " I 
will." The men loudly responded to Colonel Shaw's 
pledge, while General Strong rode away to give the signal 
for advancing. 

Colonel Shaw calmly walked up and down the line of 
his regiment. He was clad in a close-fitting staff-officer's 
jacket, with a silver eagle denoting his rank on each 
shoulder. His trousers were light blue; a fine narrow 
silk sash was wound round his waist beneath the jacket. 
Upon his head was a high felt army hat with cord. De- 
pending from his sword-belt was a field-officer's sword of 
English manufacture, with the initials of his name worked 



78 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

into the ornamentation of the guard. On his hand was 
an antique gem set in a ring. In his pocket was a gold 
watch, marked with his name, attached to a gold chain. 
Although he had given certain papers and letters to his 
friend, Mr. Pierce, he retained his pocket-book, which 
doubtless contained papers which would establish his 
identity. His manner, generally reserved before his men, 
seemed to unbend to them, for he spoke as he had never 
done before. He said, "Now I want you to prove your- 
selves men," and reminded them that the eyes of thou- 
sands would look upon the night's work. His bearing 
was composed and graceful ; his cheek had somewhat 
paled; and the slight twitching of the corners of his 
mouth plainly showed that the whole cost was counted, 
and his expressed determination to take the fort or die 
was to be carried out. 

Meanwhile the twilight deepened, as the minutes, 
drawn out by waiting, passed, before the signal was given. 
Officers had silently grasped one another's hands, brought 
their revolvers round to the front, and tightened their 
sword-belts. The men whispered last injunctions to com- 
rades, and listened for the word of command. 

The preparations usual in an assault were not made. 
There was no provision for cutting away obstructions, 
filling the ditch, or spiking the guns. No special instruc- 
tions were given the stormers; no line of skirmishers or 
covering party was thrown out ; no engineers or guides 
accompanied the column; no artillery-men to serve cap- 
tured guns ; no plan of the work was shown company offi- 
cers. It was understood that the fort would be assaulted 
with the bayonet, and that the Fifty-fourth would be 
closely supported. 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 79 

While on the sands a few cannon-shots had reached the 
regiment, one passing between the wings, another over 
to the right. When the inaction had become almost 
unendurable, the signal to advance came. Colonel Shaw 
walked along the front to the centre, and giving the 
command, " Attention ! " the men sprang to their feet. 
Then came the admonition, "Move in quick time until 
within a hundred yards of the fort; then double quick, 
and charge ! " A slight pause, followed by the sharp 
command, " Forward ! " and the Fifty -fourth advanced to 
the storming. 

There had been a partial resumption of the bombard 
ment during the formation, but now only an occasional 
shot was heard. The enemy in Wagner had seen the 
preparations, knew what was coming, and were awaiting 
the blow. With Colonel Shaw leading, sword in hand, 
the long advance over three quarters of a mile of sand 
had begun, with wings closed up and company officers 
admonishing their men to preserve the alignment. Guns 
from Sumter, Sullivan's Island, and James Island, began 
to play upon the regiment. It was about 7.45 p. m., with 
darkness coming on rapidly, when the Fifty-fourth moved. 
With barely room for the formation from the first, the 
narrowing way between the sand hillocks and the sea soon 
caused a strong pressure to the right, so that Captains 
Willard and Emilio on the right of the right companies of 
their wings were with some of their men forced to march 
in water up to their knees, at each incoming of the sea. 

Moving at quick time, and preserving its formation as 
well as the difficult ground and narrowing way permitted, 
the Fifty-fourth was approaching the defile made by the 
easterly sweep of the marsh. Darkness was rapidly com- 



80 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing on, and each moment boeame deeper. Soon men on 
the flanks were compelled to fall behind, for want of room 
to continue in line. The centre only had a free path, 
and with eyes strained upon the colonel and the flag, they 
pressed on toward the work, now only two hundred yards 
away. 

At that moment Wagner became a mound of fire, from 
which poured a stream of shot and shell. Just a brief 
lull, and the deafening explosions of cannon were re- 
newed, mingled with the crash and rattle of musketry. 
A sheet of flame, followed by a running fire, like electric 
sparks, swept along the parapet, as the Fifty-first North 
Carolina gave a direct, and the Charleston Battalion a 
left-oblique, fire on the Fifty-fourth. Their Thirty-first 
North Carolina had lost heart, and failed to take position 
in the southeast bastion, — fortunately, too, for had its 
musketry fire been added to that delivered, it is doubtful 
whether any Federal troops could have passed the defile. 

When this tempest of war came, before which men fell 
in numbers on every side, the only response the Fifty- 
fourth made to the deadly challenge was to change step 
to the double-quick, that it might the sooner close with 
the foe. There had been no stop, pause, or check at 
any period of the advance, nor was there now. As the 
swifter pace Avas taken, and officers sprang to the fore 
with waving swords barely seen in the darkness, the men 
closed the gaps, and Avith set jaws, panting breath, and 
bowed heads, charged on. 

Wagner's wall, momentarily lit up by cannon-flashes, 
was still the goal toward which the survivors rushed in 
sadly diminished numbers. It was now dark, the gloom 
made more intense by the blinding explosions in the 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 81 

front. This terrible fire which the regiment had just 
faced, probably caused the greatest number of casualties 
sustained by the Fifty-fourth in the assault; for nearer 
the work the men were somewhat sheltered by the high 
parapet. Every flash showed the ground dotted with 
men of the regiment, killed or wounded. Great holes, 
made by the huge shells of the navy or the land batteries, 
were pitfalls into which the men stumbled or fell. 

Colonel Shaw led the regiment to the left toward the 
curtain of the work, thus passing the southeast bastion, 
and leaving it to the right hand. From that salient no 
musketry fire came ; and some Fifty-fourth men first 
entered it, not following the main body by reason of the: 
darkness. As the survivors drew near the work, they 
encountered the flanking fire delivered from guns in the 
southwest salient, and the howitzers outside the fort, which 
swept the trench, where further severe losses were sus- 
tained. Nothing but the ditch now separated the stormers 
and the foe. Down into this they went, through the two 
or three feet of water therein, and mounted the slope 
beyond in the teeth of the enemy, some of whom, stand- 
ing on the crest, fired down on them with depressed 
pieces. Both flags were planted on the parapet, the 
national flag carried there and gallantly maintained by 
the brave Sergt. William H. Carney of Company C. 

In the pathway from the defile to the fort many brave 
men had fallen. Lieutenant-Colonel Hallowell was se- 
verely wounded in the groin, Captain Willard in the leg, 
Adjutant James in the ankle and side, Lieutenant Homans 
in the shoulder. Lieutenants Smith and Pratt were also 
wounded. Colonel Shaw had led his regiment from first 
to last. Gaining the rampart, he stood there for a mo- 

6 



82 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ment with uplifted sword, shouting, "Forward, Fifty- 
fourth ! " and then fell dead, shot through the heart, be- 
sides other wounds. 

Not a shot had been fired by the regiment up to this 
time. As the crest was gained, the crack of revolver- 
shots was heard, for the officers fired into the surging 
mass of upturned faces confronting them, lit up redly 
but a moment by the powder-flashes. Musket-butts and 
bayonets were freely used on the parapet, where the 
stormers were gallantly met. The garrison fought with 
muskets, handspikes, and gun-rammers, the officers strik- 
ing with their swords, so close were the combatants. 
Numbers, however, soon told against the Fifty-fourth, for 
it was tens against hundreds. Outlined against the sky, 
they were a fair mark for the foe. Men fell every mo- 
ment during the brief struggle. Some of the wounded 
crawled down the slope to shelter; others fell headlong 
into the ditch below. 

It was seen from the volume of musketry fire, even 
before the walls were gained, that the garrison was 
stronger than had been supposed, and brave in defending 
the work. The first rush had failed, for those of the 
Fifty-fourth who reached the parapet were too few in num- 
bers to overcome the garrison, and the supports were not 
at hand to take full advantage of their first fierce attack. 

Repulsed from the crest after the short hand-to-hand 
struggle, the assailants fell back upon the exterior slope 
of the rampart. There the men were encouraged to re- 
main by their officers, for by sweeping the top of the 
parapet with musketry, and firing at those trying to serve 
the guns, they would greatly aid an advancing force. For 
a time this was done, but at the cost of more lives. The 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 83 

enemy's fire became more effective as the numbers of the 
Fifty-fourth diminished. Hand grenades or lighted shells 
were rolled down the slope, or thrown over into the 
ditch. 

All this time the remaining officers and men of the 
Fifty-fourth were firing at the hostile figures about the 
guns, or that they saw spring upon the parapet, fire, and 
jump away. One brave fellow, with his broken arm lying 
across his breast, was piling cartridges upon it for Lieu- 
tenant Emerson, who, like other officers, was using a 
musket he had picked up. Another soldier, tired of the 
enforced combat, climbed the slope to his fate; for in a 
moment his dead body rolled down again. A particularly 
severe fire came from the southwest bastion. There a 
Confederate was observed, who, stripped to the waist, 
with daring exposure for some time dealt out fatal shots ; 
but at last three eager marksmen fired together, and 
he fell back into the fort, to appear no more. Capt. 
J. W- M. Appleton distinguished himself before the 
curtain. He crawled into an embrasure, and with his 
pistol prevented the artillery-men from serving the gun. 
Private George Wilson of Company A had been shot 
through both shoulders, but refused to go back until he 
had his captain's permission. While occupied with this 
faithful soldier, who came to him as he lay in the em- 
brasure, Captain Appleton's attention was distracted, and 
the gun was fired. 

In the fighting upon the slopes of Wagner, Captains 
Russel and Simpkins were killed or mortally wounded. 
Captain Pope there received a severe wound in the 
shoulder. 

All these events had taken place in a short period of 



84 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

time. The charge of the Fifty-fourth had been made and 
repulsed before the arrival of any other troops. Those 
who had clung to the bloody slopes or were lying in the 
ditch, hearing fighting going on at their right, realized at 
last that the expected succor would not reach them where 
they were. To retire through the enveloping fire was as 
dangerous and deadly as to advance. Some that night 
preferred capture to the attempt at escaping; but the 
larger portion managed to fall back, singly or in squads, 
beyond the musketry fire of the garrison. 

Captain Emilio, the junior of that rank, succeeded to 
the command of the Fifty-fom-th on the field by casualties. 
After retiring from Wagner to a point where men were 
encountered singly or in small squads, he determined to 
rally as many as possible. With the assistance of Lieu- 
tenants Grace and Dexter, a large portion of the Fifty- 
fourth survivors were collected and formed in line, 
together with a considerable number of white soldiers of 
various regiments. While thus engaged, the national flag 
of the Fifty-fourth was brought to Captain Emilio; but as 
it was useless as a rallying-point in the darkness, it was 
sent to the rear for safety. Sergeant Carney had bravely 
brought this flag from Wagner's parapet, at the cost 
of two grievous wounds. The State color was torn from 
the staff, the silk was found by the enemy in the moat, 
while the staff remained with us. 

Finding a line of rifle trench unoccupied and no indi- 
cation that dispositions were being made for holding 
it, believing that the enemy would attempt a sortie, 
which was indeed contemplated but not attempted, Captain 
Emilio there stationed his men, disposed to defend the 
line. Other men were collected as they appeared. Lieu- 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 85 

tenant Tucker, slightly wounded, who was among the 
last to leave the sand hills near the fort, joined this 
force. 

Desultory firing was still going on, and after a time, 
being informed that some troops were in the open 
ground, the force, numbering some two hundred, was 
formed by its commander, and advanced from the rifle 
trench. It is believed this was the only organized body 
of rallied men ready and able to support Stevenson's 
brigade, which alone was prepared after the repulse of the 
others to resist attack. Presently the Twenty-fourth Mas- 
sachusetts was encountered; but upon reporting, it was 
found that support was not required. Marching back 
to the still deserted trench, that line was again occupied. 
By midnight firing entirely ceased. About 1 a. m., on 
the 19th, a mounted officer rode up, inquired what force 
held the trench, and asked for the commanding officer. 
Captain Emilio responded, and recognized General Steven- 
son, who thanked him for the support given the reserve 
brigade, and his dispositions for holding the line. He 
was also informed that a regiment would be sent to relieve 
his men, and shortly after, the Tenth Connecticut arrived 
for that purpose. When this was done, the white soldiers 
were formed into detachments by regiments, and sent to 
find their colors. 

The Fifty-fourth men were then marched to the rear, 
and after proceeding a short distance down the beach, en- 
countered Lieutenants Jewett, Emerson, and Appleton, 
with some of the men. There the Fifty-fourth bivouacked 
for the night, under the shelter of the sand-bluffs. 

Although the storming column and supports did not 
move forward with a close formation and promptness in 



86 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

support of the Fifty-fourth, which might have won Wagner 
that night, their attacks when made were delivered with 
a gallantry and persistence that made their severe losses 
the more deplorable and fruitless, by reason of such faulty 
generalship. 

When Strong's brigade advanced, it met the same 
devastating fire at the defile ; but a considerable number of 
the survivors, mainly of the Sixth Connecticut and Forty- 
eighth New York, pushed on to the southeast bastion, 
feebly defended by the Thirty-first North Carolina, and 
entered, securing a portion of the salient. Farther they 
could not penetrate against superior numbers. General 
Strong accompanied his column, and, as always, exhib- 
ited the utmost bravery. 

General Seymour, learning the failure of Strong's bri- 
gade to carry the work, ordered Colonel Putnam to ad- 
vance his regiments. That officer gallantly led forward 
his brigade, meeting the same severe fire as he neared the 
fort. With survivors of the Seventh New Hampshire, he 
entered the disputed salient, followed by portions of the 
Sixty-second and Sixty-seventh Ohio. His One Hundredth 
New York advanced to a point near the work, in the con- 
fusion and darkness poured a volley into our own men 
in the salient, and then retired. It must be understood, 
however, that all these regiments suffered severe losses; 
but losses that night do not necessarily indicate effective 
regimental action. The greatest number of men in the 
salient at any time hardly equalled a regiment, and were 
of different organizations. They were fighting in a place 
unknown to them, holding their ground and repelling 
attacks, but were incapable of aggressive action. Fight- 
ing over traverses and sand-bags, hemmed in by a fire 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 87 

poured across their rear, as well as from the front and 
flanks, the struggle went on pitilessly for nearly two 
hours. Vainly were precious lives freely offered up, in 
heroic attempts to encourage a charge on the flanking 
guns. The enveloping darkness covered all; and the 
valiant, seeing how impotent were their efforts, felt like 
crying with Ajax, " Give us but light, Jove ! and in the 
light, if thou seest fit, destroy us ! " 

Every field-officer in the bastion was at last struck down 
except Major Lewis Butler, Sixty-seventh Ohio. Colonel 
Putnam had been shot through the head. When all hope 
of expected support was gone, Major Butler sent out the 
regimental colors, and gave orders to leave the bastion. 
There were, according to his account, about one hundred 
men each of the Sixty-second and Sixty-seventh Ohio, 
about fifty of the Forty-eighth New York, and some small 
detachments of other regiments, some with and some 
without officers. When this force had departed, and the 
enemy had been re-enforced by the arrival of the Thirty- 
second Georgia, the wounded, those who feared to en- 
counter the enclosing fire, and those who failed to hear or 
obey the order for abandonment, were soon surrounded 
and captured. General Stevenson's brigade had advanced 
toward the fort, but it was too late, and the men were 
withdrawn. 

Upon the beach in front of the siege line, drunken 
soldiers of the regular artillery, with swords and pistol- 
shots, barred the passage of all to the rear. They would 
listen to no protestations that the regiments were driven 
back or broken up, and even brutally ordered wounded 
men to the front. After a time, their muddled senses 
came to them on seeing the host of arrivals, while the 



88 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

vigorous actions of a few determined officers who were 
prepared to enforce a free passage, made further opposi- 
tion perilous. 

Thus ended the great assault on Fort Wagner. It was 
the second and last attempted. The Confederate loss was 
181 killed and wounded, including Lieut. -Col. J. C. 
Simkins, Captains W H. Eyan, W T. Tatom, and P. II. 
Waring, and Lieut. G. W Thompson, killed. Our loss 
was 1,515, including 111 officers, and embracing General 
Seymour wounded, General Strong mortally wounded, and 
Colonel Putnam (acting brigadier) killed. Of the ten 
regimental commanders, Colonel Shaw Avas killed, Col. 
J. L. Chatfield, Sixth Connecticut, mortally wounded, 
and five others wounded. Such severe casualties stamp 
the sanguinary character of the fighting, and mark the 
assault as one of the fiercest struggles of the war, con- 
sidering the numbers engaged. This is further evidenced 
by the fact that the losses exceeded those sustained by our 
forces in many much better-known actions during the Re- 
bellion, — notably Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge, Cedar Moun- 
tain, Chantilly, Prairie Grove, Pleasant Hills, Sailor's 
Creek, Jonesborough, Bentonville, and High Bridge, in 
most of which a much larger Federal force was engaged. 

The following is the official report of the part borne by 
the Fifty-fourth in the assault : — 

Headquarters Fifty-Fourth Mass. Vols., 
Morris Island, S. C, Nov. 7, 1863. 

Brig.-Gen. T. Seymour, Commanding U. S. Forces, Morris Island, S. C. 

General, — In answer to your request that 1 furnish you 
with a report of the part taken by the Fifty-fourth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers in the late assault upon Fort Wagner, I have 
to state : — 



THE GREATEE ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 89 

During the afternoon of the 18th of July last, the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts Volunteers, Col. R. G. Shaw commanding, 
landed upon Morris Island and reported at about six o'clock 
p. m. to Brig.-Gen. G. C. Strong. Colonel Shaw's command 
present consisted of a lieutenant-colonel of the field, a sur- 
geon, adjutant, and quartermaster of the staff, eight captains 
and eleven subaltern officers of the line and six hundred en- 
listed men. General Strong presented himself to the regi- 
ment, and informed the men of the contemplated assault 
upon Fort Wagner, and asked if they would lead it. They 
answered in the affirmative. The regiment was then formed 
in column by wing, at a point upon the beach a short dis- 
tance in the advance of the Beacon house. Col. R. G. Shaw 
commanded the, right wing, and Lieut.-Col. E. N. Hallowell 
the left. 

In this formation, as the dusk of evening came on, the regi- 
ment advanced at quick time, leading the column. The enemy 
opened on us a brisk fire, our pace now gradually increasing 
till it became a run. Soon canister and musketry began to tell 
on us. With Colonel Shaw leading, the assault was commenced. 
Exposed to the direct fire of canister and musketry, and, as the 
ramparts were mounted, to a like fire on our flanks, the havoc 
made in our ranks was very great. 

Upon leaving the ditch for the parapet, they obstinately con- 
tested with the bayonet our advance. Notwithstanding these 
difficulties, the men succeeded in driving the enemy from most 
of their guns, many following the enemy into the fort. It was 
here upon the crest of the parapet that Colonel Shaw fell ; here 
fell Captains Russel and Simpkins ; here were also most of the 
officers wounded. The colors of the regiment reached the crest, 
and were there fought for by the enemy ; the State flag there 
torn from its staff, but the staff remains with us. Hand gre- 
nades were now added to the missiles directed against the 
men. 

The fight raged here for about an hour, when, compelled to 



90 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY* 

abandon the fort, the men formed a line about seven hundred 
yards from the fort, under the command of Capt. Luis F Emilio, 
— the ninth captain in the line ; the other captains were either 
killed or wounded. The regiment then held the front until 
relieved by the Tenth Connecticut at about two o'clock a„ m. 
of the 19th. 

The assault was made upon the south face of the fort. So 
many of the officers behaved with marked coolness and bravery, 
I cannot mention any above the others. It is due, however, to 
the following-named enlisted men that they be recorded above 
their fellows for especial merit : — 



Sergt. Robt. J Simmons Co. B. 

'• William H. Carney " C. 

Corp. Henry F. Peal " " F. 

Pvt. Geo. Wilson . . "A. 

The following is the list of casualties : — 

Officers. 

Col. R. G. Shaw killed 

Lieut. -Col. E. N. Hallowell wounded 

Adjt. G- W James " 

Capt. S. Willard . " 

C. J. Russel missing, supposed to be killed 

W H. Simpkins " " " " " 

Geo. Pope wounded 

E. L. Jones . " 

J. W M. Appleton . " 

O. E. Smith " 

1st Lieut. R. H. L. Jewett . " 

" Wm. H. Homans " 

2d Lieut. C. E. Tucker " 

" J. A. Pratt o . . . . " 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 91 





Enlisted Men. 




Killed 




9 


Wounded 




147 


Missing 




100 


Total 




256 



I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

E. N. Hallo well, 

Colonel Commanding Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Lieutenant Howard, in falling back from the fort, with 
a few men he had gathered, retired directly down the 
beach, not encountering the larger part of the regiment. 
Lieut. T. L. Appleton retired first but a short distance, 
where, in the sand-hills, he found General Strong with 
some detachments which he was urging to advance. 
Lieutenant Appleton moved forward again a short dis- 
tance, but finding there was no concerted advance, went 
rearward. Sergeant S wails of Company F was with Cap- 
tains Simpkins and Russel under the left bastion. They 
climbed the parapet, and were at once fired upon. Cap- 
tain Russel fell wounded, and Simpkins asked him if 
he would be carried off. When he declined, and asked 
to lie straightened out, Simpkins directed Swails to help 
him do this, and while kneeling over his friend's head, 
facing the enemy, was himself hit. Putting his hand to 
his breast, he fell across Russel, and never spoke or moved 
again. Swails, who relates this, says he was soon 
asked by Russel to change his position, that he (Swails) 
might not draw the Rebel fire on the wounded, and did 
so. Frank Myers, of Company K, whose arm was shat- 
tered, states that he stood under the uplifted arm of 



92 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Colonel Shaw, while that officer was on the parapet, wav- 
ing his sword, and crying, "Forward, Fifty-fourth!" He 
saw the colonel suddenly fall, and was struck himself a 
moment after. Thomas Burgess, of Company I, makes a 
similar statement. 

Capt. J. W M. Appleton, at the curtain, hearing firing 
at last on the right, climbed with Captain Jones and 
Lieutenant Emerson into the southeast bastion, and joined 
in the desperate fighting there. Captain Appleton was 
finally badly wounded, and made his way out with great 
difficulty, to report the situation in the bastion. Cap- 
tain Jones was also severely wounded. He fell into the 
moat, where he remained until assisted rearward by 
George Remsley of Company C. Lieutenant Emerson in 
the bastion used the musket he had picked up before the 
curtain. To protect the wounded lying near he pulled out 
sand-bags. When a volunteer was wanted to report their 
situation to some general officer, he offered himself, say- 
ing, "I will go, but if I am killed, just tell them I did 
not run away!" As he was still able to fight, Captain 
Appleton, who was disabled, went instead. Lieutenant 
Homans was wounded near the fort, and thought himself 
mortally hurt, as he was spitting blood, but staggered 
along until he was met by Lieutenant Dexter, who as- 
sisted him to the rear. 

Sergt. George E. Stephens of Company B, in a letter 
to the writer, says, — 

" I remember distinctly that when our column had charged 
the fort, passed the half-filled moat, and mounted to the parapet, 
many of our men clambered over, and some entered by the 
large embrasure in which one of the big guns was mounted, the 
firing substantially ceased there by the beach, and the Rebel 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 93 

musketry fire steadily grew hotter on our left. An officer of 
our regiment called out, ' Spike that gun ! ' Just at the 

very hottest moment of the struggle, a battalion or regiment 
charged up to the moat, halted, and did not attempt to cross it 
and join us, but from their position commenced to fire upon us. 
I was one of the men who shouted from where I stood, ' Don't 
fire on us ! We are the Fifty-fourth.' I have heard it was a 
Maine regiment. Many of our men will join me in saying 

that in the early stages of the fight we had possession of the 
sea end of Battery Wagner. When we reached the Gatling 

battery drawn up to repel a counter-attack, I remember you 
were the only commissioned officer present, and you placed us 
indiscriminately, — that is, without any regard to companies in 
line, — and proposed to renew the charge. The commanding 
officer, whom I do not know, ordered us to the flanking rifle-pits, 
and we then awaited the expected counter-charge the enemy 
did not make." 

Lieutenant Smith, severely wounded, remained on the 
field until the next day, when he was brought in. Lieu- 
tenant Pratt, wounded in two places, concealed himself in 
the marsh. There he remained many hours, until at last, 
braving the fire of Rebel pickets, he escaped into our 
lines. First Sergeant Simmons of Company B was the 
finest-looking soldier in the Fifty-fourth, — a brave man 
and of good education. He was wounded and captured. 
Taken to Charleston, his bearing impressed even his cap- 
tors. After suffering amputation of the arm, he died 
there. 

Contemporaneous testimony is complete as to the gal- 
lant part taken by the Fifty-fourth in the assault. Samuel 
W Mason, correspondent of the New York "Herald," on 
Morris Island, wrote under date of July 19, 1863, of the 
regiment : — 



94 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS IXFAXTRY. 

" I saw them fight at "Wagner as none but splendid soldiers, 
splendidly officered, could fight, dashing through shot and shell, 
grape, canister, and shrapnel, and showers of bullets, and 
when they got close enough, fighting with clubbed muskets, and 
retreating when they did retreat, by command and with choice 
white troops for company." 

Edward L. Pierce, the correspondent of the New York 
"Tribune," in a letter to Governor Andrew, dated July 
22, 1863, wrote, — 

" I asked General Strong if he had any testimony in relation 
to the regiment to be communicated to you. These are his pre- 
cise words, and I give them to you as I noted them at the time : 
4 The Fifty-fourth did well and nobly ; only the fall of Colonel 
Shaw prevented them from entering the fort. They moved up 
as gallantly as any troops could, and with their enthusiasm 
they deserved a better fate.' " 

To the correspondent of the New York " Evening Post " 
General Strong said that the Fifty-fourth " had no sleep 
for three nights, no food since morning, and had marched 
several miles. . Under cover of darkness they had 
stormed the fort, faced a stream of fire, faltered not till 
the ranks were broken by shot and shell ; and in all these 
severe tests, which would have tried even veteran troops, 
they fully met my expectations, for many were killed, 
wounded, or captured on the walls of the fort." 

The Confederate commander of Wagner has written, — 

" One of the assaulting regiments was composed of negroes 
(the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts), and to it was assigned the 
honor of leading the white columns to the charge. It was a 
dearly purchased compliment. Their colonel (Shaw) was 
killed upon the parapet, and the regiment almost annihilated, 
although the Confederates in the darkness could not tell the 
color of their assailants." 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 95 

Official reports show, and the same Confederate officer 
has stated as his impression, that " the greater part of our 
loss was sustained at the beginning of the assault, and in 
front of the curtain, although we suffered some addi- 
tional loss from the troops who gained the bastion," 
which loss must necessarily have been inflicted by the 
Fifty-fourth, as it was the leading regiment, and attacked 
the curtain. 

Further Confederate testimony is furnished in a letter 
of Lieut. Iredell Jones, who writes, — 

" I visited the battery [Fort Wagner] yesterday. The dead 
and wounded were piled up in a ditch together sometimes fifty 
in a heap, and they were strewn all over the plain for a dis- 
tance of three fourths of a mile. They had two [only one, 
the Fifty- fourth ?] negro regiments, and they were slaughtered 
in every direction. One pile of negroes numbered thirty. 
Numbers of both white and black were killed on top of our 
breastworks as well as inside. The negroes fought gallantly, 
and were headed by as braA^e a colonel as ever lived. He 
mounted the breastworks waving his sword, and at the head 
of his regiment, and he and a negro orderly sergeant fell 
dead over the inner crest of the works. The negroes were as 
fine-looking a set as I ever saw, — large, strong, muscular 
fellows." 

Of those reported missing belonging to the Fifty-fourth, 
some sixty were captured, about twenty of whom were 
wounded. The remainder were killed. Their capture 
occasioned one of a number of new and important ques- 
tions raised for governmental consideration, which it was 
the fortune of the regiment to present and have decided 
for the benefit of all other colored soldiers. Before the 
actions of July 16 and 18, no considerable number of 



96 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

black soldiers had been captured. Under the acts of the 
Confederate Congress they were outlaws, to be delivered 
to the State authorities when captured, for trial ; and the 
penalty of servile insurrection was death. 

The fate of Captains Russel and Simpkins was also 
unknown. It was thought possible that they too were 
captured. Governor Andrew and the friends of the regi- 
ment therefore exerted themselves to have the Govern- 
ment throw out its protecting hand over its colored 
soldiers and their officers in the enemy's hands. 

Two sections were at once added to General Orders 
No. 100 of the War Department, relating to such prisoners, 
a copy of which was transmitted to the Confederate com- 
missioner, Robert Ould. The first set forth that once a 
soldier no man was responsible individually for warlike 
acts ; the second, that the law of nations recognized no 
distinctions of color, and that if the enemy enslaved or 
sold the captured soldier, as the United States could not 
enslave, death would be the penalty in retaliation. The 
President also met the case in point involving the Fifty- 
fourth prisoners, by issuing the following proclamation: 

Executive Mansion, Washington, July 30, 1863. 
It is the duty of every government to give protection to its 
citizens of whatever class, color, or condition, and especially 
to those who are duly organized as soldiers in the public ser- 
vice. The law of nations and the usages and customs of war, 
as carried on by civilized powers, permit no distinction as to 
color in the treatment of prisoners of war as public enemies. 
To sell or enslave any captured person on account of his color, 
and for no offence against the laws of war, is a relapse into 
barbarism and a crime against the civilization of the age. The 
Government of the United States will give the same protection 







Died in Service. 
Lieut. Frederick H. Webster. Capt. William H. Si.mpkixs. 

Capt. Cabot J. Russel. 



Lieut. Edward L. Stevens. 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 97 

to all its soldiers ; and if the enemy shall sell or enslave any 
one because of his color, the offence shall be punished by re- 
taliation upon the enemy's prisoners in our hands. 

It is therefore ordered that for every soldier of the United 
States killed in violation of the laws of war, a Rebel soldier 
shall be executed, and for every one enslaved by the enemy 
or sold into slavery, a Rebel soldier shall be placed at hard 
labor on the public works, and continue at such labor until the 
other shall be released and receive the treatment due a prisoner 

of war. 

Abraham Lincoln. 
By order of the Secretary of War, 
E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Such prompt and vigorous enunciations had a salutary 
effect; and the enemy did not proceed to extremities. 
But the Fifty-fourth men were demanded by Governor 
Bonham, of South Carolina, from the military authorities. 
A test case was made ; and Sergt. Walter A. Jeffries of 
Company H, and Corp. Charles Hardy of Company B, 
were actually tried for their lives. They were successfully 
defended by the ablest efforts of one of the most brilliant 
of Southern advocates, the Union-loving and noble Nel- 
son Mitchell, of Charleston, who, with a courage rarely 
equalled, fearlessly assumed the self-imposed task. Thence- 
forth never noticed, this devoted man died a few months 
after in Charleston, neglected and in want, because of 
this and other loyal acts. For months no list could be 
obtained of the Fifty-fourth prisoners, the enemy abso- 
lutely refusing information. After long imprisonment in 
Charleston jail, they were taken to Florence stockade, and 
were finally released in the spring of 1865. The best 
attainable information shows that the survivors then num- 
bered some twenty-seven, some of whom rejoined the regi- 

7 



98 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

merit, while others were discharged from parole camps or 
hospitals. 

Colonel Shaw's fate was soon ascertained from those 
who saw him fall, and in a day or two it was learned 
from the enemy that his body had been found, identified, 
and, on July 19, buried with a number of his colored sol- 
diers. The most circumstantial account relating thereto 
is contained in a letter to the writer from Capt. H. W 
Hendricks, a Confederate officer who was present at the 
time, dated from Charleston, S. C, June 29, 1882; and 
the following extracts are made therefrom : — ■ 

" . Colonel Shaw fell on the left of our flagstaff about 

ten yards towards the river, near the bombproof immediately 
on our works, with a number of his officers and men. He was 
instantly killed, and fell outside of our works. The morning 
following the battle his body was carried through our lines ; 
and I noLced that he was stripped of all his clothing save 
under-vest and drawers. This desecration of the dead we en- 
deavored to provide against ; but at that time — the incipiency 
of the Rebellion — our men were so frenzied that it was next to 
impossible to guard against it ; this desecration, however, was 
almost exclusively participated in by the more desperate and 
lower class of our troops. Colonel Shaw's body was brought 
in from the sally-port on the Confederate right, and conveyed 
across the parade-ground into the bombproof by four of our 
men of the burial party. Soon after, his body was carried out 
via the sally-port on the left river-front, and conveyed across 
the front of our works, and there buried. His watch and 

chain were robbed from his body by a private in my company, 
by name Charles Blake. I think he had other personal prop- 
erty of Colonel Shaw. . Blake, with other members of my 
company, jumped our works at night after hostilities had ceased, 
and robbed the dead. Colonel Shaw was the only officer 
buried with the colored troops. " 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 99 

Such disposal of the remains of an officer of Colonel 
Shaw's rank, when his friends were almost within call, 
was so unusual and cruel that there seemed good ground 
for the belief that the disposition made was so specially 
directed, as a premeditated indignity for having dared to 
lead colored troops. When known throughout the North, 
it excited general indignation, and fostered bitterness. 
Though recognizing the fitness of his resting-place, where 
in death he was not separated from the men he was in 
life not ashamed to lead, the act was universally con- 
demned. It was even specifically stated in a letter 
which appeared in the "Army and Navy Journal," of 
New York City, written by Asst. -Surg. John T. Luck, 
U. S. N., who was captured while engaged in assisting 
our wounded during the morning of July 19, that Gen. 
Johnson Hagood, who had succeeded General Taliaferro 
in command of Battery Wagner that morning, was re- 
sponsible for the deed. The following is extracted from 
that letter : — 

" While being conducted into the fort, I saw Colonel 

Shaw of the Fifty-four Massachusetts (colored) Regiment lying 
dead upon the ground just outside the parapet. A stalwart 
negro man had fallen near him. The Rebels said the negro was 
a color sergeant. The colonel had been killed by a rifle-shot 
through the chest, though he had received other wounds. 
Brigadier-General Hagood, commanding the Rebel forces, said 
to me : ' I knew Colonel Shaw before the war, and then esteemed 
him. Had he been in command of white troops, I should have 
given him an honorable burial ; as it is, I shall bury him in the 
common trench with the negroes that fell with him." The 
burial party were then at work ; and no doubt Colonel Shaw 
was buried just beyond the ditch of the fort in the trench where 



100 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

I saw our dead indiscriminately thrown. Two days afterwards 
a Rebel surgeon (Dr. Dawson, of Charleston, S. C, I think) 
told me that Hagood had carried out his threat." 

Assistant-Surgeon Luck's statement is, however, con- 
tradicted by General Hagood ; for having requested infor- 
mation upon the matter, the writer, in December, 1885, 
received from Gen. Samuel Jones, of Washington, a copy 
of a letter written by Gen. Johnson Hagood to Col. 
T. W Higginson, of Cambridge, Mass., dated Sept. 21, 
1881. General Hagood quotes from Colonel Higginson's 
letter of inquiry relative to Colonel Shaw's burial, the 
conversation which Assistant-Surgeon Luck alleges to 
have had with him at Battery Wagner about the disposi- 
tion of Colonel Shaw's body, as set forth in the extract 
given from Assistant-Surgeon Luck's letter, and then 
gives his (General Hagood 's) account of the meeting with 
Assistant-Surgeon Luck as follows, the italics being those 
of the general : — 

" On the day after the night assault and while the burial 
parties of both sides were at work on the field, a chain of senti- 
nels dividing them, a person was brought to me where I was 
engaged within the battery in repairing damages done to the 
work. The guard said he had been found wandering within 
our lines, engaged apparently in nothing except making obser- 
vations. The man claimed to be a naval surgeon belonging to 
gunboat ' Pawnee ; ' and after asking him some questions about 
the damages sustained by that vessel a few days before in the 
Stono River from an encounter with a field battery on its banks, 
I informed him that he would be sent up to Charleston for such 
disposition as General Beauregard deemed proper. I do not 
recall the name of this person, and have not heard of him since, 
but he must be the Dr. Leech [Luck?] of whom you speak. I 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 101 

have no recollection of other conversation with him than that given 
above. He has, however, certainly reported me incorrectly in 
one particular, i" never saw or heard of Colonel Shaw until his 
body was pointed out to me that morning, and his name and rank 
mentioned. . I simply give my recollection in reply to his 

statement. As he has confounded what he probably heard from 
others within the battery of their previous knowledge of Colonel 
Shaw, he may at the distance of time at which he spoke have 
had his recollection of his interview with me confounded in 
other respects. 

' ' You further ask if a request from General Terry for Colonel 
Shaw's body was refused the day after the battle. I answer 
distinctly, No. At the written request of General Gillmore, 1, 
as commander of the battery, met General Vogdes (not Terry), 
on a flag of truce on the 22d. Upon this flag an exchange 
of wounded prisoners was arranged, and Colonel Putnam's 
body was asked for and delivered. Colonel Shaw's body was 
not asked for then or at any other time to my knowledge. 
No special order was ever issued by me, verbally or otherwise, 
in regard to the burial of Colonel Shaw or any other officer or 
man at Wagner. The only order was a verbal one to bury 
all the dead in trenches as speedily as possible, on account of 
the heat ; and as far as I knew then, or have reason to believe 
now, each officer was buried where he fell, with the men who 
surrounded him. It thus occurred that Colonel Shaw, com- 
manding negroes, was buried with negroes." 

These extracts from the letters of Assistant-Surgeon 
Luck and General Hagood are submitted to the reader 
with the single suggestion that what is said about Colonel 
Shaw's body being brought into Fort Wagner, contained 
in Captain Hendricks's letter, should be borne in mind 
while reading the latter portion of the extracts from 
General Hagood's letter. 

But how far General Hagood may be held responsible 



102 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTKY. 

for the lack of generous and Christian offices to the re- 
mains of Colonel Shaw, his family and comrades, is 
another matter. And the writer submits that these faults 
of omission are grave ; that the acknowledged bravery of 
Colonel Shaw in life, and his appearance even in death, 
when, as General Hagood acknowledges, "his body was 
pointed out to me that morning," should have secured 
him a fitting sepulture, or the tender of his body to his 
friends. This burial of Colonel Shaw, premeditated and 
exceptional, was without question intended as an igno- 
miny. It served to crown the sacrifices of that young life, 
so short and eventful, and to place his name high on the 
roll of martyrs and leaders of the Civil War. 

Colonel Shaw's sword was found during the war in a 
house in Virginia, and restored to his family. His silk 
sash was purchased in Battery Wagner from a private 
soldier, by A. W Muckenfuss, a Confederate officer, who, 
many years after, generously sent it North to Mr. S. D. 
Gilbert, of Boston, for restoration to the Shaw family. 
Only these two articles have been recovered, so far as 
known. 

No effort was made to find Colonel Shaw's grave when 
our forces occupied the ground. This was in compliance 
with the request contained in the following letter : — 

New York, Aug. 24, 1863. 
Brigadier-General Gillmore, Commanding Department of the South. 

Sir, — I take the liberty to address you because I am in- 
formed that efforts are to be made to recover the body of my 
son, Colonel Shaw of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, 
which was buried at Fort Wagner. My object in writing is to 
say that such efforts are not authorized by me or any of my 
family, and that they are not approved by us. We hold that a 



THE GREATER ASSAULT ON WAGNER. 103 

soldier's most appropriate burial-place is on the field where he 
has fallen. I shall therefore be much obliged, General, if in 
case the matter is brought to your cognizance, you will forbid 
the desecration of my son's grave, and prevent the disturbance 
of his remains or those buried with him. With most earnest 
wishes for your success, I am, sir, with respect and esteem, 
Your obedient servant, 

Francis George Shaw. 

Captains Russel and Simpkins were doubtless interred 
with other white soldiers, after their bodies had been 
robbed of all evidences of their rank during the hours 
of darkness. 

After all firing had ceased, about midnight, Brig. -Gen. 
Thomas G. Stevenson, commanding the front lines, ordered 
two companies of the Ninety- seventh Pennsylvania, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Duer, to advance from the abatis as 
skirmishers toward Wagner, followed by four companies 
of the Ninety-seventh, without arms, under Captain Price, 
to rescue the wounded. General Stevenson saw to this 
service personally, and gave special instructions to rescue 
as many as possible of the Fifty-fourth, saying, "You 
know how much harder they will fare at the hands of the 
enemy than white men. " The rescuing party, with great 
gallantry and enterprise, pushed the search clear up to the 
slopes of Wagner, crawling along the ground, and listen- 
ing for the moans that indicated the subjects of their 
mission. When found, the wounded were quietly dragged 
to points where they could be taken back on stretchers in 
safety. This work was continued until daylight, and 
many men gathered in by the Ninety-seventh; among 
them was Lieutenant Smith of the Fifty-fourth. It was a 
noble work fearlessly done. 



104 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Throughout the assault and succeeding night, Quarter- 
master Ritchie was active and efficient in rendering help 
to the wounded of the regiment and endeavoring to ascer- 
tain the fate of Colonel Shaw and other officers. Surgeon 
Stone skilfully aided all requiring his services, sending 
the severely wounded men and officers from temporary 
hospitals to the steamer "Alice Price." 



CHAPTER VI. 

SIEGE OP WAGNER. 

EARLY on the morning of July 19, the men of the 
Fifty-fourth were aroused, and the regiment marched 
down the beach, making camp near the southern front of 
the island at a point where the higher hills give way to a 
low stretch of sand bordering the inlet. On this spot the 
regiment remained during its first term of service, at Morris 
Island. 

That day was the saddest in the history of the Fifty- 
fourth, for the depleted ranks bore silent witness to the 
severe losses of the previous day. Men who had wandered 
to other points during the night continued to join their 
comrades until some four hundred men were present. A 
number were without arms, which had either been de- 
stroyed or damaged in their hands by shot and shell, or 
were thrown away in the effort to save life. The officers 
present for duty were Captain Emilio, commanding, Sur- 
geon Stone, Quartermaster Ritchie, and Lieutenants T. W 
Appleton, Grace, Dexter, Jewett, Emerson, Reid, Tucker, 
Johnston, Howard, and Higginson. 

Some fifty men, slightly wounded, were being treated in 
camp. The severely wounded, including seven officers, 
were taken on the 19th to hospitals at Beaufort, where 
every care was given them by the medical men, General 
Saxton, his officers, civilians, and the colored people. 



106 FIFTV-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

By order of General Terry, commanding Morris Island, 
the regiment on the 19th was attached to the Third Bri- 
gade with the Tenth Connecticut, Twenty-fourth Massachu- 
setts, Seventh New Hampshire, One Hundredth New York, 
and Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania, under General Stevenson. 
Upon the 20th the labors of the siege work began, for in 
the morning the first detail was furnished. Late in the 
afternoon the commanding officer received orders to take 
the Fifty-fourth to the front for grand-guard duty. He re- 
ported with all the men in camp — some three hundred — 
and was placed at the Beacon house, supporting the Third 
New Hampshire and Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania. There 
was no firing of consequence that night. In the morning 
the Fifty-fourth was moved forward into the trenches. 

Capt. D. A. Partridge, left sick in Massachusetts, joined 
July 21, and, as senior officer, assumed command. 

Preparations were made for a bombardment of Sumter 
as well as for the siege of Wagner. "Work began on the 
artillery line of July 18, that night, for the first parallel, 
1,350 yards from Wagner. When completed, it mounted 
eight siege and field guns, ten mortars, and three Requa rifle 
batteries. July 23, the second parallel was established 
some four hundred yards in front of the first. Vincent's 
Creek on its left was obstructed with floating booms. On 
its right was the " Surf Battery," armed with field-pieces. 
This parallel was made strong for defence for the purpose 
of constructing in its rear the " Left Batteries " against 
Sumter. It mounted twenty-one light pieces for defence 
and three thirty-pounder Parrotts and one Wiard rifle. 
The two parallels were connected by zigzag approaches to 
protect passing troops. In the construction of these works 
and the transportation of siege material, ordnance, and 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 107 

quartermaster's stores, the Fifty-fourth was engaged, in 
common with all the troops on the island, furnishing large 
details. vSo many men were called for that but a small 
camp guard could be maintained, and at times non-commis- 
sioned officers volunteered to stand on post. 

Col. M. S. Littlefield, Fourth South Carolina Colored, on 
July 24, was temporarily assigned to command the Fifty- 
fourth. The colonel's own regiment numbered but a few 
score of men, and this appointment seemed as if given to 
secure him command commensurate with the rank he held. 
It gave rise to much criticism in Massachusetts as well as 
in the regiment, for it was made contrary to custom and 
without the knowledge of Governor Andrew. Though 
silently dissatisfied, the officers rendered him cheerful 
service. 

Anticipating a bombardment of Sumter, the enemy were 
busy strengthening the gorge or south wall with both cot- 
ton-bales and sand-bags. A partial disarmament of the 
fort was being effected. Wagner was kept in repair by 
constant labor at night. To strengthen their circle of 
batteries the enemy were busy upon new works on James 
Island. About 10 A. M., on the 24th, the Confederate 
steamer "Alice" ran down and was met by the "Cos- 
mopolitan," when thirty-eight Confederates were given 
up, and we received one hundred and five wounded, in- 
cluding three officers. There was complaint by our men 
that the Confederates had neglected their wounds, of the 
unskilful surgical treatment received, and that unneces- 
sary amputations were suffered. From Col. Edward C. 
Anderson it was ascertained that the Fifty-fourth's pris- 
oners would not be given up, and Colonel Shaw's death 
was confirmed. 



108 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

Battery Simkins on James Island opened against our 
trenches for the first time on the 25th. For the first time 
also sharpshooters of the enemy fired on our working par- 
ties with long-range rifles. Orders came on the 26th that, 
owing to the few officers and lack of arms, the Fifty-fourth 
should only furnish fatigue details. 

Quartermaster Ritchie, who was sent to Hilton Head, re- 
turned on the 29th with the officers, men, and camp equi- 
page from St. Helena, and tents were put up the succeeding 
day. Some six hundred men were then present with the 
colors, including the sick. The number of sick in camp 
was very large, owing to the severe work and terrible 
heat. About nineteen hundred were reported on August 1 
in the whole command. The sight of so many pale, en- 
feebled men about the hospitals and company streets was 
dispiriting. As an offset, some of those who had recovered 
from wounds returned, and Brig.-Gen. Edward A. Wild's 
brigade of the First North Carolina and Fifty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts, both colored, arrived and camped on Folly Island. 

Mr. De Mortie, the regimental sutler, about this time 
brought a supply of goods. After August 2 the details 
were somewhat smaller, as the colored brigade on Folly 
Island began to send over working parties. But calls wen.' 
filled from the regiment daily for work about the landing 
and the front. Two men from each company reported as 
sharpshooters in conjunction with those from other 
regiments. 

The famous battery known as the " Swamp Angel " was 
begun August 4, and built under direction of Col. E. W. 
Serrell, First New York Engineers, and was situated in 
the marsh between Morris and James islands. It was 
constructed upon a foundation of timber, with sand-bags 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 109 

filled upon Morris Island and taken out in boats. A two- 
hundred-pounder Parrott gun was lightered out to the work 
at night with great difficulty. Its fire reached Charleston, a 
distance of 8,800 yards. This gun burst after the first few 
discharges. Later, two mortars were mounted in the work 
in place of the gun. Capt. Lewis S. Payne, One Hundredth 
New York, the most daring scout of our forces, at night, 
August 3, while at Payne's dock, was captured with a 
few men. 

August 5 the men were informed that the Government 
was ready to pay them $ 10 per month, less $ 3 deducted for 
clothing. The offer was refused, although many had suf- 
fering families. About this time a number of men were 
detached, or detailed, as clerks, butchers, and as hands 
on the steamers " Escort " and " Planter." Work was 
begun on the third parallel within four hundred yards of 
Wagner on the night of the 9th. When completed, it 
was one hundred yards in length, as the island narrowed. 
Water was struck at a slight depth. The weather was 
excessively hot, and flies and sand-fleas tormenting. Only 
sea-bathing and cooler nights made living endurable. The 
Fifty-fourth was excused from turning out at reveille in 
consequence of excessive work, for we were daily fur- 
nishing parties reporting to Lieut. P S. Michie, United 
States Engineers, at the Left Batteries, and to Colonel 
Serrell at the " Lookout." 

Fancied security of the Fifty-fourth camp so far from 
the front was rudely dispelled at dark on August 13 by a 
shell from James Island bursting near Surgeon Stone's 
tent. These unpleasant visits were not frequent, seemingly 
being efforts of the enemy to try the extreme range of their 
guns. Reinforcements, consisting of Gen. George H. Gor- 



110 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

don's division from the Eleventh Corps, arrived on the 13th 
and landed on the 15th upon Folly Island. No rain fell 
from July 18 until August 13, which was favorable for the 
siege work, as the sand handled was dry and light. This 
dryness, however, rendered it easily displaced by the 
wind, requiring constant labor in re-covering magazines, 
bombproofs, and the slopes. The air too was full of the 
gritty particles, blinding the men and covering everything 
in camp. 

By this date twelve batteries were nearly ready for action, 
mounting in all twenty-eight heavy rifles, from thirty to 
three hundred pounders, besides twelve ten-inch mortars. 
Those for breaching Sumter were at an average distance 
of 3,900 yards. Detachments from the First United States 
Artillery, Third Rhode Island Artillery, One Hundredth 
New York, Seventh Connecticut, Eleventh Maine, and the 
fleet, served the guns. These works had been completed 
under fire from Sumter, Gregg, Wagner, and the James 
Island batteries, as well as the missiles of sharpshooters. 
Most of the work had been done at night. Day and night 
heavy guard details lay in the trenches to repel attack. 
The labor of transporting the heavy guns to the front was 
very great, as the sinking of the sling-carts deep into the 
sand made progress slow. Tons of powder, shot, and shell 
had been brought up, and stored in the service-magazines. 
It was hoped by General Gillmore that the demolition 
of Sumter would necessitate the abandonment of Morris 
Island, for that accomplished, the enemy could be prevented 
from further relief of the Morris Island garrison. Sumter 
was then commanded by Col. Alfred Rhett, First South 
Carolina Artillery ; and the garrison was of his regiment. 
In all this work preparatory to breaching Sumter the Fifty- 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. Ill 

fourth had borne more than its share of labor, for it was 
exclusively employed on fatigue duty, which was not the 
case with the white troops. There had been no time for 
drill or discipline. Every moment in camp was needed 
to rest the exhausted men and officers. The faces and 
forms of all showed plainly at what cost this labor was 
done. Clothes were in rags, shoes worn out, and haver- 
sacks full of holes. On the 16th the medical staff was 
increased by the arrival of Asst.-Surg. G. M. Pease. 
Lieut. Charles Silva, Fourth South Carolina (colored), 
was detached to the Fifty-fourth on the 21st, doing duty 
until November 6. 

Shortly after daybreak, August 17, the first bombard- 
ment of Sumter began from the land batteries, the navy 
soon joining in action. The fire of certain guns was di- 
rected against Wagner and Gregg. Capt. J. M. Wampler, 
the engineer officer at Wagner, and Capt. George W 
Rodgers and Paymaster Woodbury of the monitor " Cat- 
skill" were killed. Sumter was pierced time and again 
until the walls looked like a honeycomb. All the guns on 
the northwest face were disabled, besides seven others. A 
heavy gale came on the 18th, causing a sand-storm on the 
island and seriously interfering with gun practice. Wagner 
and Gregg replied slowly. Lieut. Henry Holbrook, Third 
Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, was mortally wounded by 
a shell. 

By premature explosion of one of our shells, Lieut. A. F 
Webb, Fortieth Massachusetts, was killed and several men 
wounded at night on the 19th. The water stood in some 
of the trenches a foot and a half deep. Our sap was 
run from the left of the third parallel that morning. The 
One Hundredth New York, Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania, and 



112 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Third New Hampshire were detailed as the guard of the 
advance trenches. An event of the 20th was the firing for 
the first time of the great three-hundred-pounder Parrott, 
It broke down three sling-carts, and required a total of 
2,500 days' labor before it was mounted. While in transit 
it was only moved at night, and covered with a tarpaulin 
and grass during the daytime. The enemy fired one hun- 
dred and sixteen shots at the Swamp Angel from James 
Island, but only one struck. Sumter's flag was shot away 
twice on the 20th. All the guns on the south face were 
disabled. Heavy fire from land and sea continued on the 
21st, and Sumter suffered terribly. 

A letter from Gillmore to Beauregard was sent on the 
21st, demanding the surrender of Morris Island and Sumter, 
under penalty, if not complied with, of the city being 
shelled. The latter replied, threatening retaliation. Our 
fourth parallel was opened that night 350 yards from 
Wagner, and the One Hundredth New York unsuccessfully 
attempted to drive the enemy's pickets from a small ridge 
two hundred yards in front of Wagner. The Swamp Angel 
opened on Charleston at 1.30 A. M. on the 22d. By one 
shell a small fire was started there. Many non-combatants 
left the city Wagner now daily gave a sharp fire on our 
advanced works to delay progress. The " New Ironsides " 
as often engaged that work with great effect. Late on the 
22d a truce boat came from Charleston, causing firing to lie 
temporarily suspended. 

Although almost daily the Fifty-fourth had more or less 
men at the front, it had suffered no casualties. The men 
were employed at this period in throwing up parapets, 
enlarging the trenches, covering the slopes, turfing the bat- 
teries, filling sand-bags, and other labors incident to the 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 113 

operations. In the daytime two men were stationed on 
higher points to watch the enemy's batteries. Whenever 
a puff of smoke was seen these " lookouts " called loudly, 
" Cover ! " adding the name by which that particular bat- 
tery was known. Instantly the workers dropped shovels 
and tools, jumped into the trench, and, close-covered, 
waited the coming of the shot or shell, which having ex- 
ploded, passed, or struck, the work was again resumed. 
Some of the newer batteries of the enemy were known by 
peculiar or characteristic names, as " Bull in the Woods,"' 
" Mud Digger," and " Peanut Battery." At night the men, 
worked better, for the shells could be seen by reason of the 
burning fuses, and their direction taken ; unless coming im 
the dh'ection of the toilers, the work went on. Becoming 
accustomed to their exposure, in a short time this " dodging 
shells " was reduced almost to a scientific calculation by 
the men. Most of all they dreaded mortar-shells, which, 
describing a curved course in the sky, poised for a moment 
apparently, then, bursting, dropped their fragments from 
directly overhead. Bomb or splinter proofs alone protected 
the men from such missiles, but most of the work was in 
open trenches. Occasionally solid shot were thrown, which 
at times could be distinctly seen bounding over the sand- 
hills, or burying themselves in the parapets. 

Our batteries and the navy were still beating down the 
walls of Sumter on the 23d, their shots sweeping through 
it. That day Colonel Rhett, the commander, and four 
other officers were there wounded. With Sumter in ruins, 
the breaching fire ceased that evening, and General Gill- 
more reported that he " considered the fort no longer a fit 
work from which to use artillery." He then deemed his 
part of the work against Charleston accomplished, and ex- 



114 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

pected that the navy would run past the batteries into the har- 
bor. Admiral Dahlgren and the Navy Department thought 
otherwise, declining to risk the vessels in the attempt. 

Captain Partridge about August 23 applied for sick leave 
and shortly went north. In consequence Captain Emilio 
again became the senior officer and was at times in charge 
of the regiment until the middle of October. On the 23d 
the brigade was reviewed on the beach by General Gillmore, 
accompanied by General Terry. The latter complimented 
the Fifty-fourth on its appearance. That evening Captain 
Emilio and Lieutenant Higginson took one hundred and 
fifty men for grand guard, reporting to Col. Jos. R. Hawley, 
Seventh Connecticut, field-officer of the trenches. This 
was the first detail other than fatigue since July 21. The 
detachment relieved troops in the second parallel. During 
the night it was very stormy, the rain standing in pools in 
the trenches. But few shots were fired. Charleston's 
bells could be heard when all was still. At midnight the 
Swamp Angel again opened on the city. About 10 a.m., 
on the 24th, Wagner and Johnson both opened on us, the 
former with grape and canister sweeping the advanced 
works. In the camp, by reason of rain and high tides, the 
water was several inches deep in the tents on lowest 
ground. A new brigade — the Fourth — was formed on 
the 24th, composed of the Second South Carolina, Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts, and Third United States Colored 
Troops (the latter a new regiment from the north), under 
Colonel Montgomery. 

About dark on the 25th a force was again advanced 
against the enemy's picket, but was repulsed. It was found 
that a determined effort must be made to carry the sand 
ridge crowned by the enemy's rifle-pits. Just before dark 



SIEGE OF "WAGNER. 115 

the next day, therefore, a concentrated fire was maintained 
against this position for some time. Col. F. A. Osborn, 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, with his regiment, supported 
by the Third New Hampshire, Capt. Jas. F. Randlett, then 
advanced and gallantly took the line in an instant, the 
enemy only having time to deliver one volley. They cap- 
tured sixty-seven men of the Sixty-first North Carolina. 
Cover was soon made, a task in which the prisoners as- 
sisted to insure their own safety. The Twenty-fourth lost 
Lieut. Jas. A. Perkins and two enlisted men killed, and 
five wounded. Upon this ridge, two hundred yards from 
Wagner, the fifth parallel was immediately opened. Be- 
yond it the works, when constructed, were a succession of 
short zigzags because of the narrow breadth of the island 
and the flanking and near fire of the Confederates. Our 
fire was being more directed at Wagner, which forced its 
garrison to close their embrasures in the daytime. It had 
also become more difficult to send their customary reliev- 
ing force every third day to Morris Island. Fire upon us 
from the James Island batteries on the left became very 
troublesome, occasioning numerous casualties. Our own 
mortar-shells, on the 27th, in the evening killed seven 
men, and wounded two of the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania. 

That night there was a severe thunder-storm drenching 
everything in camp and leaving pools of water in the tents. 
A warm drying sun came out on the 28th. In the evening 
there was some disturbance, soon suppressed, in conse- 
quence of ill feeling toward the regimental sutler. In the 
approaches work was slow by reason of the high tides and 
rain. Moonlight nights interfered also, disclosing our 
working parties to the enemy. Colonel Montgomery, com- 
manding the brigade, on the 29th established his head- 



116 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

quarters near the right of our camp. It was learned that 
a list of prisoners recently received from the enemy con- 
tained no names of Fifty-fourth men. On the 30th Lieut.- 
Col. Henry A. Purviance, Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania, was 
killed by the premature explosion of one of our own shells. 
The enemy's steamer " Sumter," returning from Morris 
Island early on the 31st with six hundred officers and men, 
was fired into by Fort Moultrie, and four men were killed 
or drowned. 

With our capture of the ridge on the 26th the last natu- 
ral cover was attained. Beyond for two hundred yards 
stretched a strip of sand over which the besiegers must ad- 
vance. It seemed impossible to progress far, as each at- 
tempt to do so resulted in severe losses. Every detail at 
the front maintained its position only at the cost of life. 
So numerous were the dead at this period of the siege 
that at almost any hour throughout the day the sound of 
funeral music could be heard in the camps. Such was the 
depressing effect upon the men that finally orders were 
issued to dispense with music at burials. The troops were 
dispirited by such losses without adequate results. That 
the strain was great was manifested by an enormous sick 
list. It was the opinion of experienced officers that the 
losses by casualties and sickness were greater than might 
be expected from another assault. 

Success or defeat seemed to hang in the balance. Under 
no greater difficulties and losses many a siege had been 
raised. General Gillmore, however, was equal to the 
emergency. He ordered the fifth parallel enlarged and 
strengthened, the cover increased, and a line of rifle trench 
run in front of it. New positions were constructed for the 
sharpshooters. All his light mortars were moved to the 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 117 

front, and his guns trained on Wagner. A powerful cal- 
cium light was arranged to illumine the enemy's work, that 
our fire might be continuous and effective. Changes were 
also made in the regiments furnishing permanent details 
in the trenches and advanced works, and an important 
part, requiring courage and constancy, was now assigned 
to our regiment. It is indicated in the following 

order : — 

Headquarters U. S. Forces, 

Morris Island, S. C, Aug. 31, 1863. 
Special Orders No. 131. 

II. The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers, Col. M. S. 
Littlefield, Fourth South Carolina Volunteers, commanding, are 
hereby detailed for special duty in the trenches under the di- 
rection of Maj. T. B. Brooks, A. D. C. and Assistant Engineer. 
The whole of the available force of the regiment will be divided 
into four equal reliefs, which will relieve each other at intervals 
of eight hours each. The first relief will report to Major 
Brooks at the second parallel at 8 a. m. this day. No other 
details will be made from the regiment until further orders. 

By order of 

Brig. -Gen. A. H. Terry. 
Adrian Terry, 

Captain, and Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Major Brooks, in his journal of the siege under date of 
August 31, thus writes, — 

" The Third United States Colored Troops, who have been 
on fatigue duty in the advance trenches since the 20th inst., 
were relieved to-day by the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers (colored) , it being desirable to have older troops for the 
important and hazardous duty required at this period." 

Throughout the whole siege the First New York En- 
gineers held the post of honor. Their sapping brigades took 



118 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the lead in the advance trench opening the ground, followed 
by fatigue details which widened the cut and threw up the 
enlarged cover. These workers were without arms, but 
were supported by the guard of the trenches. Upon this 
fatigue work with the engineers, the Fifty-fourth at once 
engaged. During the night of the 31st work went on 
rapidly, as the enemy fired but little. Out of a detail of 
forty men from the One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania, 
one was killed and six were wounded. One of the guard 
was killed by a torpedo. A man of Company K, of our 
regiment, was mortally wounded that night. 

Early on September 1 our land batteries opened on 
Sumter, and the monitors on Wagner. Four arches in the 
north face of Sumter with platforms and guns were carried 
away. Lieut. P S. Michie, United States Engineers, was 
temporarily in charge of the advance works on the right. 
Much work was done in strengthening the parapets and re- 
vetting the slopes. Our Fifty-fourth detail went out under 
Lieutenant Higginson that morning, and had one man 
wounded. Kev- Samuel Harrison, of Pittsfield, Mass., 
commissioned chaplain of the regiment, arrived that day. 

September 2 the land batteries were throwing some few 
shots at Sumter and more at Wagner. Capt. Jos. Walker, 
First New York Engineers, started the sap at 7 P. M. in a 
new direction under heavy fire. Considering that the 
trench was but eighty yards from Wagner, good progress 
was made. The sap-roller could not be used, because of 
torpedoes planted thereabout. Our fire was concentrated 
upon Wagner on the 3d, to protect sapping. But little 
success resulted, for the enemy's sharpshooters on the left 
enfiladed our trench at from one hundred to three hundred 
yards. At this time the narrowest development in the 



SIEGE OF WAGNEE. 119 

whole approach was encountered, — but twenty-five yards ; 
and the least depth of sand, — but two feet. Everywhere 
torpedoes were found planted, arranged with delicate ex- 
plosive mechanism. Arrangements were made to use a 
calcium light at night. From August 19 to this date, 
when the three regiments serving as guards of the trenches 
were relieved by fresher troops, their loss aggregated ten 
per cent of their whole force, mainly from artillery fire. 

On the night of the 3d, Wagner fired steadily, and the 
James Island batteries now and then. Our detail at the 
front had George Vanderpool killed and Alexander Hunter 
of the same company — H — wounded. Throughout the 4th 
we fired at Wagner, and in the afternoon received its last 
shot in daylight. Captain Walker ran the sap twenty-five 
feet in the morning before he was compelled to cease. 

When the south end of Morris Island was captured, 
Maj. 0. S. Sanford, Seventh Connecticut, was placed in 
charge of two hundred men to act as " boat infantry." 
From their camp on the creek, near the Left Batteries, 
details from this force were sent out in boats carrying six 
oarsmen and six armed men each. They scoured and 
patrolled the waters about Morris Island. Throughout the 
whole siege of Charleston this boat infantry was kept up, 
under various commanders. It was thought that could 
Gregg be first taken, Wagner's garrison might be captured 
entire ; and an attempt to do so was arranged for the night 
of September 4. Details for the enterprise, which was to 
be a surprise, were made from four regiments under com- 
mand of Major Sanford. The admiral was to send boats 
with howitzers as support. When all was ready, the boats 
started toward Gregg. Neariug that work, several musket- 
shots were heard. A navy-boat had fired into and cap- 



120 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

tured a barge of the enemy with Maj. F- F. Warley, a 
surgeon, and ten men. This firing aroused Gregg's gar- 
rison ; our boats were discovered and fired upon. Thus the 
surprise was a failure, and the attack given up. 

Wagner was now in extremis, and the garrison enduring 
indescribable misery. A pen picture of the state of things 
there is given by a Southerner as follows : — 

" Each day, often from early dawn, the ' New Ironsides ' or 
the monitors, sometimes all together, steamed up and delivered 
their terrific fire, shaking the fort to its centre. The noiseless 
Cohorn shells, falling vertically, searched out the secret recesses, 
almost invariably claiming victims. The burning sun of a 
Southern summer, its heat intensified by the reflection of the 
white sand, scorched and blistered the unprotected garrison, or 
the more welcome rain and storm wet them to the skin. An 
intolerable stench from the unearthed dead of the previous 
conflict, the carcasses of cavalry horses lying where they fell 
in the rear, and barrels of putrid meat thrown out on the beach 
sickened the defenders. A large and brilliantly colored fly, 
attracted by the feast and unseen before, inflicted wounds more 
painful though less dangerous than the shot of the enemy. 
Water was scarcer than whiskey. The food, however good 
when it started for its destination, by exposure, first, on the 
wharf in Charleston, then on the beach at Cumming's Point, 
being often forty-eight hours in transitu, was unfit to eat. 
The unventilated bombproofs, filled with smoke of lamps and 
smell of blood, were intolerable, so that one endured the risk 
of shot and shell rather than seek their shelter. The incessant 
din of its own artillery, as well as the bursting shell of the 
foe, prevented sleep. " 

General Beauregard on September 4 ordered Sumter's 
garrison reduced to one company of artillery and two of 
infantry under Maj. Stephen Elliott. Early on the 5th 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 121 

the land batteries, " Ironsides," and two monitors opened ; 
a terrific bombardment on Wagner which lasted forty-two 
hours. Under its protection our sap progressed in safety. 
Wagner dared not show a man, while the approaches were 
so close that the more distant batteries of the enemy feared 
to injure their own men. Our working parties moved 
about freely. Captain Walker ran some one hundred and 
fifty yards of sap; and by noon the flag, planted at the 
head of the trench to apprise the naval vessels of our 
position, was within one hundred yards of the fort. The 
Fifty-fourth detail at work there on this day had Corp. 
Aaron Spencer of Company A mortally wounded by one 
of our own shells, and Private Chas. Van Allen of the 
same company killed. Gregg's capture was again at- 
tempted that night by Major Sanford's command. When 
the boats approached near, some musket-shots were ex- 
changed ; and as the defenders were alert, we again 
retired with slight loss. 

Daylight dawned upon the last day of Wagner's memo- 
rable siege on September 6. The work was swept by our 
searching fire from land and water, before which its traverses 
were hurled down in avalanches covering the entrances to 
magazines and bombproofs. Gregg was also heavily bom- 
barded. As on the previous day our sappers worked rapidly 
and exposed themselves with impunity The greatest danger 
was from our own shells, by which one man was wounded. 
Lieutenant McGuire, U S. A., was in charge a part of the 
day. He caused the trenches to be prepared for holding 
a large number of troops, with means for easy egress 
to the front. Late that evening General Gillmore issued 
orders for an assault at nine o'clock the next morning, the 
hour of low tide, by three storming columns under General 



122 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Terry, with proper reserves. Artillery fire was to be kept 
up until the stormers mounted the parapet. At night 
the gallant Captain Walker, who was assisted by Captain 
Pratt, Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, observed that the enemy's 
sharpshooters fired but scatteringly, and that but one 
mortar-shell was thrown from Wagner. About 10 P. M. 
he passed into the ditch and examined it thoroughly 
He found a fraise of spears and stakes, of which he 
pulled up some two hundred. Returning, a flying sap was 
run along the crest of the glacis, throwing the earth level, 
to enable assailants to pass over readily. 

From early morning Col. L. M. Keitt, the Confederate 
commander of Morris Island, had been signalling that 
his force was terribly reduced, the enemy about to as- 
sault, and that to save the garrison there should be trans- 
portation ready by nightfall of the 6th. He reported 
his casualties on the 5th as one hundred out of nine 
hundred ; that a repetition of that day's bombardment 
would leave the work a ruin. He had but four hundred 
effectives, exclusive of artillerymen. His negro laborers 
could not be made to work ; and thirty or forty soldiers had 
been wounded that day in attempting to repair damages. 
General Beauregard, who had been, since the 4th at least, 
jeopardizing the safety of the brave garrison, then gave the 
necessary order for evacuation. 

A picket detail of one hundred men went out from the 
Fifty-fourth camp at 5 p m. on the 6th. Our usual detail 
was at work in the front under the engineers. It was not 
until two o'clock on the morning of September 7 that the 
officers and men of the regiment remaining in camp were 
aroused, fell into line, and with the colored brigade marched 
up over the beach line to a point just south of the Beacon 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 123 

house, where these regiments rested, constituting the re- 
serve of infantry in the anticipated assault. Many of the 
regiments were arriving or in position, and the advance 
trenches were full of troops. Soon came the gray of early 
morning, and with it rumors that Wagner was evacuated. 
By and by the rumors were confirmed, and the glad tidings 
spread from regiment to regiment. Up and down through 
the trenches and the parallels rolled repeated cheers and 
shouts of victory. It was a joyous time ; our men threw 
up their hats, dancing in their gladness. Officers shook 
hands enthusiastically. Wagner was ours at last. 

In accordance with instructions, at dark on the 6th the 
Confederate ironclads took position near Sumter. Some 
transport vessels were run close in, and forty barges under 
Lieutenant Ward, C. S. N., were at Cumming's Point. A 
courier reported to Colonel Keitt that everything was pre- 
pared, whereupon his troops were gradually withdrawn, and 
embarked after suffering a few casualties in the movement. 
By midnight Wagner was deserted by all but Capt. T. A. 
Huguenin, a few officers, and thirty-five men. The guns 
were partially spiked, and fuses prepared to explode the 
powder-magazine and burst the guns. At Gregg the heavy 
guns and three howitzers were spiked, and the magazine 
was to be blown up. The evacuation was complete at 1.30 
a.m. on the 7th. At a signal the fuses were lighted in 
both forts ; but the expected explosion did not occur in 
either work, probably on account of defective matches. 

Just after midnight one of the enemy, a young Irishman, 
deserted from Wagner and gained our lines. Taken before 
Lieut.-Col. 0. L. Mann, Thirty-ninth Illinois, general officer 
of the trenches, he reported the work abandoned and the 
enemy retired to Gregg. Half an hour later all the guns 



124 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

were turned upon Wagner for twenty minutes, after which 
Sergeant Vermillion, a corporal, and four privates of the 
Thirty-ninth Illinois, all volunteers, went out. In a short 
time they returned, reporting no one in Wagner and only 
a few men in a boat rowing toward Gregg. On the receipt 
of this news the flag of the sappers and the regimental 
color of the Thirty-ninth Illinois were both planted on the 
earthwork. A hasty examination was made of Wagner, 
in the course of which a line of fuse connecting with two 
magazines was cut. Every precaution was taken, and 
guards posted at all dangerous points. 

A few moments after our troops first entered Wagner 
two companies of the Third New Hampshire under Captain 
Randlett were pushed toward Gregg. Capt. C. R. Brayton, 
Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, and some Fifty-fourth 
men started for the same point. Amid the sand-hills 
the Third New Hampshire men stopped to take charge of 
some prisoners, while Captain Brayton kept on, and was the 
first to enter Gregg, closely followed by the Fifty-fourth 
men. In Wagner eighteen pieces of ordnance were found, 
and in Gregg, seven pieces. All about the former work 
muskets, boarding-pikes, spears, and boards filled with 
spikes were found arranged to repel assaults. Inside and 
all around, the stench was nauseating from the buried and 
unburied bodies of men and animals. The bombproof was 
indescribably filthy. One terribly wounded man was found 
who lived to tell of his sufferings, but died on the way to 
hospital. Everywhere were evidences of the terrific bom- 
bardment beyond the power of pen to describe. 

About half a dozen stragglers from the retiring enemy 
were taken on the island. Our boats captured two of the 
enemy's barges containing a surgeon and fifty-five men, 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 125 

and a boat of the ram " Chicora " with an officer and seven 
sailors. 

Wagner's siege lasted fifty-eight days. During that 
period 8,395 soldiers' day's work of six hours each had been 
done on the approaches ; eighteen bomb or splinter proof 
service-magazines made, as well as eighty-nine emplace- 
ments for guns, — a total of 23,500 days' work. In addition, 
forty-six thousand sand-bags had been filled, hundreds of 
gabions and fascines made, and wharves and landings con- 
structed. Of the nineteen thousand days' work performed 
by infantry, the colored troops had done one half, though 
numerically they were to white troops as one to ten. 
Three quarters of all the work was at night, and nine tenths 
under artillery and sharpshooters' fire or both combined. 

Regarding colored troops, Major Brooks, Assistant Engi- 
neer, in his report, says, — 

"It is probable that in no military operations of the war 
have negro troops done so large a proportion, and so important 
and hazardous fatigue duty, as in the siege operations on the 
island." 

The colored regiments participating were the Fifty-fourth 
and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, First North Carolina, Second 
South Carolina, and Third United States Colored Troops. 
Officers serving in charge of the approaches, when called 
upon by Major Brooks to report specifically upon the com- 
parative value of white and colored details under their 
charge for fatigue duty during the period under considera- 
tion, gave testimony that for perseverance, docility, steadi- 
ness, endurance, and amount of work performed, the blacks 
more than equalled their white brothers. Their average 
of sick was but 13.97, while that of the whites was 20.10. 



126 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The percentage of duty performed by the blacks as com- 
pared with the whites was as fifty-six to forty-one. 
Major Brooks further says, — 

" Of the numerous infantry regiments which furnished fatigue 
parties, the Fourth New Hampshire did the most and best work, 
next follow the blacks, — the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts and 
Third United (States Colored Troops." 

General Beauregard reports his loss during the siege as 
a total of 296, exclusive of his captured. But the official 
" War Records " show that from July 18 to September 7 
the Confederate loss was a total of 690. The Federal loss 
during the same period by the same authority was but 
358. 

Despite the exposure of the Fifty -fourth details day and 
night with more or less officers and men at the front, the 
casualties in the regiment during the siege as given by the 
Adjutant-General of Massachusetts were but four killed 
and four wounded. 

Shortly after the fall of Wagner the following order was 
issued to the troops. 

Department op the South, 

Moeeis Island, S. C, Sept. 15, 1863. 

It is with no ordinary feelings of gratification and pride that 
the brigadier-general commanding is enabled to congratulate 
this army upon the signal success which has crowned the enter- 
prise in which it has been engaged. Fort Sumter is destroyed. 
The scene where our country's flag suffered its first dishonor 
you have made the theatre of one of its proudest triumphs. 

The fort has been in the possession of the enemy for more 
than two years, has been his pride and boast, has been strength- 
ened by every appliance known to military science, and has 
defied the assaults of the most powerful fleet the world ever saw. 



SIEGE OF WAGNER. 127 

But it has yielded to your courage and patient labor. Its walls 
are now crumbled to ruins, its formidable batteries are silenced, 
and though a hostile flag still floats over it, the fort is a harm- 
less and helpless wreck. 

Forts Wagner and Gregg, works rendered memorable by 
their protracted resistance and the sacrifice of life they have 
cost, have also been wrested from the enemy by your per- 
severing courage and skill, and the graves of your fallen com- 
rades rescued from desecration and contumely. 

You now hold in undisputed possession the whole of Morris 
Island ; and the city and harbor of Charleston lie at the mercy 
of your artillery from the very spot where the first shot was fired 
at your country's flag and the Rebellion itself was inaugurated. 

To you, the officers and soldiers of this command, and to 
the gallant navy which has co-operated with you are due the 
thanks of your commander and your country. You were called 
upon to encounter untold privations and dangers, to undergo 
unremitting and exhausting labors, to sustain severe and dis- 
heartening reverses. How nobly your patriotism and zeal have 
responded to the call the results of the campaign will show and 
your commanding general gratefully bears witness. 

Q. A. Gillmore, 
Brigadier- General Commanding. 



CHAPTER VII. 

BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 

MORRIS ISLAND was ours ; but no sooner had the 
enemy evacuated than Wagner, Gregg, and the 
intervening ground were daily subjected to a fire from the 
James and Sullivan's Island batteries. A heavy action on 
land and water occurred on the morning of September 8, 
occasioned by the grounding of the monitor " Weehawken ; " 
and in the course of the day a magazine blew up in Moul- 
trie, and the village of Moultrieville was set on fire by 
our shells. 

Admiral Dahlgren having demanded the surrender of 
Sumter, which was refused, a night assault was determined 
upon jointly by the army and navy ; but differences arose 
regarding the command. When the time came, Gillmore's 
force was detained in shallow waters by the tide. Com- 
mander T. II. Stevens, with eighteen officers and some four 
hundred sailors and marines, embarked in thirty boats for 
the enterprise. The leaders landed at Sumter after mid- 
night on the 9th. Major Elliott was prepared for and re- 
ceived the assault with musketry and fragments of the epaul- 
ment. In a few minutes all was over, for the brave leaders, 
finding it impossible to scale the walls, Avere made pris- 
oners. Our loss was ten officers and one hundred and four 
men captured and three men killed. 

As Forts Wagner and Gregg were ordered to be turned 
for offensive purposes, a covered way between these two 




Jeremiah Rolls, ist Sergt, Co. I. Abram C. Simms, Corp., Co. I. 

George Lipscomb, Corp., Co. I. Thomas Bowman, Sergt., Co. I. 
Isom Ampey, Pvt, Co. K. John H. Wilson, Sergt. Major. 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 129 

works begun, and new batteries ordered to be constructed, 
there were heavy demands for fatigue. Besides its details 
at Curnming's Point, the Fifty-fourth soon began to send, 
working parties for the " Bluff Battery " in the southerly 
sand-hills near the beach-front. To retard our progress 
with the works at the front, the enemy maintained a con- 
stant cannonade. Batteries Simkins and Cheves were most 
active against us. On the 15th the enemy's magazine in 
the latter work was accidentally blown up with 1,200 pounds 
of powder, causing some casualties. The force of this, 
explosion was felt all over Morris Island. Black Island, 
between Morris and James islands, where we had a battery,, 
was also frequently shelled. 

First Sergeant Gray of Company C had received a 
Masonic charter and organized a lodge on Morris Island.. 
The meeting-place was a dry spot in the marsh near our 
camp, where boards were set up to shelter the members. 
Furloughs for thirty days having been granted a certain 
proportion of the troops, the Fifty-fourth men selected de- 
parted, overjoyed at the prospect of seeing home and 
friends. The equinoctial storm set in about the middle of 
September, accompanied by high tides and wind. The dike 
protecting our camp was broken, and the parade overflowed, 
necessitating considerable labor to repair damages. With 
the cessation of this severe storm cooler weather came, — a 
most welcome relief. 

In recognition of the capture of Morris Island and the 
demolition of Sumter, General Gillmore was promoted 
major-general of volunteers. To do him honor, a review 
of the First Division, Tenth Army Corps, took place on 
Morris Island September 24. Partial relief from excessive 
labors had permitted the troops to refit. Line was formed 

9 



130 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

on the beach at low tide, the division extending a dis- 
tance of some two miles. The pageant was unsurpassed in 
the history of the department. Our colored brigade pre- 
sented a line appearance, and many compliments for the 
Fifty-fourth were received by Captain Emilio, commanding. 
Paymaster Usher arrived in camp September 27, ready 
to pay the men $10 per month from enlistment, less £3 per 
month deducted for clothing. Upon the non-commissioned 
officers being assembled, they with great unanimity declined 
the reduced payment for themselves and their comrades. 
The paymaster again came on the 30th to renew his offer. 
It was on this date that Colonel Montgomery appeared and 
made the men a remarkable and characteristic address, 
which Sergeant Stephens of Company B has given in sub- 
stance as follows : — 

"Men: the paymaster is here to pay you. You must re- 
member you have not proved yourselves soldiers. You must 
take notice that the Government has virtually paid you a thou- 
sand dollars apiece for setting you free. Nor should you ex- 
pect to be placed on the same footing with white men. Any 
one listening to your shouting and singing can see how gro- 
tesquely ignorant you are. I am your friend and the friend of 
the negro. I was the first person in the country to employ 
nigger soldiers in the United States Army. I was out in Kan- 
sas. I was short of men. I had a lot of niggers and a lot of 
mules ; and you know a nigger and a mule go very well together. 
I therefore enlisted the niggers, and made teamsters of them. 
In refusing to take the pay offered you, and what you are only 
legally entitled to, you are guilty of insubordination and mutiny, 
and can be tried and shot by court-martial." 

Montgomery besides made some gross and invidious in- 
sinuations and reflections because the Fifty-fourth men 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON 131 

were so light-colored, which it would be improper to repeat. 
The colonel seemed to be unaware that his remarks were 
insulting, and most of the men he addressed born free. 

Sergt. Henry Stewart, of Company E, a faithful soldier 
who had actively engaged in recruiting the regiment, 
died of disease September 27, and was buried with proper 
honors. His and other deaths, with an increased sick list, 
called for sanitary measures about this time. No radical 
change of camp was possible, as the ground available for 
such purposes was limited ; but tents were struck so that 
the air and sun could reach the ground beneath, and a 
daily inspection of streets, sinks, and the cooked food 
instituted. 

The Sanitary Commission furnished ice, raspberry vine- 
gar, pickles, and other needed supplies ; but there was a 
lack of fresh vegetables. Early in October, however, Mr. 
Reuben Tomlinson brought a large supply for the Fifty- 
fourth, — a present from the contrabands about Beaufort ; 
and similar welcome gifts followed from the same source 
from time to time. Tobacco, dried apples, lime-juice, writ- 
ing-paper, brushes, etc., were purchased with the company 
funds, as the men had no money. 

To replace the State color lost on July 18, Governor 
Andrew caused a new one to be forwarded to the Fifty- 
fourth. Its receipt on October 2 was attended with great 
enthusiasm, the rousing cheers of the men being heard for 
a mile around. 

It was noticeable about the 1st of October that our fire 
was stronger than for several weeks upon Sumter, Johnson, 
and Moultrie. Two monitors were doing picket duty near 
the island. 

The monotony of daily events was broken at 10 A. M., 



132 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

October 5, by tbe sound of the long-roll. Shots had been 
heard among the naval vessels. Our regiment took position 
in the old Confederate rifle trenches near Oyster Point on 
the inlet. This alarm was caused by the attempt of Lieut. 
William T. Glassell, C. S. N., to blow up the " Ironsides." 
With a small boat — the " David " — he exploded a spar tor- 
pedo near our iron-clad without serious damage to that 
vessel; but the " David " was swamped. Glassell and one 
of his men were captured. The other two men righted 
their craft and returned to the city by midnight. This 
enterprise was one of the boldest undertakings of the war, 
and nearly successful. 

Henry N. Hooper, formerly captain, Thirty-second Massa- 
chusetts Infantry, commissioned major of the Fifty-fourth, 
arrived October 16, and relieved Captain Emilio of the com- 
mand. It was his fortune to lead the regiment for a longer 
period and in more actions than any other officer, owing to 
the assignment of Colonel Hallowell to higher command. 
On all occasions he proved an able and courageous soldier. 
Colonel Hallowell, promoted during his absence, returned 
the day after Major Hooper's arrival, and was waited upon 
by the officers, who expressed their pleasure at his recov- 
ery and return. A stanch friend of the Fifty-fourth was 
a visitor in camp about this time, in the person of Albert 
G. Browne, Esq., the special agent of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, whose headquarters were at Beaufort. His sou, Col. 
Albert G. Browne, Jr., was the military secretary of Gov- 
ernor Andrew, and also one of the regiment's early and 
tried friends. 

There had been several promotions in consequence of 
the action of July 18. Lieutenant Smith was made captain 
of Company G, but was still North ; Lieutenant Walton, 



BOMBAKDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 133 

captain of Company B, vice Willard, resigned. Second 
Lieutenants T. L. Appleton, Tucker, Howard, Pratt, and 
Littlefield were made first lieutenants. These officers were 
all present except Lieutenant Pratt, who never re-joined. 
Captain Bridge and Lieutenant Emerson had returned from 
sick leave. Lieutenants E. G. Tomlinson and Charles G. 
Chipman, appointed to the regiment, had joined. A num- 
ber of the wounded had returned from hospital, and the 
first lot of furloughed men came back, and with them 
Capt. J. W M. Appleton. By these accessions the Fifty- 
fourth had more officers and men present toward the last 
of October than at any time after it left St. Helena Island. 

Our new and old works being in readiness at Cumming's 
Point, what General Gillmore calls the " second bom- 
bardment of Sumter " was begun October 26. Its purpose 
was to prevent guns being mounted there, and to cut down 
the southeast face, that the casemates of the channel face 
be taken in reverse. General Seymour had returned and 
assumed command of the island on the 18th. Under his 
direction our batteries opened from seven heavy rifles (in- 
cluding a three-hundred-pounder) in Wagner, and four in 
Gregg and from two mortars. Some fire was directed 
against Fort Johnson also, the enemy replying briskly. 
The next day the cannonade was renewed with one gun in 
Gregg turned upon the city. Our range against Sumter 
being less than was the case during Wagner's siege, ren- 
dered the force of our shot much greater. Sharpshooters 
in Sumter armed with the long-range Whitworth rifles 
were trying to disable our gunners in Gregg, without 
success. 

After four days' bombardment, a breach was disclosed in 
the southeast face of Sumter, extending half its length, on 



134 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

which our land and sea fire was concentrated. For about 
a week longer our bombardment was kept up with great 
vigor, during which time the enemy suffered many casual- 
ties, and Sumter was pounded into a mound of debris cov- 
ering the lower casemates, in which the garrison found 
safe refuge. Through the centre of the Morris Island face 
of Sumter the terre-plein could be seen. Major Elliott ap- 
prehended another assault and prepared for it. 

In honor of some of the officers who had fallen during 
the operations, Gregg was renamed Fort Putnam ; Wagner, 
Fort Strong ; the Bluff Battery, Fort Shaw ; the new work 
near Gregg, Battery Chatfield ; a work on Lighthouse In- 
let, Battery Purviance ; and another opposite the last, on 
Folly Island, Fort Green. By the same order General 
Gillmore announced that medals of honor, his personal 
gift, would be furnished to three per cent of the enlisted 
men who had borne part in the engagements and siege. 
This medal, however, was not received for some months. 
In the case of the Fifty-fourth it was awarded to the four 
men specially mentioned in Colonel Hallowell's report of 
the assault of July 18, previously printed herein. There 
arrived for the regiment a present from Mrs. Colonel Shaw 
of one thousand small copies of the Gospels, neatly bound 
in morocco of various colors, which were distributed. 

Fine weather continued to prevail, although the month 
of October was drawing to a close. Early each morning 
a dense fog swept in from the eastward, covering land and 
sea until dispelled by the rising sun. Then came warm 
fall days, followed by cooler night hours. 

Our gunners at the front were firing from Chatfield and 
Gregg with mortars and the heavy rifles mainly at night, 
besides using field-pieces in Gregg for accurate practice 



BOMBAEDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 135 

against the enemy's sharpshooters lodged in the ruins. 
Their shots caused small daily casualties in Sumter, swell- 
ing out to nineteen in number October 31, when a falling 
wall killed many, and fifteen on November 6, when a mor- 
tar-shell exploded in front of a bombproof. Capt. T. C. 
Ferris, Independent New York Battalion (Les Enfans Per- 
dus), made a daring reconnoissance of the fort at night, 
November 2. He landed, and with one man scaled the wall 
until discovered and fired upon. Then they retired safely 
to their comrade in the boat, bringing some bricks away 
as trophies. 

There was a gala day in Charleston on November 2 
when Jefferson Davis arrived on his return from a visit 
to General Bragg at Dalton. General Beauregard ex- 
tended to him all official courtesy ; but their private rela- 
tions were strained. Davis found the troops and works in 
good condition. Beauregard was apprehensive of attack 
at some point on his long lines at this period, and thought 
an attack on Sullivan's Island or another assault on Sumter 
not improbable. 

Colonel Hallowell on his return used every means to have 
the many detached and detailed men returned to the colors, 
as heavy working parties of from one hundred to two hun- 
dred men were still called for to labor on the new works. 
Our first instalment of furloughed men having returned, 
the second left for Hilton Head on November 12. Lieuten- 
ant Howard relieved Lieutenant Littlefield as acting adju- 
tant. Sergeant Swails of Company F was made acting 
sergeant-major and Sergeant Vogelsang of Company H 
quartermaster-sergeant. 

News was received the last of November that the matter 
of pay had come up in a new form. Governor Andrew in 



136 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

his message recommended the provisions of an Act which 
passed the Massachusetts Legislature November 16 in words 
as follows : " An Act to make up the Deficiencies in the 
Monthly Pay of the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Regiments," 
etc., and Section I. of this Act read as follows : — 

" There shall be paid out of the Treasury of the Common- 
wealth to the non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates 
of the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth regiments of Massachusetts 
Volunteer Infantry, to those who have been honorably dis- 
charged from the service, and to the legal representatives of 
those who have died in the service, such sums of money as, 
added to the amounts paid them by the United States, shall 
render their monthly pay and allowances from the time of their 
being mustered into the service of the United 8tat.es equal to 
that of the other non-commissioned officers, musicians, and 
privates in the volunteer or regular military service of the 
United States." 

Upon the receipt of a copy of the Governor's address and 
the Act, Colonel Hallowell, on November 23, wrote to Gov- 
ernor Andrew, that notwithstanding the generous action of 
the State authorities, the men of the Fifty -fourth had en- 
listed as other soldiers from Massachusetts, and that they 
would serve without pay until mustered out, rather than 
accept from the United States less than the amount paid 
other soldiers. Enlisted men were not less prompt to 
write to their friends expressing their disapprobation. 
Theodore Tilton, in a communication to the Boston 
" Journal," dated New York, Dec. 12, 1863, quotes from 
a letter received by him " from a Massachusetts soldier 
in the Fifty-fourth " : — 

" A strange misapprehension exists as to the matter of pay, 
and it pains us deeply. We came forward at the call of Gover- 
nor Andrew, in which call he distinctly told us that we were to be 






■ 

■^ ' ism 







Surg. Charles E. Briggs. Quartermaster John Ritchie. 

Asst.-Surg. Charles B. Bridgham. Asst.-Surg. Louis D. Radzinsky. 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 137 

subsisted, clothed, paid, and treated in all respects the same as 
other Massachusetts soldiers. Again, on the presentation of 
flags to the regiment at Camp Meigs, the Governor reiterated 
this promise, on the strength of which we marched through 
Boston, holding our heads high as men and as soldiers. Nor 
did we grumble because we were not paid the portion of United 
States bounty paid to other volunteer regiments in advance. 
Now that we have gained some reputation, we claim the right 
to be heard. 

"Three times have we been mustered in for pay. Twice 
have we swallowed the insult offered us by the United States 
paymaster, contenting ourselves with a simple refusal to ac- 
knowledge ourselves different from other Massachusetts sol- 
diers. Once, in the face of insult and intimidation such as 
no body of men and soldiers were ever subjected to before, we 
quietly refused and continued to do our duty. For four months 
we have been steadily working night and day under fire. And 
such work ! Up to our knees in mud half the time, causing the 
tearing and wearing out of more than the volunteer's yearly 
allowance of clothing, denied time to repair and wash (what 
we might by that means have saved) , denied time to drill and 
perfect ourselves in soldierly qualities, denied the privilege of 
burying our dead decently. All this we 've borne patiently, 
waiting for justice. 

" Imagine our surprise and disappointment on the receipt by 
the last mail of the Governor's address to the General Court, 
to find him making a proposition to them to pay this regiment 
the difference between what the United States Government 
offers us and what they are legally bound to pay us, which, in 
effect, advertises us to the world as holding out for money and 
not from principle, — that we sink our manhood in consideration 
of a few more dollars. How has this come about? What false 
friend has been misrepresenting us to the Governor, to make 
him think that our necessities outweigh our self-respect? I am 
sure no representation of ours ever impelled him to that action." 



138 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

To the letter Theodore Tilton added some forcible sen- 
tences. Among other things he wrote, — 

" They are not willing that the Federal Government should 
throw mud upon them, even though Massachusetts stands ready 
to wipe it off. And perhaps it is not unsoldierly in a soldier, 
white or black, to object to being insulted by a government 
which he heroically serves. The regiment whose bayonets 
pricked the name of Colonel Shaw into the roll of immortal 
honor can afford to be cheated out of their money, but not 
out of their manhood." 

Our brigade number was changed from " Fourth " to 
" Third " on November 23. Its colored regiments were 
still required to perform an undue proportion of fatigue 
work, and but few details for grand guards came for them. 
After this discrimination had long been borne, General 
Gillmore in an order said, — 

' ' Colored troops will not be required to perform any labor 
which is not shared by the white troops, but will receive in all 
respects the same treatment, and be allowed the same oppor- 
tunities for drill and instruction." 

During the third week of November several events of in- 
terest occurred. On the 15th the Moultrie House on Sul- 
livan's Island, which had long flown a hospital flag, was torn 
down, disclosing a powerful battery, which opened a terrible 
fire on us in unison with two other works. This, occurring 
at 10 p. M., it was thought might cover a boat attack, so 
our troops were called into line, where they remained until 
firing ceased. Meanwhile from Gregg and the " Ironsides " 
our calcium lights swept the waters about the harbor to 
discover any force approaching. Our monitor " Lehigh " 
grounded the next morning. Under a fierce cannonade a 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 139 

hawser was carried from the " Nahant," and by it and the 
rising tide she was floated at 11 a. m. 

From Gregg and Chatfield our guns, mounted for the 
purpose, began to fire on the city at 10 a. m. on the 17th, 
throwing twenty-one shells. We could see the smoke from 
the explosions as the shells struck about the wharves, in 
the " burnt district," or well up among the houses. This 
bombardment of Charleston was from this time maintained 
with more or less vigor each day and night. Against 
Sumter, from November 1 to the 20th, we fired an average 
of five hundred shots daily. Our new work nearest Gregg 
was named Battery Seymour, and was armed with ten-inch 
mortars ; another still farther south was called Battery 
Barton. 

Major Conyngham, Fifty-second Pennsylvania, with 
two hundred and fifty men from his regiment, the One 
Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania, and the Third New 
Hampshire, made a boat reconnoissance of Sumter at night, 
November 19. Our expedition approached to within three 
hundred yards of the fort, was discovered, and after an 
engagement of fifteen minutes withdrew with three men 
wounded. In this affair a portion of Sumter's garrison 
acted badly, and three officers were censured. Capt. F. H. 
Harleston, First South Carolina Artillery, a most gallant 
and able officer, while examining the defences of the fort 
on November 24 was struck by a Parrott-shell, and died in 
a few hours. 

Thanksgiving Day, November 26, by general orders, was 
observed by the suspension of all unnecessary labor. At 
1.30 p. m. the Fifty-fourth formed with side-arms only, and 
marched to the beach in front of the Third Brigade head- 
quarters. There, with all the other troops on the island, 



140 FIFTY-FOUUTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

they joined in religious services. It was a glorious day, 
well fitted for the thorough enjoyment of the feast and 
sports which followed. In response to a call of the 
" Black " Committee the friends of the regiment had con- 
tributed for Thanksgiving dinner many luxuries. From 
this source, the company funds, and the efforts of the 
officers and company cooks, a most abundant and unusual 
feast was provided. In the afternoon there was much 
amusement and sport indulged in by the men. A greased 
pole some twenty feet high was erected, and at the top was 
suspended a pair of trousers the pockets of which con- 
tained $13. After four hours of ludicrously unsuccessful 
trials on the part of a number of men, Butler of Company 
K secured the " full pay " and the trousers. Wheelbarrow 
and sack races closed the games. 

December came in, cold and rainy, for the winter weather 
had set in. The day, however, was a happy and memorable 
one, for news was received of General Grant's great victory 
at Missionary Ridge, and every fort fired a salute, causing 
spiteful replies from the enemy. A high wind prevailed 
on the 6th, and those who were upon the bluff or beach 
witnessed a terrible disaster to the fleet. At 2 p M. the 
monitor "Weehawken," off the island, foundered, carrying 
to their death, imprisoned below, four officers and twenty- 
seven men. 

There was much heavy weather about the first ten days 
of December. After it subsided, the beach of Morris 
Island was strewn with logs some thirty feet long and 
eighteen inches through, a number of which were bolted 
together with iron. Others were found floating with the 
tide. A wooden affair, some fifty by thirty feet, double 
planked, looking like a floating battery, was washed ashore 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 141 

on Folly Island about the same time. The enemy had 
been loosing a part of the harbor obstructions. 

Wc were now firing an average of twenty shells each 
day into Charleston. The time of firing was purposely 
varied throughout the day and night, that the Confederates 
might not be prepared to reply. From " Mother Johnson," 
Simkins, and Moultrie we received an average of two hun- 
dred shots per day, most of which failed to strike our works. 
But few casualties were sustained, the warning cry of the 
lookouts sending all to cover. 

Against Sumter our firing was light after November. 
But on December 11 some two hundred and twenty shots 
were hurled at that work. While we were firing slowly 
at 9.30 a. M., the southwest magazine there exploded. Tim- 
bers, bricks, and debris, as well as the flag, were shot up 
into the air, while below arose a black cloud of smoke 
which streamed out over the harbor. A fire broke out 
later. The garrison lost on this day eleven men killed and 
forty-one wounded. 

By reference to his official correspondence, it is found 
that about the middle of December General Gillmore enter- 
tained the project of attacking Savannah, and then, with a 
portion of his force, operating in Florida. He thought 
that to move with the fleet against Charleston's inner de- 
fences, now bristling with guns, either by way of the Stono 
or Bull's Bay, he should be reinforced with ten thousand or 
twelve thousand men. He urged that the War Department 
adopt measures which would enable him to go to work at 
once. 

Calls for fatigue were now lighter and better borne, for 
seventy-three conscripts arrived for the Fifty-fourth on 
November 28, and twenty-two recruits on December 4. 



142 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Battalion and brigade drills were resumed. We were fur- 
nishing heavier details for grand guard, composed usually 
of several officers and two hundred and fifty men. They 
went out every third or fourth day during our further 
stay on the island. For the diversion of the officers the 
" Christy Minstrels " gave their first performance Decem- 
ber 5 in Dr. Bridgham's hospital tent, enlarged by a wall 
tent on one side. Songs were sung and jokes cracked 
in genuine minstrel style. 

To carry out the provisions of the Act for the relief of 
the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry, 
Maj. James Sturgis, accompanied by Mr. E. W Kinsley, 
a public-spirited citizen, arrived at our camp December 12. 
They had previously visited the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, 
when Colonel Hartwell informed Major Sturgis that neither 
regiment would receive the relief. Upon meeting Colonel 
Hallowell the same information was given. At Major 
Sturgis's request the officers and first sergeants were then 
assembled, when the matter was freely discussed. Both 
gentlemen explained fully the purpose of the Governor and 
the legislation securing it. Some of the officers and 
non-commissioned officers replied by a recital of the rea- 
sons for refusal hereinbefore set forth. Finally the non- 
commissioned officers on behalf of the men positively re- 
fused the State aid. At their conclusion cheers were given 
for Governor Andrew, to whom they were grateful for the 
proffered help. The result of his unsuccessful mission was 
reported in writing by Major Sturgis to the Governor under 
date of December 13. In his report he says, — 

" I deem it proper to say here, that among the many regi- 
ments that I saw at Hilton Head, St. Helena Island, Beaufort, 
Folly, and Morris Island, white and colored, there are none, to 



144 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

a time and then gradually ceased, but our guns continued 
to fire with more or less vigor all day. On their part the 
Confederates prepared a Christmas surprise for the gun- 
boat " Marblchead " lying in the Stono near Legareville. 
At 6 a.m. some pieces on John's Island, brought there at 
night, opened on the gunboat, but were soon driven away 
with loss of men and guns. 

New Year's Day being the first anniversary of the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation, the non-commissioned officers ar- 
ranged for a celebration. The men formed and proceeded 
to the parade-ground, where a dry-goods box covered with 
a rubber blanket was placed, to serve as a speaker's 
stand. Chaplain Harrison offered a prayer and then intro* 
duced the orator of the day, Sergeant Barquet of Com- 
pany H. Barquet was in high spirits, and began with 
the quotation, " What means this sea of upturned faces," 
etc. The speaker had hardly warmed up to his work, 
when in the midst of a most impassioned harangue the 
dry-goods box caved in, carrying him down. Barquet, in no 
way disconcerted, from the wreck shouted out the appro- 
priate but well-worn gag : " Gentlemen, I admire your 
principles, but damn your platform!" After the hilarity 
resulting from the discomfiture of the chief speaker had 
subsided, others addressed the meeting with more or less 
effect. In the evening the non-commissioned officers had 
a supper in the large tent used to cover quartermaster's 
stores. Among the good things provided were baked beans 
and Indian pudding. 

From November 1 to January 8 the following changes 
took place among the officers, — Major Hooper was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. J. W M. Appleton, 
major ; Lieutenant Grace, captain of Company A ; Lieut. 





ijMfe #*». 







■ 






Capt. Samuel Willard (Manx), 
Capt. Watsox \V Bridge. 
Capt. Joseph E. Cousens. 



Capt. David A. Partridge. 
Capt. Thomas L. Appleton. 
Capt. Lewis Reed. 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 143 

my inexperienced eye, that equalled the Fifty-fourth and Fifty- 
fifth, unless it was the Fortieth Massachusetts, while none 
surpassed them in any respect." 

Late in the afternoon of December 17 the Fifty-fourth 
with all the troops was formed to see a deserter shot. 
The unfortunate man was Joseph Lane, a drafted soldier 
of the Third New Hampshire. On November 28 he started 
from Morris Island toward James. At last, despairing of 
crossing the water ways, he turned back to our lines, rep- 
resenting himself as a Rebel deserter. Taken to the post 
guard-house, he was recognized by some of his own com- 
pany, whereupon he was tried and sentenced to death. 
General Stevenson commanded the division, by reason of 
General Terry's illness. After forming, the column moved 
slowly up the beach followed by a wagon, in which, seated 
upon his coffin, rode Lane. When the troops halted, the 
wagon passed along the line to the lower beach. There 
the coffin was unloaded, the deserter knelt upon it, and at 
a signal, in full view of all the troops, the blindfolded man 
received the musket-shots of the firing party, falling for- 
ward on his face a quivering corpse. 

Christmas day was cold and windy. The only note- 
worthy event in camp was the arrival of a mail. Besides 
fatigue parties a detail for grand guard of two hundred 
and fifty men went out under Captain Pope. Our rifles 
had sounded their fearful Christmas chimes by throwing 
shells into the city for three hours after one o'clock that 
morning. About 3 A. M. a fire broke out in Charleston 
which illumined the whole sky and destroyed twelve build- 
ings before it was subdued, the falling walls injuring many 
firemen. Chatfield joined Gregg in the bombardment 
directed upon the fire. The enemy opened rapidly for 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 145 

R. H. L. Jewett, captain of Company K ; and Lieutenant Hig- 
ginson, captain of Company H ; Second Lieutenants David 
Reid, Emerson, and Tomlinson became first lieutenants ; 
Lieutenants A. W Leonard, Lewis Reed, Alfred H. Knowles, 
Robert R. Newell, and Chas. M. Duren, newly appointed, 
reported. Captains Jones and Pope and Assistant-Surgeon 
Pease re-joined. Surgeon Stone went North, and was then 
appointed surgeon, United States Volunteers. Lieutenant 
Higginson was promoted while absent sick, and was after- 
ward transferred to the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry as cap- 
tain. Lieutenant Johnston was discharged. A change in the 
line formation was necessary after these promotions, which 
was ordered as follows, Company D being on the left : — 

DBAEHFK CGI 



Greek fire was used from our " city guns " experimentally 
in twenty shells on January 3. Previous firings with this 
compound had not been satisfactory in result. The charges 
on this day seemed more effective, apparently causing a 
fire in Charleston. It is stated on Confederate authority 
that the whole number of our shells fired into the city from 
August 21 to January 5 was 472, of which twenty-eight fell 
short. They are said to have killed five persons. Our 
opening thereupon from Cumming's Point was the occasion 
of great dismay and confusion. A hegira to the country 
took place, by railroad and every kind of vehicle laden 
with household effects. Those who remained became 
somewhat accustomed to our shelling. The collection 
of old iron after each explosion was a regular business. 
Non-exploded shells were purchased by the authori- 
ties. From the " Battery " up to Wentworth Street, about 

10 



146 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the middle of the city, nearly all the houses had been 
penetrated. 

Wagner having been thoroughly prepared for our pur- 
poses and armed, on the 12th a distinguished company 
assembled therein to witness the raising of the stars and 
stripes on the high flag-staff erected. Captain Strahan, 
Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, was made command- 
ant of the work. General Gillmore removed his head- 
quarters from Folly Island to Hilton Head about this time. 
General Terry was given command of the Northern District 
from Charleston to St. Helena. Col. W W H. Davis, 
One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania, assumed control 
of Morris Island. His force was composed of one colored 
brigade and two white brigades, besides artillerymen and 
engineers. 

During the time the Fifty -fourth had served with white 
troops a few officers and men manifested their dislike to the 
black regiment in various ways. Sometimes white sentinels 
would pretend not to see the approach of our officers, to 
avoid rendering the proper salute. Occasionally officers in 
charge of armed parties failed to give the marching salute 
to similar parties of the Fifty-fourth. In all such cases 
reports were made of the discourtesy. The following in- 
stance of preference given white troops, when on joint duty 
with blacks, occurred. Captain Emilio, with two hundred 
and fifty men and several officers, reported for grand- 
guard duty, and as the first on the ground, was entitled to 
the right of all others. This position, despite protest, was 
denied him by Maj. Michael Schmitt, Independent New 
York Battalion. When the tour of duty was completed, a 
report was made of the affair and forwarded to post head- 
quarters. The discrimination did not occur again. By 



BOMBARDMENT OF CHARLESTON. 1-17 

persistent and firm assertion of the rights of the men on 
the part of all the Fifty-fourth officers, a discontinuance of 
these and other discourtesies was at last obtained. 

There arrived from Long Island, Mass., on the 20th, some 
one hundred and twelve recruits for the regiment, which 
served to fill the ranks nearly to the maximum. With a 
single exception they were all volunteers. By this date the 
Fifty-fourth was well clothed, fully equipped, and prepared for 
any service. The colder weather, although it brought some 
discomfort, served to lessen the number of sick. Food was 
better and more varied. Quartermaster Ritchie, assisted 
by Sergeant Barquet and Private King, secured bricks 
from the old lighthouse and constructed an oven which 
furnished soft bread. It had a capacity of two hundred 
loaves each baking. 

Troops had been moving from various posts to Hilton 
Head during January, and on the 27th our brigade was 
ordered to embark as soon as transportation was provided. 
During the afternoon of the 28th everything but the tents 
was loaded upon two steamers assigned to the Fifty-fourth. 
As darkness fell, camp was struck ; but as the vessels could 
not leave until the next forenoon, the regiment through the 
early part of the night remained on shore, gathered about 
small camp-fires. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OLUSTEE. 

C"^ ENERAL GILLMORE had resolved upon an expe- 
J dition to Florida, which General Halleck approved, 
but remarked that such movements had little effect upon 
the progress of' our arms. President Lincoln also desired 
to make Florida a loyal State. Gillmore's purposes were 
to secure an outlet for cotton, lumber, turpentine, and other 
products, cut off a source of the enemy's commissary sup- 
plies, obtain recruits for the colored regiments he was au- 
thorized to form, and to inaugurate measures to restore 
Florida to her allegiance. 

In darkness, at 3 a. m., on January 29, Companies C, F, 
G, H, I, and K, embarked on the steamer " J. B. Collins," 
the remaining ones on the steamer " Monohansett." The 
departure took place at 10 a. m. It was not known that 
the regiment would ever return, so notwithstanding the 
uninviting aspect of the sandy island, its fading lines were 
scanned by all with mingled feelings of attachment and 
regret. Soon, however, the men began to chatter. Cheery 
voices exclaimed : " No more fatigue at the front ! " " We '11 
have a rest from the sound of the guns ! " " No more long- 
rolls," etc. Then they comfortably disposed themselves for 
the short voyage. Hilton Head was made at 3.45 p. m. by 
the " Monohansett," and at 7 p. m. by the " Collins," both 
vessels lying up at the pier. The companies on the former 



OLUSTEE. 149 

vessel landed at midnight, bivouacked in one of the streets, 
and early next morning marched a mile and a half to 
the Pope plantation outside the intrenchments, going into 
camp near the Second South Carolina and the Eighth 
United States Colored Troops, — the latter a new regi- 
ment from the North. Our other companies came to camp 
at 7 A. M. Tents were pitched on the 31st. A wood 
extended nearly to the camp, from which green boughs 
were brought for shelter and shade as well as fuel. All 
enjoyed the change of landscape, — green fields, trees, and 
herbage in place of the sand and sea wastes of Morris 
Island. 

Around us troops were encamped or arriving daily. The 
Third United States Colored Troops joined on the 31st, 
uniting the brigade, which was enlarged by the assign- 
ment to it of the Eighth United States Colored Troops. 
Some fifty recruits for the Fifty-fourth came on Feb- 
ruary 1 ; but as the rolls were full, a provisional com- 
pany, "L," was formed, and placed in charge of Lieut. 
T. L. Appleton. Service with the Fifty-fourth was eagerly 
sought for, and it was seen by Colonel Hallowell that 
several additional companies could be recruited. With the 
approval of General Gillmore, he therefore applied to Gov- 
ernor Andrew, on February 3, that the Fifty-fourth be 
placed on the footing of a heavy artillery regiment. This 
recommendation, however, bore no fruit. 

Captain Partridge was discharged for disability January 
19, and Captain Smith for the same cause January 25 ; 
Lieutenant Dexter having resigned, departed North, and 
afterward became second lieutenant Sixty-first Massachu- 
setts Infantry ; Chaplain Harrison received sick leave, re- 
signing at the North March 14. He was refused pay as 



150 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

chaplain, because of his color. The matter received Gov- 
ernor Andrew's attention ; and on April 23 Attorney-Gen- 
eral Bates rendered the opinion that the chaplain, because 
he was of African descent, could not be deprived of the 
pay affixed to the office he lawfully held. 

After a review by General Gillmore of all the troops on 
February 4, on returning to camp the officers were informed 
that the regiment would embark the next day. The sick, 
some recruits, and the camp were to remain in charge of 
Lieut. T. L. Appleton. Captain Jones was too ill to accom- 
pany us. 

Orders came to march at supper-time on the 5th ; and the 
Fifty-fourth proceeded from its only camp at Hilton Head 
to the pier. Major Appleton, with Companies A, B, and D, 
embarked on the steamer " Maple Leaf," which was General 
Seymour's flag-ship. Captain Emilio, with Company E, 
some recruits, Quartermaster Ritchie, and the stores, took 
passage on the schooner " R. C. A. Ward." Colonel Hal- 
lowell, with the remaining companies, was assigned to the 
steamer " General Hunter." 

Gillmore's Florida expedition was afloat, for the troops 
comprising his force had embarked on some twenty-eight 
transports, in darkness. It was probable that our point of 
attack would be unknown. But General Beauregard was 
aware of some movement, and notified General Gilmer at 
Savannah to prepare, and had troops ready to move over 
the railroads to the southward. He personally visited 
Savannah on January 16, returning to Charleston Feb- 
ruary 3. 

General Seymour, assigned to command the expedition, 
was to have a force of about seven thousand men. His 
transports were ordered to rendezvous at the mouth of 



OLUSTEE. 151 

the St. John's River, Florida. Admiral Dahlgren was to 
co-operate, with some naval vessels. 

It was most enjoyable voyaging down the coast. A 
few men were seasick, but soon recovered. The " Maple 
Leaf " arrived off the St. John's at 8.50 a. m. on the 7th, 
and the " General Hunter " at 9 A. M. Eleven steamers 
and smaller craft had arrived or were coming in ; and as 
the transports passed one another, the troops cheered 
enthusiastically There, too, the gunboats " Ottawa " and 
" Norwich " were found ready to escort the fleet. At 
about noon, the larger portion of the vessels started up 
the river for Jacksonville, some twenty-five miles distant. 

Just three hundred years before, Rene* de Laudonnidre 
led a French fleet up the same river, known then as the 
" River of May," following the lead of the famous Ribaut 
the previous year. The beautiful and historic stream 
glided to the sea as placidly as then through the marshy 
lowlands, past the white bluffs and forests of pine and 
cedar. Amid the romantic scenery, through this historic 
region, on a delightful day, the fleet proceeded up the de- 
vious stream with the gunboat " Ottawa " in the lead, fol- 
lowed by the " Maple Leaf " and " General Hunter." 
Evidences of former Federal occupation or Rebel abandon- 
ment were seen in burned saw-mills, deserted houses, and 
decayed landings. 

Upon rounding a point late in the afternoon, Jackson- 
ville appeared in view, looking much like a devastated 
Northern city, with its ruined gas-works, burned saw-mills, 
and warehouses ; but many residences and stores ap- 
peared in good repair. As the vessels approached nearer 
the town, some women and children were discovered, waving 
handkerchiefs from places near the water-front. A few 



152 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

men were also seen lurking about, as if fearing musket or 
cannon shots. When abreast of the place, the " Norwich " 
continued up the stream a short distance and anchored. 
General Seymour, on the " Maple Leaf," ran up to a wharf, 
and Major Appleton had his men ashore in a moment. A 
few cavalrymen had been discovered, who, as our Fifty- 
fourth men were formed, fired some shots, one of which 
wounded the mate of the " General Hunter," from which 
Colonel Hallowell and his six companies were disembark- 
ing. As the shots were fired, General Seymour ordered 
Major Appleton to " take his men and catch the Rebels." 
What followed, the major thus describes : — 

" I tried, but our men with knapsacks were not fleet enough. 
I had a dark overcoat on, and was conspicuous. One 'Johnny' 
took deliberate aim at me over a fence. I saw him just as he 
fired. The ball came quite close, but did not hit me. By 
orders I placed men in each street, and pushed the command to 
the outskirts of the town, with no casualties on our side. We 
took a few prisoners, civilians, etc. Porter of Company A shot 
a Rebel through his leg, and got him and his horse." 

While the major was thus engaged, the six companies of 
the regiment landed from the " General Hunter ; " and 
Colonel Hallowell, also throwing out skirmishers, advanced 
through the town to the west side, where the regiment was 
reunited soon after. Pickets were thrown out, and the 
Fifty-fourth went into bivouac for the night. 

The pursuit of the enemy was taken up and continued 
five miles by Major Stevens with his Independent Bat- 
talion Massachusetts Cavalry, which landed after the Fifty- 
fourth. They captured eleven Confederates, including some 
signal-men. 



OLUSTEE. , 153 

Transports which had been delayed having arrived with 
infantry, artillery, etc., on the 8th, at 4 P. M., General Sey- 
mour moved toward Baldwin. Much to the regret of all, 
the Fifty-fourth was ordered to remain behind. Colonel 
Hallowell was made commandant of Jacksonville. Captain 
Walton was appointed provost-marshal, with Company B 
as provost-guard. Company E, with the recruits, joined the 
regiment on the 9th. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, with 
details by companies, picketed the approaches to the town, 
holding a line mainly along two small creeks. For several 
days troops were landing and moving out to the advance. 

Before the war Jacksonville contained some three thou- 
sand inhabitants, and was the key-point of Eastern Florida. 
It had been thrice before occupied by the Federal forces, 
and twice suffered from devastating fires. The enemy only 
held it in small force, their main body being at Camp 
Finegan, eight miles inland. It contained some tasteful 
residences, on wide streets densely shaded with old trees, 
the usual public buildings, churches, and stores. On the 
outskirts were old earthworks, facing cleared ground to 
woods beyond. 

Col. Guy Y Henry's mounted troops, on the 8th, in dark- 
ness, flanked Camp Finegan, and at Ten-Mile Run cap- 
tured five guns. Early on the 9th, he occupied Baldwin, 
capturing another gun and large stores. Our infantry, the 
first evening, entered Camp Finegan, whence some two 
hundred of the enemy fled. That night the steamer " St. 
Mary " was scuttled in a small creek, the navy securing 
a rifled gun, but her cargo, of two hundred and seventy 
cotton-bales, was burned. Our infantry advanced to Bald- 
win on the 9th, over bad roads, where both Seymour and 
Gillmore also arrived that day 



154 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

On the 10th the Light Brigade, consisting of the Mas- 
sachusetts Cavalry Battalion, the Fortieth Massachusetts 
(mounted), and Elder's horse battery, First United States 
Artillery, some nine hundred men, under Colonel Henry, 
started out, followed by the infantry. About 11 a. m. 
the mounted force reached Barber's. A reconnoissance, 
with loss, disclosed the enemy, consisting of about one 
hundred and fifty men of the Second Florida Cavalry, 
under Maj. Robert Harrison, holding the south fork of the 
St. Mary's River. Henry, securing a position enfilading 
the ford, and the cavalry battalion charging across, drove 
the enemy in confusion, capturing their horses and arms. 
We lost four killed and thirteen wounded ; the enemy, two 
killed and three wounded. Henry resumed the advance at 
1 p. M., entering Sanderson three hours later. Gen. Joseph 
Finegan, the Confederate commander of East Florida, had 
retired, firing buildings and stores. The infantry column 
reached Barber's at midnight on the 10th. Henry, at San- 
derson, rested until 2 a. m. on the 11th, when he again set 
out. No enemy was encountered until 11 a. m., when his 
skirmishers were found in the woods near Lake City. 
After developing his line, and a company had broken 
through the enemy's left, Henry, fearing to be outflanked 
by a stronger force, retired five miles. But the Confederate 
reports show that General Finegan had there in Henry's 
front only four hundred and fifty infantry, one hundred 
and ten cavalry, and two guns. Our loss was three men 
wounded; the enemy's, two killed and several wounded. 
The result of this affair was most unfortunate. It was the 
turning-point of the Florida expedition, for had the smaller 
Confederate force been driven by Henry's superior one, and 
followed up sharply at that time before Finegan's rein- 



OLUSTEE. 155 

forcements had arrived, Seymour might have gone to the 
Suwanee River, a strong, defensive line. 

Seymour arrived at Sanderson with Barton's brigade on 
the evening of the 11th, amid a torrent of rain. Gillmore 
on the 11th sent instructions to Seymour not to risk a re- 
pulse at Lake City, but to hold Sanderson and the south 
fork of the St. Mary's. Seymour withdrew to Barber's 
on the 12th. 

From Jacksonville on the 10th, Major Appleton, with 
Companies C, D, F, and K, went to Camp Finegan, where 
the next day he was joined by Company E, and on the 12th 
his force marched to Baldwin. This hamlet was the junc- 
tion of the Atlantic and Gulf, and Fernandina and Cedar 
Keys railroads. It consisted of a hotel, railroad depot, 
freight-house, and a few small, unpainted dwellings. The 
telegraph was in working order from there to Jacksonville. 
Supplies were brought up by means of captured cars drawn 
along the rails by horses. 

Col. B. C. Tilghman, Third United States Colored Troops, 
with his regiment, and a company of the First New York 
Engineers, held the post. Work began and continued 
daily on intrenchments, block houses, and a stockade. 
Scouting parties and foraging details went out each day, 
the latter bringing in beeves, poultry, and potatoes. Pickets 
from the Fifty-fourth alternated with those from the Third 
United States Colored Troops, and furnished garrisons for 
the block houses and stockades. 

From beyond the St. Mary's our advance forces had been 
all drawn back to Barber's by the 13th. Henry was sent 
to the southward. Capt. George Marshall, Fortieth Massa- 
chusetts, at Gainesville on the 15th repulsed the noted 
Captain Dickison, Second Florida Cavalry, with a superior 



156 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

force. From Barber's on the 14th a detachment went to 
Callahan Station and destroyed the railroad and bridges 
there. 

This Florida expedition was a subject of Congressional 
inquiry. Seymour's letters disclose a most remarkable 
change of views and purposes. Gillmore was for holding 
Jacksonville as a base, and Baldwin, Pilatka, and other 
secondary posts with small garrisons and earthworks. 
After a conference with Seymour on the 14th at Jack- 
sonville, Gillmore departed for Hilton Head. In his re- 
port to Halleck he says, — 

" I considered it well understood at the time between Gen- 
eral Seymour and myself that no advance would be made 
without further instructions from me until the defences were 
well advanced." 

Seymour, left in command, at once issued a number of 
orders for the governing of his territory. One of these 
honored the memory of the regiment's first commander in 
the following words : — 

Headquarters District of Florida, Dep't of the South, 
Jacksonville, Fla., Feb. 16, 1864. 

General Orders No. 2. 

The Camp of Instruction, established by direction from De- 
partment headquarters on the railroad eight miles from Jackson- 
ville, will be known as Camp Shaw, in memory of the young 
and devoted patriot who fell in the assault of July 18, 1863, 
upon Fort Wagner, S. C, and whose name will constantly sug- 
gest to the troops of this camp all that is honorable and 

meritorious. 

By order of 

Brig.-Gen. T. Seymour. 
R. M. Hall, 1st Lieut. 1st U. S. ArVy, Act. Ass't-Adj't-Gen'l. 



OLUSTEE. 157 

Disregarding his instructions, Seymour prepared to exe- 
cute the advance which he had resolved to make, seemingly 
in complete ignorance of the enemy's force. Disaster and 
failure were inevitable. By letter on the 17th, he informed 
Gillmore that he would move to the Suwanee River to destroy 
the railroad. His letter closed with a postscript reflecting 
upon all his higher officers in these words : " Send me a 
general for the command of the advance troops, or I shall 
be in a state of constant apprehension." On the 18th Gill- 
more did send him a general in the person of General 
Turner, his chief of staff, not for the purpose requested, 
but to suspend the movement, bring Seymour back to Bald- 
win, and deliver letters expressing his surprise at the 
advance. When Turner, delayed many hours by stormy 
weather, reached Jacksonville, Seymour was engaged with 
the enemy. 

In response to calls in every direction for help, General 
Finegan began to receive aid immediately after our retire- 
ment from Lake City. On the 13th, with a force num- 
bering two thousand men, he moved forward toward 
Sanderson, taking post at Olustee, where he constructed 
strong works, to better defend his position. Reinforce- 
ments continued to join, so that on the 18th he had 
forty-six hundred infantry (largely veterans), about six 
hundred cavalry, and three batteries of twelve guns. The 
enemy's knowledge of our force was accurate, and of our 
plans considerable, for despatches from Gillmore to Terry 
at Polly Island were intercepted and deciphered. Beaui e- 
gard therefore stripped his garrisons elsewhere to meet us 
in Florida. 

A diversion made by General Schimmelfennig on John's 
Island, S. C, occurred too early, and another by Col. J. B. 



158 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Howell, Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania, at Whitmarsh Island, 
Ga., too late to serve Seymour. 

Colonel Hallowell, commanding Jacksonville, occupied the 
Crespo house as headquarters. The Fifty-fifth Massachu- 
setts arrived on the 14th, and the next day relieved the 
Fifty -fourth from picket and provost-guard duty. Colonel 
Hartwell succeeded Colonel Hallowell in command of the 
post. Second Lieut. Thomas S. Bridgham, a brother of our 
assistant-surgeon, first joined at Jacksonville. 

With Companies A, B, G, and H, at 8 a. m., February 18, 
Colonel Hallowell set out from Jacksonville for Baldwin. 
A march of some eighteen miles was made that day, and 
the next morning at 8.30 o'clock the Fifty-fourth was again 
reunited. Our pickets and details were relieved, rations of 
coffee and sugar issued, knapsacks lightened of much cloth- 
ing, which was stored, and the regiment moved at 10 A. m., 
with orders to report at Barber's. The distance of twelve 
miles was compassed with four halts for rest. Mile after 
mile of pine barren was passed through, bounding the 
sandy road on either side, many of the trees bearing the 
scarification of the axe made to secure the resinous sap. 
But few habitations were encountered, and those seen were 
small log or slab huts, in cleared spaces, whose only touch 
of beauty were the apple and peach trees in blossom. 

About 6 p. M. the Fifty-fourth arrived at Barber's, 
bivouacking in the woods on the left of the road near the 
First North Carolina. Fires were made ; and the quarter- 
master having borrowed four days' rations of hard bread, 
the men made a hasty meal, and turned in for the night. 
There had been no time or inclination to look about, but there 
around Barber's house lay Seymour's little army of some 
five thousand men resting beside the flickering camp-fires. 



OLUSTEE. 159 

Reveille sounded at 5 a. m. on the eventful Feb. 20, 
1864, and at seven o'clock the troops began to move, — 
the Light Brigade in advance, followed by Hawley's, then 
Barton's, the Artillery, and Montgomery's in rear guard- 
ing the train. Just before the Fifty-fourth started, Major 
Appleton was ordered to remain in command at Barber's, 
with Company E on picket, covering the railroad trestle, 
and Company A at Barber's house. Lieut. Lewis Reed, 
with thirty men, was to protect the telegraph line as the 
column advanced. 

In fine spirits, the Fifty-fourth, followed by the First 
North Carolina, began the march, while the men sang, 
" We 're bound for Tallahassee in the morning." The 
country was more open than that below. Tbe road ran 
for long distances beside the railroad. Occasionally the 
forest widened out into savannas yellow with grasses and 
dotted with hemlock patches. From a clear sky the warm 
sun glistened and gleamed through the tall pines bordering 
the pathway. About every hour the brigade halted for a 
short rest. 

Sanderson, some nine miles from Barber's, was reached 
by our advance before noon. People there stated that the 
enemy were in force beyond, and truly predicted our defeat ; 
but their words were little heeded. Near an old mill be- 
yond Sanderson, Henry's men came upon a few cavalry 
of the enemy, who fled when fired upon. Henry halted 
there until Hawley's infantry and Hamilton's battery came 
up, when the advance was resumed, the Seventh Connecti- 
cut, as skirmishers, leading. 

Meanwhile, General Finegan at Olustee, receiving word 
that we were approaching in small numbers, sent out his 
cavalry under Col. Carraway Smith, with orders to skir- 



160 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

mish and draw us on to the works at Olustee. As sup- 
port he sent the Sixty-fourth Georgia and two companies 
of the Thirty-second Georgia. Moving forward two miles, 
where the wagon-road crossed the railroad, the infantry 
halted, the cavalry proceeding until near a point where the 
railroad recrossed the country road. The intervening 
ground, between the two crossings, was the battlefield of 
Olustee. The Confederates call the action the battle of 
Ocean Pond, from the extensive lake near the field on the 
north. 

Over the last-mentioned crossing our skirmishers ad- 
vanced at about 1.30 p. m., Elder's battery occasionally 
shelling the woods. The enemy's cavalry fell back, as 
instructed, to their infantry, at the crossing. At that 
point, Brig.-Gen. A. H. Colquitt had arrived with the Sixth, 
Nineteenth, and Twenty-eighth Georgia, and ordering the 
cavalry to his flanks, threw out skirmishers and formed 
line of battle. Perceiving our strength, he sent for re- 
inforcements and ammunition. 

Moving through open pine woods, our advance now met 
firm resistance for the first time. By General Seymour's 
direction, Hawley moved his brigade into line. Personally 
leading the Seventh New Hampshire by the flank to the 
right, to avoid a small pond, he ordered a deployment 
under fire. He supposed the noise and confusion caused 
his order to be misunderstood, for the Seventh scattered, 
and went drifting to the rear notwithstanding the efforts 
of Colonel Abbott, his officers, and the gallant color-bearer, 
Thomas H. Simington. Hamilton placed his six guns 
under heavy fire within one hundred and fifty yards of the 
enemy ; and the Eighth United States Colored Troops 
went into line on the left. Henry, with the Fortieth 




PLAN OF 

BATTLE OF 

OLUSTEE, FLA. 

FEBY 20, 1864. 

MB UNION FORCES __^ * -ji f 

CONFEDERATE FORCES ^gigS^ _\\ ^/^ =^^ -^s=V<> 



fJoTE po^iXiQN °F FORCES AT 
TIME 54" WENT I NTO /\CTi°^ 



q, 4 
2 



"4 * * \\ 



OLUSTEE. 161 

Massachusetts (mounted) and the Massachusetts Cavalry 
Battalion, held the flanks. Opposed to a superior force 
and murderous fire, the Seventh Connecticut and Eighth 
United States Colored Troops were, after excessive losses, 
forced to give ground. Hamilton, who was wounded, 
bravely supported the line with his guns, but was finally 
obliged to abandon two pieces for want of horses to bring 
them off. Col. Charles W Fribley, of the Eighth United 
States Colored Troops, after displaying the utmost gal- 
lantry, was mortally wounded. 

But fresh troops were at hand, for Barton's brigade was 
coming up, supported by Elder's battery of four pieces on 
the right, and Langdon's battery of six guns, with a section 
(two guns) of Battery C, Third Rhode Island Artillery, under 
Lieut. Henry Metcalf, on the left. Barton formed on the 
right of the road at the new position taken up by Hawley.. 
Colquitt, however, had received reinforcements, putting 
the Sixth Florida Battalion and Twenty-third Georgia into 
line, and the First Georgia (regulars) and the Thirty-sec- 
ond Georgia, which arrived shortly after, to prolong his left. 
He then advanced with the Chatham Artillerv in rear of 
his centre, opening a destructive fire along the whole front. 
Finding feeble opposition on his right, he threw the Sixth 
Florida Battalion forward to enfilade our line. Barton now 
only maintained his position at a terrible cost of officers 
and men, and all his regimental commanders — Col. Henry 
Moore, Forty-seventh, Major W B. Coan, Forty-eighth, and 
Colonel Sammon, One Hundred and Fifteenth New York 
— wounded. Colquitt's men were out of cartridges for a 
time ; but supplies came, and fresh troops also, composed 
of a section of Guerard's Battery, Bonaud's Battalion, the 
Twenty -seventh Georgia, and Second Florida Battalion. 

11 



162 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The enemy's artillery too was supplemented by a heavy gun 
mounted on a railroad car. With these accessions to his 
force, Colquitt moved the Sixth and Thirty-second Georgia 
to flank the right of Barton's brigade, and notwithstand- 
ing stubborn resistance, was gradually forcing it back. 

General Seymour throughout these events was present 
on the field, exhibiting great personal gallantry. Discern- 
ing that victory was not for him, after such grievous 
losses, he sent to hasten the colored brigade into action, 
and made disposition to retire under cover of Montgom- 
ery's attack. 

About 2.30 p. m. the colored brigade was resting, — the 
Fifty-fourth in the shade on the left of the road at a place 
where wood had lately been felled. Musketry firing had 
been heard in the distance, but after a time there came 
the sound of cannon. " That's home-made thunder," said 
one man. " I don't mind the thunder if the lightning don't 
strike me ! " was the response. Another remarked, " I 
want to go home ! " " You '11 stay forever, maybe ! " was 
the reply. Soon an orderly rode up at full speed, calling 
for the commanding officer. Colonel Hallowell sprang to 
his feet, and received an order for his rapid advance. In 
a few moments the regiment was moving at the double- 
quick, urged on by the heavier sound of battle. When the 
pace began to tell on the men, knapsacks, blankets, and 
even haversacks were cast away to lighten their load. At 
the railroad crossing, Colonel Montgomery, who was lead- 
ing, was met by a staff-officer from General Seymour, bring- 
ing the order to move forward he had anticipated. 

Nearing the battleground, resounding with cannon-shots 
and musketry, the dispiriting scene so trying to troops about 
to engage, of hundreds of wounded and stragglers, was en- 



OLUSTEE. 163 

countered. All sorts of discouraging shouts met the ear as 
the regiment speeded onward, as, " We 're badly whipped ! " 
" You '11 all get killed." Still farther on was part of a dis- 
abled battery also going to the rear. But through this rift 
and drift of conflict the tired and panting men pressed on, 
and led by Sergeant Cezar of Company D, found breath 
to shout their battle-cry, " Three cheers for Massachusetts 
and seven dollars a month ! " As the Fifty-fourth advanced, 
the field hospital of the Eighth United States Colored Troops 
was passed, which its coming saved from the threatening 
enemy. Adjutant Howard relates that as he was riding 
over the field beside Colonel Hallowell, General Seymour 
rode up to that officer and told him in substance that 
the day was lost, and that everything depended on the 
Fifty-fourth. 

When the regiment arrived at the battle-front, it was 
about four o'clock. Colonel Hawley in his report thus 
describes the event : — 

" Colonel Montgomery's brigade had come up. The Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts, Colonel Hallowell, went into action on 
our left, the First North Carolina on our right between us and 
Barton's retiring brigade, halting and firing fiercely, with its 
right well forward so as to form an angle of perhaps 120° with 
the line of the Fifty-fourth." 

He further says, — 

"About that time an aid came to say that the general wished 
me to fall back, as the enemy were only feinting on our right, 
and were preparing to flank us in force." 

This, then, was the situation as the Fifty-fourth took 
position : Barton retiring ; the only other infantry — the 
Seventh Connecticut Battalion — ordered to fall back ; 



164 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

and Seymour believing that the enemy were preparing to 
flank us on the left, where the Fifty-fourth alone were taking 
post. "Well might Seymour think that everything depended 
on our regiment. Under these adverse conditions the 
colored brigade was to hold the enemy in check until 
a new line could be formed in the rear. 

Colonel Hallowell led his regiment by the flank into the 
woods on the left of the road, and forming by file into line, 
immediately opened fire. The Fifty-fourth had thirteen 
officers and 497 men in action, with a formation as below, 
Company D being on the left, — 

DBHFKCGI 



The following-named officers were present, — Colonel 
Hallowell, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, Acting Adjutant 
Howard ; Company I, Lieutenant Homans ; Company G, 
Lieut. David Reid ; Company C, Lieutenant Tomlinson, 
commanding, and Lieutenant Bridgham ; Company K, Lieu- 
tenant Littlefield, commanding, and Lieutenant Leonard ; 
Company F, Captain Bridge ; Company H, Lieutenant Chip- 
man ; Company B, Lieutenant Xewell ; Company D, Lieu- 
tenant Duren. Assistant-Surgeons Bridgham and Peaso, and 
Quartermaster Ritchie, were on the field. Sergeant Wilkins, 
of Companv D, bore the national flag in the ranks of Com- 
pany K, and Corporal Peal, of Company F, the State color. 
Captains Pope and Jewett, of the Fifty-fourth, on Colonel 
Montgomery's staff, took part in the action. 

About the same time the First North Carolina went into 
action on the right of the road. The Fifty-fourth formed 
in a grove of pine extending around on every side over 
ground nearly level. So open was the forest that the 



OLUSTEE. 165 

enemy's line and colors could be seen about four bundred 
yards distant, with two guns in front of our right well 
advanced, apparently without much support. On the ex- 
treme left front were guns covered by the railroad embank- 
ment. A Confederate plan of the battle shows Bonaud's 
battalion advanced, supported by the Nineteenth Georgia 
and Sixth Florida, all between the wagon-road and the 
railroad, while beyond the railroad to their right were two 
guns of Guerard's battery and some cavalry. Only the 
Fifty -fourth in the latter part of the action was on our left 
of the wagon-road in the battle-front. 

Upon taking position the regiment received a steady but 
not severe musketry fire, with a flanking fire of shell from 
the artillery on our left front. The horses of the field and 
staff had been sent to the rear. Colonel Hallowell mounted 
the stump of a tree some fifty feet in rear of his centre to 
oversee his men and the position. After a time Companies 
D and B on the left were thrown back to present a better 
front and guard that flank. While retiring from making 
report of this to Colonel Hallowell, Acting Sergeant- 
Major Swails was wounded. 

On the extreme right, Lieutenant Homans, an impetuous 
and brave officer, noticing the exposed position of the two 
pieces, sprang in front of his line, and shouting, " Now is a 
good opportunity ; we '11 try and take those guns ! " led his 
men forward ; but he was soon ordered back into line. 

In the centre, where Captain Bridge was prominent, our 
companies were enduring an increased musketry fire from 
front and flank. Sharpshooters were observed perched in 
the trees, but a few volleys brought them down. We were 
sustaining casualties every moment ; but most of the 
missiles passed overhead. 



166 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Assistant-Surgeons Bridgham and Pease brought their 
ambulance to the field and proceeded to establish them- 
selves not far from the line. After some time, and a shell 
having fallen near by, they retired to a less exposed place. 
Colonel Montgomery, accompanied by his staff, was round 
and about the Fifty-fourth line exposing himself freely ; 
perceiving the strong fire coming from the direction of 
the railroad, he shouted, " Fire to the left ! Fire to the 
left ! " 

Under such conditions after a while the men began to 
chafe, and exhibit a desire for aggressive action. Already 
Warren Moorhouse, of Company E, and another man had 
crept out as sharpshooters. Sergeant Stephens, of Company 
B, remembered distinctly that " a little black fellow, whose 
name I cannot recall, would run forward beyond the line in 
his excitement, discharging his piece, fall back and load, 
and then rush out again. Our line was doing its level 
best. Shortly, this man I speak of fell, shot through 
the head." 

Now there occurred an episode which shows that the 
colored soldiers, of the Fifty -fourth at least, possessed 
other than passive courage. They had, as stated, endured 
the situation with growing impatience. Suddenly Sergeant 
Wilkins, with the national flag, was seen advancing, fol- 
lowed by the men about him. They had proceeded some 
one hundred and fifty paces when Colonel Hallo well, 
realizing that the regiment without orders might follow 
them into a dangerous position unsupported, sent word 
for a return. 

Meanwhile in the action Captain Jewett (who had been 
relieved from staff duty at his own request), Lieuten- 
ants Littlefield and Tomlinson, and many men had been 



OLUSTEE. 167 

wounded, and some killed. The regiment had been firing 
very rapidly ; for many of the men, by jarring their pieces 
on the ground, sent the loads home without using the ram- 
rods. It was observed that the musketry fire of the enemy 
was more effective than that of their artillery. Their shells 
were fired too high, passing over into the trees back of the 
Fifty-fourth. From the heavy gun on the railroad car 
came reports which dominated all other battle sounds. 

This spirited movement into action of the colored brigade 
is acknowledged to have caused the enemy's right to give 
way somewhat, and imperilled the guns of Captain Whea- 
ton's Chatham Artillery. Under cover of its onset Sey- 
mour withdrew his white troops to a new line some one 
hundred yards in the rear, — Langdon being forced to aban- 
don three of his guns. This retirement was continued in 
successive lines of battle. A newspaper correspondent, 
writing of the action, said, " The two colored regiments had 
stood in the gap and saved the army." But the cost had 
been great, particularly to the First North Carolina, for 
it lost Lieut.-Col. Wm. N. Reed, commanding, mortally 
wounded ; Maj. A. Bogle, Adjt. W C. Manning, three cap- 
tains, and five lieutenants wounded ; one captain killed, 
and some two hundred and thirty enlisted men killed, 
wounded, or missing. Having maintained the contest for 
some time, it was withdrawn. 

Every organization had retired but the Fifty-fourth, and 
our regiment stood alone. From the position first taken 
up it still held back the enemy in its front. What had 
occurred elsewhere was not known. Why the Fifty-fourth 
was left thus exposed is inexplicable. No orders were 
received to retire. No measures were taken for its safe 
withdrawal. It would seem either that the position of 



168 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

the regiment was forgotten, or its sacrifice considered 
necessary. 

Darkness came on early amid the tall pines. It was now 
about 5.80 p. m. The Fifty -fourth had lost heavily- Cor- 
poral Peal, with the State color, was mortally wounded, 
and from his hands Corp. Preston Helman, of Company E, 
received the flag. Of the color guard Corporal Gooding, of 
Company C, was mortally wounded, and Corporals Glasgow 
of B and Palmer of K were also wounded. One other non- 
commissioned officer was killed, and seven wounded. Only 
a few cartridges remained in the boxes ; more were brought, 
but they proved to be of the wrong calibre. 

From the sounds of battle extending behind our right, 
it at last became apparent that our forces had fallen back. 
Colonel Montgomery was with the Fifty -fourth, and seems 
to have determined to retire it in his bushwhacking way. 
This he did, as his staff-officer Captain Pope relates, by 
telling the men to save themselves. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper recalls that the men informed him that Montgomery 
said, " Now, men, you have done well. I love you all. Each 
man take care of himself." But this plan did not please 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, so telling Color Sergeant Wil- 
kins to stand fast, and securing the co-operation of officers 
and reliable men near at hand, he shouted, " Bally ! " and a 
line was again formed. 

At this time Colonel Hallowell with others became sepa- 
rated from the main portion. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, 
thus in command, briefly addressed the men, ordered bayo- 
nets fixed, and exercised the regiment in the manual of 
arms to bring it completely under control. Lieutenant 
Loveridge of Montgomery's staff at Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper's request rode out to the right, and returning, 



OLUSTEE. 169 

reported the enemy following our forces without order. The 
regiment was then directed to give nine loud cheers to 
make it appear we were receiving reinforcements. In line 
of battle faced to the rear the Fifty-fourth then marched 
off the field, stopping every two or three hundred yards 
and retiring again. The enemy did not follow closely, 
but some of their cavalry were on the right flank. Stray 
cannon-shots and musket-balls occasionally fell about. 
After thus moving back some considerable distance, the 
Fifty-fourth, passing through woods, came in sight on the 
left of part of a regiment armed with breech-loaders. This 
body of men retired, and soon another body of men was 
encountered, which also retired. At last the regiment 
came up with Seymour's main force, where Colonel Hallo- 
well found it, and assumed command. 

Before the Fifty-fourth retired, the boxes of unused 
ammunition of the wrong calibre were thrown into mud- 
holes. Assistant-Surgeon Bridgham also sent on before 
his only ambulance with wounded officers and men. Lieu- 
tenant Leonard, when leaving the field, found Adjutant 
Manning, First North Carolina, helplessly wounded ; so 
swinging his friend upon his back, he carried him to a 
point of safety. Sergeant Swails, wounded in the head, 
set out toward Sanderson, but soon fell exhausted beside 
the road, unable to make himself known. Lieut. Lewis 
Reed, passing by, recognized him, and had him placed on 
a cart. Sergeant Vogelsang relates that Colonel Hallo- 
well had, in charge of a servant, a mule laden with his 
camp kit, etc., packed in two champagne baskets. Upon 
going to the rear, some guards would not allow the servant 
and his mule to pass. The servant pleaded with them, 
saying, " Gentlemen, for God's sake, let the mule go ! " and 



170 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

while doing so, the mule, taking matters into its own hands, 
kicked up its heels and broke through the line, strewing 
the path with pots, kettles, and pans, tipped out of the 
overturned baskets. This caused great merriment ; and 
"Let the mule go!" became a saying in the regiment. 

From the general field hospital, established behind a small 
stream, Seymour made his final retirement. Some forty 
men severely wounded were left in charge of Assistant- 
Surgeon Devendorf, Forty-eighth New York, there ; and 
at Sanderson some twenty-three more remained. Moving 
toward Sanderson, the narrow road was choked with a 
flowing torrent of soldiers on foot, wounded and unwounded, 
vehicles of every description laden with wrecks of men, 
while amid the throng rode others, many of whom roughly 
forced their jaded animals through the crowd. In this 
throng generous and self-sacrificing men were seen helping 
along disabled comrades, and some shaking forms with 
bandaged heads or limbs, still carrying their trusty mus- 
kets. About the sides of the road exhausted or bleeding 
men were lying, unable to proceed, resigned, or thoughtless 
of inevitable captivity. 

While our advance presented these deplorable scenes, 
the rear-guard was still full of courage and obedient to 
command. Notable among these organizations were the 
Seventh Connecticut, the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, and 
Henry's brigade. When Sanderson was reached, the troops 
halted until the place was cleared of wounded and vehicles, 
when fires were set to stores previously spared, and it was 
abandoned. With the Seventh Connecticut deployed in 
rear of the infantry, and Henry's mounted men covering 
all, the army retired to Barber's, destroying bridges and 
the railroad as they proceeded. 



OLUSTEE. 171 

General Finegan, who came upon the field during the 
later part of the action, ordered Colquitt to pursue and 
occupy Sanderson. Colquitt representing that his men 
were fatigued and without food, and that reports had come 
in that we had gone into camp and were in good order, 
these instructions were countermanded. Finegan states that 
although he gave repeated orders for his cavalry under 
Colonel Smith to press our flanks and pursue, it was not 
done except by two companies on our right for a short 
distance. All the Confederates, except one regiment, re- 
tired to Olustee that night, and no advance was made in 
force by the enemy until February 22. 

Major Appleton at Barber's was relieved just after dark 
by Colonel Hartwell with six companies of the Fifty-fifth 
Massachusetts. He then set out, as instructed, to join the 
regiment with the two companies, and Lieut. W B. Pease 
and twenty-five men of the Eighth United States Colored 
Troops, who had come up. Ten miles on, a surgeon with 
wounded gave the first intimation of defeat, although the 
firing had been heard at Barber's. Hastening onward 
through an ever-increasing throng, when within one mile 
of Sanderson Major Appleton halted, disposing his men to 
restore order. The sight of his compact little force was 
encouraging; and the un wounded, when approached, readily 
placed themselves in line until some six hundred men were 
collected. Major Appleton soon received orders to escort 
the train to Barber's, and did so, arriving at 2 a. m. on the 
21st. 

Forming part of the covering column, the Fifty -fourth 
made the night-march over the littered road until at 2 a. m. 
the bivouac fires of the Fifty-fifth at Barber's were reached. 
Then the regiment, worn out with the enervating events of 



172 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the day, and the march of thirty-two miles since the pre- 
ceding morning, went to rest on the ground previously oc- 
cupied. Soon, however, Companies A and E were detailed 
for picket across the St. Mary's, — the former on the line, 
and the latter occupying a block house. Pickets from the 
Fifty-fifth were also put out. An attack was of course 
expected ; but notwithstanding the probable danger, it was 
difficult for the officers to keep their exhausted men awake. 
But the night passed without alarm of any kind. Through- 
out those hours the wounded and stragglers kept coming in. 
Barber's house and outbuildings were used to shelter the 
wounded, while others were taken to or gathered about the 
large fires Colonel Hartwell caused to be made. Assistant- 
Surgeon Bridgham sheltered the wounded of the Fifty- 
fourth in an old house, and never ceased to care for them 
till morning. 

Olustee was the most sanguinary engagement in which 
the troops of the Department met the enemy. Our loss 
was greater than in many better-known actions else- 
where. Fought without the shelter of earthworks, with 
nearly equal numbers on each side, it was a fair field 
fight. Our force was beaten in detail, as they came up, 
Seymour repeating his error committed at the assault of 
Wagner. It is natural to speculate as to the result, had 
he amused the enemy with skirmishers until all his troops 
arrived on the field, and then attacked, or attempted to 
draw the enemy on to a selected position ; but had Sey- 
mour prevailed at Ocean Pond, there still was the strong 
intrenched position at Olustee Station to encounter. 

Phisterer's Statistical Record gives the Union loss as 193 
killed, 1,175 wounded, and 460 missing, a total of 1,828. 
Many of the wounds were slight, however. Our losses in 



OLUSTEE. 173 

the Fifty-fourth are given by the Adjutant-General of 
Massachusetts as three officers wounded, and of enlisted 
men thirteen killed, sixty-three wounded, and eight missing. 
It is probable that besides Corporal Gooding, of Com- 
pany C, who died at Andersonville Prison, several others 
of the Fifty-fourth reported missing were there confined. 
General Finegan gives his casualties as 93 killed and 
841 wounded. His killed included Lieutenant-Colonel 
Barrow, Sixty-fourth Georgia, Captain Cameron command- 
ing, and Lieutenants Dancy and Holland, First Georgia 
(regulars). Among his wounded were Colonel Evans, 
Sixty-fourth Georgia, Col. D. L. Clinch, Fourth Georgia 
Cavalry, and Captain Crawford, Twenty-eighth Georgia. 
After the war in 1867 or 1868 the remains of Union sol- 
diers buried on the field of Olustee were taken to the 
National Cemetery at Beaufort, S. C, for reinterment. 
The battlefield remains in much the same state as in 
1864, — an open pine barren with many trees bearing the 
scarifications of shot and shell. 

Provision was made for carrying the wounded from 
Barber's, February 21, by placing them on wagons, and on 
cars drawn by animals over the railroad. Our army fol- 
lowed in three parallel columns. The Fifty-fourth, placed 
under Colonel Hawley's command, moved at 9 a. m. When 
relieved from picket, Companies A and E were temporarily 
attached to the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, which, with two 
other regiments, retired from Barber's in line of battle for 
some distance, covering the other infantry. In rear of all 
was the Light Brigade. Passing through Darby's, where 
an immense pile of barrels of turpentine was flaming and 
smoking, the regiment arrived at Baldwin about 4 p. m. 



174 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

The Fifty-fourth was not allowed to take the clothing 
left there, which was destroyed with other stores. There 
Companies A and E re-joined, and the regiment con- 
tinued on to near McGirt's Creek, where it halted for the 
night after throwing out pickets. A twenty-two mile march 
had been made that day. Barton's brigade and Mont- 
gomery with the First North Carolina continued on farther. 

At 4 A. m. on the 22d the Fifty-fourth stood to arms 
until daylight. Hawley, with the Fifty fourth, Seventh 
New Hampshire, and Eighth United States Colored Troops, 
moved on at 7 A. M., the Seventh Connecticut having 
been left at Baldwin to support the Light Brigade. Four 
miles farther on, Colonel Hallowell received orders from 
General Seymour to march his regiment back to Ten-Mile 
Station, and bring on the railroad train, as the locomo- 
tive had broken down. It was a hard trial for the footsore 
and hungry men to retrace their steps ; but the thought of 
the cars laden with wounded nerved them to the task, so 
they faced about cheerfully. Upon arriving at the station, 
Quartermaster Ritchie found some hard bread on the train 
which he distributed to our men, sadly in need of food. 
Then ropes were attached to the engine and cars ; and the 
Fifty -fourth furnishing the motive-power, they were pushed 
and dragged over the rails to Camp Finegan, where horses 
were provided for further progress. 

Dr. Marsh, of the Sanitary Commission, who was present, 
thus describes this event : — 

" Through eagerness to escape the supposed pursuing enemy, 
too great pressure of steam was employed, and the flue collapsed ; 
and here the immortal Fifty-fourth (colored) did what ought to 
insure it higher praise than to hold the field in the face of a 
victorious foe, — with ropes it seized the engine (now useless) 



OLUSTEE. 175 

and dragged it with its doomed freight for many miles. 
They knew their fate if captured ; their humanity triumphed. 
Does history record a nobler deed?" 

During our short halt at Camp Finegan the men rested 
after their exhaustive efforts. Lieutenant Knight, Second 
South Carolina, kindly brought refreshments for the officers ; 
and the men were supplied with some rations. The march 
was resumed at 4 p. M., and the Fifty-fourth without further 
incident arrived at Jacksonville about 8 p. m., going into 
camp on the old ground outside the town. Nearly one 
half the regiment was without shoes ; their blankets and 
knapsacks were sacrificed to get speedily into action ; 
they had no rations or shelter, so with crippled feet and 
weary limbs they cast themselves on the bare ground for 
rest after the march of twenty-two miles that day. The 
Adjutant-General of Massachusetts reported that " the 
Fifty-fourth marched 120 miles in 102 hours, yet the roll- 
call showed no stragglers ; " and it should be added, of this 
time forty-four hours were given to sleep. 

Seymour's infantry was all back at Jacksonville or vicin- 
ity by the 22d ; his mounted force was in advance at Cedar 
Run. As it was feared the enemy would attack Jackson- 
ville, reinforcements arrived daily, including Brigadier- 
General Vogdes with Foster's and Ames's brigades. An 
extensive line of earthworks was begun, encircling the 
town. 

General Finegan, having repaired the railroad, advanced, 
occupying the territory to within ten or twelve miles of 
Jacksonville. He was soon succeeded by Brig.-Gen. W M. 
Gardner. By March 3 the Confederate force in front 
numbered some eight thousand men. Their position was 
soon protected by earthworks, and was called Camp Milton. 



176 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

A mail received February 24 brought news of the dis- 
charge of Captain Higginson for transfer, and Adjutant 
James and Lieutenant Pratt for disability- Assistant- 
Surgeon Bridgham resigned, and departed on the 26th. 
In accordance with the desire of his officers as well as 
his own, Colonel Hallowell on the 24th recommended to 
Governor Andrew that Sergeant Swails be commissioned, 
in recognition of many soldierly qualities and his gal- 
lantry at Olustee. 

Our short season of quiet was disturbed on the 25th, 
when, in the morning, camp was moved to a point south 
of the railroad near the cemetery, in a grove and partly in a 
brickyard, next the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts. Soon both 
regiments were ordered back as the pickets were retiring. 
The Fifty-fourth took post on the left of the railroad in 
prolongation of the earthworks, and after two hours' work 
its front was covered by a good parapet. Quartermaster 
Ritchie hauled out ammunition, and then as no crackers 
were to be had, finding an old oven, had soft bread baked. 
The worthy quartermaster describes his first batch as '' a 
sort of indigestible paste very good for diarrhoea." 

Our wounded were first cared for at Jacksonville, and 
then sent to Hilton Head and Beaufort. Major Appleton, 
on the 26th, with Companies A, B, and E, was sent to 
occupy works at the front as a reserve, should the cavalry 
be forced back. That day the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth 
Massachusetts were brigaded together for the first time, 
under Col. M. S. Littlefield, Twenty-first United States 
Colored Troops. Our camp was again shifted to the brick- 
yard on the 27th. Late that day Company E and thirty 
men of Company F, with Lieutenants Lewis Reed and 
Knowles, under Captain Emilio, were sent to guard the 





Harm* 




W* 



■p. 



?>,;' 




Abraham Brown, Pvt., Co. E. ~~ [Charles W Lenox, Color Serg., Co. A. 

Milo J. Freeland, Pvt., Co. A. 
Charles H. Arxum. Pvt., Co. E. Asa Cotton, Sergt. , Co. K. 



OLUSTEE. 177 

railroad and telegraph to Cedar Run. Messrs. Jones and 
Whitfield, sutlers, arrived with a cargo of goods on the 28th, 
and as they gave credit to the men, were well patronized. 

About this time a corporal and private of the Fifty-fourth, 
posted on the railroad, while firing at a stray hog acci- 
dentally wounded a bandsman of the Fortieth Massachusetts. 
Col. Guy V Henry sent for the men, took them to his camp, 
and there tied them up in a manner which caused great 
suffering. General Seymour expressed his intention to 
have the men shot. Such threats for trivial offences were 
frequent during General Seymour's command in Florida. 
An officer of the One Hundred and Fifteenth New York 
relates that a man of his regiment was ordered to be shot 
in three hours, for firing his musket. The provost-marshal 
asked him if he was ready to die, and the poor fellow with 
streaming eyes inquired if there was no hope. Only the 
pleading of his officers saved his life. Another man of the 
same regiment for taking a chicken received a similar 
sentence, but was pardoned. 

By the last of February the number of troops at Jack- 
sonville was quite large. They were encamped beyond 
the earthworks, which extended about a mile and a half 
around. In the river the gunboats " Mahaska," " Ottawa," 
and " Pawnee " were ready to aid in the defence. Churches 
in the town were opened, wharves were repaired, and ware- 
houses put in order. Bay Street along the river-front was 
teeming with busy life. Vessels were arriving and depart- 
ing. Stores were opened by sutlers and tradespeople, and 
a newspaper, " The Peninsula," was printed. Never be- 
fore had Jacksonville held so many people. All enjoyed 
the charming weather of those warm and balmy spring 

days. 

12 



178 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Colonel Hallowell was given command of our third 
brigade of Ames's division on February 29, making his head- 
quarters at the Florida House. The next day General 
Gill more reviewed all his troops at Jacksonville. On the 
same date, from their strong defensive line at McGirt's 
Creek, Colonel Zachry, Twenty-seventh Georgia, with in- 
fantry and artillery, started out to advance the enemy's 
picket. He was met by Colonel Henry with two companies 
of the Fortieth Massachusetts and one gun, and our force 
was obliged to retire to Cedar Run. After a sharp skirmish 
there, we fell back still farther to Three-Mile Run. Henry 
lost one man killed, four wounded, and five captured ; the 
enemy seven killed and more than thirty wounded. Captain 
Emilio, with the Fifty-fourth men, on the railroad, retired 
with the cavalry. In consequence of this affair all the 
troops were drawn back to the lines, as an attack was 
expected. 

Camp was again changed to the brickyard from the lines 
on the 3d, where the regiment remained until its departure 
from Florida. On this date we had thirteen officers and 
725 men present. Thereafter three companies were fur- 
nished for picket every third day. 

General Beauregard arrived at Camp Milton March 2, 
and inspected the lines. Maj.-Gen. J. Patton Anderson 
assumed immediate command there the succeeding day. 
Beauregard telegraphed the War Department that he would 
endeavor to draw us out for battle. He gave our force as 
twelve thousand and his own eight thousand. In reply 
he was told that we were overestimated, and he was ordered 
to attack. Now was the opportunity for the offensive he 
so many times had fruitlessly recommended against the 
" Abolitionists," as he was wont to call us. But he only in- 



OLUSTEE. 179 

formed the Department that he should not attack, and that 
he was willing to turn over the command to General 
Anderson, who would attack, if ordered. Then the War 
Department seems to have done nothing further about the 
matter. 

Barton's brigade, with some artillery and cavalry, em- 
barked for Pilatka up the St. John's on the 9th, and occu- 
pied the place the next day. 

"With a return to the monotony of camp the question of 
pay again became a source of discontent. False rumors 
of Congressional action in behalf of the men came, but to 
be soon contradicted. By every mail they received letters 
setting forth the sufferings of their families. The officers, 
jealous of the good name and behavior of the regiment, 
were in fear of some overt act such as had occurred in 
other regiments, where colored soldiers had refused duty 
and suffered punishment. At this time an officer of the 
Fifty-fourth wrote, — 

" Sometimes we almost despair about our men in the matter 
of pay and proper recognition. We cannot but think it needs 
only to be thoroughly understood — this case of ours — to have 
justice done us. These men were enlisted either legally 

under the Act of July, 1861, and they should then be paid 
as soldiers, or illegally, and then they should be mustered out 
of the service. Think of what the men do and suffer ; 

think of their starving families. There is Sergeant Swails, a 
man who has fairly won promotion on the field of battle. While 
he was doing the work of government in the field, his wife and 
children were placed in the poorhouse." 

In a letter to Hon. Wm. Whiting, Solicitor of the War 
Department at Washington, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper 
wrote, — 



180 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

" The question whether the men of the Fifty-fourth were 
legally enlisted into the service of the United States is about to 
be put before a court-martial here, — that is, a man of the regi- 
ment is to be tried by a court-martial for a military offence, 
and he will put in a plea in bar of trial, on the ground that he 
is not amenable to a court-martial because he is not a soldier ; 
that he is not a soldier because he was illegally enlisted, — 
hence he is no soldier." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper then recited the Act of July 
22, 1861, saying that its provisions were read to the man 
and subscribed to by him. But the Government instructed 
its agents that it could only pay the Fifty-fourth (to which 
this man belonged) according to the provision of the Act 
of July 17, 1862. He asked assistance in solving the ques- 
tion in behalf of his men, and further asked for a decision 
from Judge Holt bearing upon the point at issue. 

Advices from the North informed us of the efforts of the 
Massachusetts Congressmen in Washington to equalize the 
pay of colored and white troops. The first bill offered by 
Senator Wilson was not retrospective, and received the 
opposition it merited in Congress and by the press. To 
remedy this defect the senator reported a joint resolution 
on February 3, which, variously amended, came up until 
March 2, when it was returned to committee. Senator 
Fessenden, of Maine, led the opposition. The key-note of 
his remarks in debate was : " What propriety is there in 
our going back and paying them for services already ren- 
dered ? " The Maine senator's course received the merited 
scorn of Wendell Phillips at a meeting of the Antislavery 
Society. He said, — 

" Senator Fessenden was the son of one of the first Aboli- 
tionists of that State, the ablest debater in the Senate, the leader 



OLUSTEE. 181 

of that body. Governor Andrew's proclamation was published 
in one hundred papers of the United States calling colored men 
to arms for Massachusetts. The War Department knew of it. 
It was a government contract. The Government, accepting these 
men, accepted the contract. Wilson said to Fessenden, ' Will 
you fulfil it?' This pettifogger, representing the State of 
Maine, replied, ' I would like to see Governor Andrew's written 
authority ! ' " 

Mr. Wilson on March 2 reported a new bill equalizing 
soldiers' pay By one section colored soldiers were given 
the same pay as whites from Jan. 1, 1864 ; another section 
gave the same bounties to colored as to white volunteers 
in the loyal States, enlisted under the Act of October, 
1863 ; and still a third gave the same pay to colored sol- 
diers as other volunteers from muster- in, if so pledged to 
them by authority of the War Department, the Secretary 
of War to determine the question of fact. This bill passed 
the Senate March 10, and went to the House. There was 
still to be the struggle amending the Army Appropriation 
Bill, that the provisions of the Equalizing Bill could be 
carried out, if agreed upon by the House. Copies of 
Mr. Wilson's bill were received by Colonel Hallowell soon 
after its presentation ; and it was ordered read to the 
enlisted men of every company of the Fifty-fourth, which 
was done. 

In Massachusetts the friends of the regiment were, through 
the committee, doing much to aid the distressed families 
within their reach, by contributions of money and clothing. 
Those in other States were numerous, and the story of their 
sufferings would fill a volume. 

General Seymour issued the following order, which was 
read to the regiments of his command, — 



182 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Headquarters District of Florida, Dep't of the South, 
Jacksonville, Fla., March 10, 1864. 

General Orders No. 13. 

The brigadier-general commanding recurs with great satis- 
faction to the conduct of his troops in their late battle, and 
desires to convey to them in the most public manner his full 
appreciation of their courage on that well-contested field. 

Against superior numbers holding a position chosen by them- 
selves, you were all but successful. For four hours you stood 
face to face with the enemy ; and when the battle ended, and it 
ceased only with night, you sent him cheers of defiance. 

In your repulse there was perhaps misfortune, but neither 
disaster nor disgrace ; and every officer and soldier may remem- 
ber with just pride that he fought at Olustee. 

By order of 

Brigadier-General Seymour. 

Lieut. Thos. L. Appleton re-joined on the 11th, bringing 
on the steamer " Boston " the camp equipage ; and tents 
were put up on the 14th. Although there was more rain 
in March than during the preceding month, the weather in 
the main was most enjoyable, and camp-life under canvas 
a pleasure. Our frequent tours of picket duty in the pine 
woods were always delightful, amid the trees, vines, and 
beautiful ferns. 

Deserters came in occasionally. From them it was 
learned that the enemy was fortifying a strong position 
in front of Baldwin. Most of their cavalry was ordered 
elsewhere in March. Both forces were apprehensive of 
attack, and alarms occurred frequently, occasioned by picket 
firing and reconnoissances. On the 23d the prize steamers 
" Sumter " and " flattie Brock," captured at Deep Creek 
on the 14th, were brought to Jacksonville. 

During March, Lieutenant Howard was made adjutant. 



OLUSTEE. 183 

Captains Jones and Walton re-joined. Lieutenants Chas. 
Jewett, Jr., and Daniel G. Spear, newly appointed, joined. 
Assistant-Surgeon Pease went North sick, and never re- 
turned. News of a number of promotions came on the 
26th. Lieutenant Homans was made captain of Company 
C, vice Partridge ; Lieutenant Tucker captain of Company 
H, vice Higginson ; Lieut. T. L. Appleton captain of Com- 
pany G, vice Smith. Second Lieutenants Chipman, Lewis 
Reed, Leonard, Knowles, Duren, and Newell were promoted 
first lieutenants. Sergt. Stephen A. Swails, of Company F, 
was commissioned second lieutenant. 

Brig.-Gen. John P Hatch relieved General Seymour of 
the command in Florida, March 28. He was a West Point 
graduate, who had served with the Third Infantry and 
Mounted Rifles in Mexico and on the frontier. His com- 
mission dated Sept. 28, 1861, and he had been connected 
with the Army of the Potomac. Colonel Henry, with the 
Fortieth Massachusetts, Seventy-fifth Ohio, and One Hun- 
dred and Sixty-ninth New York, went upon a reconnois- 
sance April 2. He found the enemy's outposts a mile 
beyond Cedar Run, and drove them until a strong skir- 
mish line was shown, when he retired, with four men 
wounded. 

General Anderson courteously sent to us on the 6th a 
list of our wounded and captured at Olustee, giving 449 
names, nine of which purported to be Fifty-fourth men. 
In the Record of Massachusetts Volunteers but five of these 
names are found ; namely, Corp. J. H. Gooding, Company C, 
who is given as having died at Andersonville ; Private Isaac 
H. Hawkins, Company D, who was discharged June 20, 
1865 ; Private Wm. Mitchell, Company F, discharged as a 
prisoner of war ; and Jason Champlin and Wm. H. Morris, 



164 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

of Company K, whom the Record reports as missing, but 
who probably died in prison. 

At the camp, drills and parades had been resumed for 
some time. On April 3 the number of officers was increased 
by the arrival of Lieut. Edward L. Stevens, newly appointed. 
On April 12 the Eighth United States Colored Troops was 
added to our brigade. The Fifty-fifth Massachusetts since 
March 11 had been detached at Pilatka. 

By this period in April regiments began to move 
from Florida. Pilatka was evacuated on the 14th. Sev- 
eral transports were sailing away daily, the men cheering, 
bands playing, and flags fluttering, as they departed. In 
the public square regiments drawn from the lines were 
bivouacked, awaiting embarkation. News was received that 
the steamers " General Hunter " and " Maple Leaf " had 
been blown up by torpedoes at Buckle's Bluff. Thus the 
two transports which had brought us to Florida were sunk 
in the St. John's. 

April 17 was the last day of our sojourn in Florida. 
Line was formed at 9 a.m., and the march to the transport 
began. Passing into town, the regiment halted and pre- 
sented arms at the headquarters of General Hatch, the 
district, and General Ames, the division commander. Em- 
barkation was speedily effected. Major Ten Eyck paid 
the officers on board. At 11 A. M. the " Cosmopolitan " 
steamed down river. Our transport was a noble craft, the 
hospital steamer of the department. As on our advent, 
the day of departure was delightful ; and the vessel glided 
over the waters of the majestic river steadily and swiftly. 
Those few weeks in the " land of flowers " left recollections 
never to be effaced of soft skies, beautiful plants, perfume 
of orange and magnolia, the resinous odor of the pines ; 








I i*» •spw 

• i it--. 





»jj> jrj, 





Capt. R. H. L. Jewett. 
Capt. Robert R. Newell. 
Capt. William H. Homans. 



Capt. Charles~E. Tucker. 
Capt. Edward B. Emerson. 
Capt. Charles F- Joy. 



OLUSTEE. 185 

of battle and defeat, severe marches, midnight alarms, and 
long hours of picket in woody solitudes. But speculations 
as to where we were going were then uppermost in our 
minds. "Were we to join the armies of the North with a 
prospect of military glory and its accompanying danger, 
or to be doomed to comparative inaction in the Depart- 
ment of the South, depleted of its troops ? Musing thus, 
we ran past part of our sister regiment, the Fifty-fifth, at 
Yellow Bluff, continuing down the river to its junction 
with blue water. There the tide was found not to be serv- 
ing ; and our transport lay swinging and rolling lazily in 
unison with other craft, similarly detained, until the bar 
could be safely crossed and the open sea gained. 

In the North great movements were preparing. Lieuten- 
ant-General Grant had been appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the armies. A combined movement of the Army 
of the Potomac and the Army of the James against Rich- 
mond was determined upon, and General Gillmore was 
ordered to join the latter army with the divisions of Terry, 
Turner, and Ames, of the Tenth Corps, as rapidly as they 
could be transported. General Hatch was to take com- 
mand of the Department of the South. 

Aware of the impending stroke in Virginia and the 
withdrawal of our main force from Florida, by April 18 
the enemy had sent away the larger part of his troops. 
General Beauregard had been relieved of the command 
on April 20 by Maj.-Gen. Samuel Jones, and departed for 
Weldon, N. C. 



CHAPTER IX. 



MORRIS ISLAND. 



OUR voyage from Florida terminated at Stono Inlet 
on the morning of April 18. The steamer thence 
proceeded up Folly River, but running aground, the left- 
wing companies were transferred to the steamer " Canoni- 
cus." Disembarking at Pawnee Landing about 3 p. M., the 
Fifty-fourth at once marched to Lighthouse Inlet in a heavy 
rain-storm, and there crossed on a large flat boat to Morris 
Island. Shelter for the night was provided in the ordnance 
building for the men, the officers finding accommodations 
with friends. That evening Captain Emilio was ordered to 
command the outpost of Black Island with Companies C, E, 
and H, as the garrison. 

Camp was established where the receding sand-hills 
formed a sort of natural amphitheatre, at a point about a 
mile up the beach, near the signal hill. There the regiment 
remained during its continuance on Morris Island. A com- 
pany was sent to Fort Wagner that evening, and the next 
day suffered the loss of one man, killed by a shell. 

Again the Fifty-fourth was upon the sand isle, which the 
winds and tides had perceptibly encroached upon during 
our absence. At the front the thunder of great guns rang 
out only occasionally, in place of incessant bombardment. 
Monitors, gunboats, and supply-vessels still rode upon the 
near waters ; and blockaders appeared and disappeared 
along the horizon before the beleaguered port. But the 



MORRIS ISLAND. 187 

thousands of blue-garmented soldiery had departed for 
other fields, leaving but a remnant behind. Col. W. W H. 
Davis still commanded, but had only his own regiment, — the 
One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania, — the Fifty-second 
Pennsylvania, and five companies of the Third Rhode Island 
Heavy Artillery on Morris Island, and the Eleventh Maine 
on Black Island. Few events of importance had occurred 
during the winter months. Vessels still ran the blockade, 
but sometimes came to grief, as did the " Presto," which 
went ashore on Sullivan's Island February 2, and was de- 
stroyed by our guns. The navy lost the " Housatonic " on 
February 17, sunk by a torpedo boat, the latter also going 
to the bottom with all on board. Sumter had been made 
stronger against assault, and a few guns were mounted on 
its channel face. 

Black Island was reached by the three companies, after 
laboriously rowing up Lighthouse Inlet and the creeks, on 
the evening of the 18th. The Eleventh Maine was relieved 
there and departed the next day. This outpost, occupied 
by a portion of the Fifty-fourth until Charleston was evacu- 
ated, merits description. It was of small extent and almost 
the only dry spot amid the marshes between Morris and 
James islands. The safety of Lighthouse Inlet and the 
inland channel from Stono depended upon its safe main- 
tenance. Our heavy guns, mounted there in August, 1863, 
had been removed. There was an enclosed work holding 
a single Wiard rifle-gun. As it was within range of the 
lower James Island batteries, bombproofs had been con- 
structed. From a platform near the top of a tall pine-tree 
called the " Crow's Nest," commanding a fine view of the 
whole region, a constant watch was kept. Messages were 
sent to and received from Morris Island by signal flags 



188 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

and torches. A foot-bridge over the marshes connected it 
with the main post. Stores had to be brought in row- 
boats. Much vegetation covered the ground, rendering it 
altogether a pleasanter spot than Morris Island. Some 
twenty-five men were detailed daily for guards and pickets. 
A non-commissioned officer and five men in each of two 
boats were sent at night to guard the water-ways toward 
James Island. Sergt. Joseph Sulsey of Company E was 
appointed acting sergeant-major. A detail of twenty-three 
non-commissioned officers and men was placed under 
instruction until proficiency was attained in artillery 
practice. 

Colonel Hallowell assumed command of Morris Island on 
the 20th, relieving Colonel Davis, who, with the Fifty- 
second and One Hundred and Fourth Pennsylvania, 
departed for Hilton Head. The next day Colonel Mont- 
gomery arrived and relieved Colonel Hallowell. He brought 
the Thirty-fourth United States Colored Troops (formerly 
the Second South Carolina) and the Twenty-first United 
States Colored Troops. Col. William Gurney, with his 
regiment, the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New 
York, came on the 23d, and in turn relieved Montgomery. 
In consequence of these frequent changes of post-com- 
mander some of the Fifty-fourth companies were as often 
shifted from one duty to another. On the 23d Companies 
B and G were made the provost-guard at Morris Island ; 
but Company B was relieved therefrom in two or three 
days. Companies A, I, and K, under Lieutenant Leonard, 
were detailed for a few days as boat infantry. Captain 
Jones, with Company D, relieved a company of the Thirty- 
fourth United States Colored Troops as the garrison of 
Fort Shaw. 



MOKKIS ISLAND. 189 

A very heavy wind swept the island on the 25th, which 
blew down the Beacon house on the beach-front. This 
prominent landmark was a frame building, resting on a 
masonry foundation. On the northerly end was the chim- 
ney-stack, and surmounting the roof was a cupola. It had 
long been stripped of weather boarding, and stood, skeleton- 
like, in our daily pathway to and from Cumming's Point. 

General Schimmelfennig, commanding the Northern Dis- 
trict, and Colonel Gurney visited Black Island May 1, and 
after inspecting the post, viewed the enemy's lines beyond. 
About this period the commanding officer thus wrote : — 

" So near are we to the enemy on this island that we can dis- 
tinctly hear the bands and drums on James Island, and see them 
drilling in the daytime. For the past few nights we could hear 
them having jolly times at Secessionville, cheering, etc., and 
from seeing regiments leaving in heavy marching order, with 
baggage-wagons in the rear, judge that the uproar was occa- 
sioned by these departures of troops, probably to join Lee." 

General Gillmore, on May 1, formally relinquished com- 
mand of the department to General Hatch. Admiral 
Dahlgren, who had been North, returned that day and 
records in his journal : " Hatch says that Gillmore has 
taken off twenty thousand men, and leaves him no more 
than enough to hold on." On the 17th Dahlgren writes 
that Hatch had some fourteen thousand men remaining, 
"which were barely sufficient for the defensive." 

No mails came to Morris Island for many days, while the 
steamers were all employed in transporting troops North. 
The infantry regiments went out in regular turn for grand 
guard, and fatigue work, at the front, or at the ordnance 
and quartermaster's depots. Our artillerymen were throw- 



190 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing about a dozen shells into Charleston daily. Against 
Sumter they were firing mainly with mortars at night. A 
new commander was in charge of the Confederates there, 
for Capt. John C. Mitchel, First South Carolina Artillery, 
relieved Colonel Elliott on May 4. 

For some time a very few men of the Fifty-fourth had 
manifested sullenness and an indisposition to promptly 
obey orders, justifying their actions to themselves and 
others on the ground of non-payment. Advices from the 
North regarding Congressional action were surely discour- 
aging. Mr. Wilson, on April 22, had moved to add the 
Equalizing to the Appropriation Bill, which was finally 
agreed to by the Senate ; but the House amended it as to 
the amount of bounty and the clause authorizing the Secre- 
tary of War to allow full pay to those colored soldiers who 
had been promised it. In place, the House inserted a pro- 
vision allowing full pay only to free persons of color who 
were enlisted. This the Senate refused to agree with on 
May 3. Two conference committees were appointed, but 
the House rejected their reports. Colonel Hallowell used 
every means to secure the just claims of the men by letters 
to their friends. His frequent applications for leave of 
absence upon this business had not been granted. When 
informed of the threatening disposition of the few men 
referred to, he visited each post, addressed the companies, 
explaining the causes of delay, and counselling patience 
still longer ; but he warned the disaffected that orders 
must be obeyed, and set forth the sure penalty of disobe- 
dience. His words were disregarded in but two instances. 
On May 12, a private of Company B, for refusing duty, 
was slightly wounded by a pistol-shot from an officer ; 
and on the 21st another man (of Company H) was shot at 



MORRIS ISLAND. 191 

and slightly wounded by an officer for a similar offence. 
This summary punishment inflicted was effective in its 
results to the command. 

Colonel Hallowell on June 4 informed Governor Andrew 
that the regiment had not been paid, and requested that 
he demand of the Secretary of War that the Fifty-fourth 
be paid or sent to Massachusetts for muster-out, as the 
contract was broken. 

For the further security of Black Island, early in May, 
Company E was ordered to encamp within the fort to guard 
"against sudden attack ; and Lieutenant Spear, in charge of 
the picket-boats from there, placed a boom of barrels, 
connected by chains, across the creek, in advance of his 
night stations. While visiting the pickets in the patrol- 
boat after dark, Captain Homans on one occasion discov- 
ered a floating torpedo, which he secured and brought to 
Black Island. It was made of staves, cigar-shaped, with 
a large cap to explode by contact. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper assumed command of the 
" Defences of Lighthouse Inlet " on May 7 They included 
Black Island, Battery Purviance, and Fort Green, on Folly 
Island, opposite Purviance. These two batteries mounted 
thirty-pounder Parrotts for offensive purposes against James 
Island. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper made his headquarters 
at Fort Green. Captain Tucker, with Company H, left 
Black Island and relieved Lieutenant-Colonel Fox and 
Companies A and F, Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, at Fort 
Green on the 7th. Company I, under Lieut. Lewis Reed, 
took the place of Company H at Black Island. 

A rude structure of logs raised above the marsh had 
been built by the Confederates near the water-ways toward 
James Island. We called it " Block House No. 1." Lieu- 



192 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

tenant Spear made a reconnoissance of it on the night of 
the 8th, and was twice fired upon. Capt. T. L. Apple- 
ton, provost-marshal on Colonel Gurney's staff, had been 
for some time making preparations to capture this block 
house. With a party of Fifty-fourth men he went there 
on the night of the 14th, only to find it unoccupied. It 
was visited a number of times afterward by our officers 
from Black Island. 

There was an utter stagnation of active operations in the 
department. Hatch was considering a plan of moving up 
the Wando River in connection with the ironclads, and a 
foray at Murrell's Inlet and Georgetown. Admiral Dahl- 
gren had convened another council of his chief officers 
when the project of attack on Sumter was again negatived. 
He was contenting himself with a sharp bombardment of 
the fort with an ironclad. or two for the purpose of prevent- 
ing work there. The land forces were firing more briskly 
in unison with the navy. High tides somewhat damaged 
our works at Cumming's Point toward the close of May. 

Further changes of station occurred for some of our com- 
panies, as, on the 18th, Captain Emilio, with Company E, 
relieved Company H at Fort Green, and the succeeding day 
Captain Bridge, with Company F, took post at Battery 
Purviance. Company H returned to Black Island, where 
Captain Homans was in command ; and the garrison there 
was increased toward the last of May by a portion of Com- 
pany F, under Lieutenant Edmands. Then the Fifty-fourth 
held all the posts about Lighthouse Inlet. Our men at 
Green and Purviance in a short time became efficient artil- 
lerists, as had those of Company H. Both works on Light- 
house Inlet were frequently engaged with the lower James 
Island batteries about Secessionville, at long range. 





r~~' '"■' - : ';""";'.'..'"- ■ :'" 



; ~r?Z: : ■■:;/:-' ■ '''?* 




Capt. Orin E. Smith. 
Capt. Garth W- James. 




Capt. Luis F. Emilio. 
Capt. Willard Howard. 



MORRIS ISLAND. 193 

General Hatch, having concluded to try to cut the rail- 
road at Ashepoo, sent Brig.-Gen. William Birney with some 
sixteen hundred men to make the attempt. He landed at 
the mouth of Mosquito Creek on May 25, advancing about 
six miles in the evening. The naval vessels landed a force 
to co-operate on Johassie Island. The steamer " Boston," 
on which were Colonel Montgomery and the Thirty-fourth 
United States Colored Troops, ran aground and was fired 
upon by the enemy with artillery, compelling her abandon- 
ment and destruction by fire. General Birney's force re- 
tired to Port Royal on the 27th. 

Maj.-Gen. John G. Foster, a distinguished officer, who 
graduated from West Point in 1846, took command of the 
Department May 26. He was no stranger there, for in 
April, 1861, he was the engineer officer at Moultrie and, 
Sumter, and in January, 1862, brought a large part of the 
Eighteenth Corps to South Carolina. Throughout the Civil 
War he suffered from a wound received in Mexico. 

As Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper was detailed for court- 
martial duty and Captain Emilio as judge-advocate at 
Hilton Head, on May 29, Captain Bridge took command 
of Lighthouse Inlet and Capt. T. L. Appleton of Fort 
Green. During the ensuing night some of our officers 
perpetrated a great joke on the Johnnies. Making the 
stuffed figure of a soldier, they took it out in a boat and 
stood it on top of Block House No. 1, placing an imi- 
tation gun in its hands. When morning broke, the 
Johnnies espied the supposed sentinel, and fired at him 
for half an hour, through which he seemed to bear a 
charmed life. When they opened, we replied from Green 
and Purviance. 

Lieutenant Swails, when commissioned, was placed on 

13 



191 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

duty as an officer, but the application for his muster in- 
augurated a new struggle with the War Department. 
When the usual request was made, it was refused on ac- 
count of Lieutenant Swails's African descent, although to 
all appearances he was a white man. After the regiment 
came under Colonel Gurney, Swails was ordered to discard 
his officer's uniform and take duty as an enlisted man. 
Colonel Hallowell, however, procured him a furlough, and 
sent him, provided with the necessary papers, to see Gen- 
eral Foster at Hilton Head. There Lieutenant Swails 
presented his claims in person and received the general's 
recommendation for muster, to be forwarded to higher 
authority. 

We had only seven monitors before Charleston June 1, 
with but four of that number serviceable, while the enemy 
had four ironclads. Their garrisons were depleted to the 
last man, artillerymen holding their forts with feeble sup- 
ports. On James Island there was not a single infantry 
regiment ; and for some time the Citadel Cadets, composed 
of youths, and some companies of city firemen, armed for 
the duty, served at that point. One of their supply- 
steamers grounded during the night of the 4th between 
Sumter and Johnson, and the next morning Gregg opened 
on her, and soon destroyed the craft. A few vessels, 
under skilful and daring officers, managed to run the 
blockade into Charleston. From first to last some sixty- 
seven steamers and twenty-one sailing-vessels eluded us, 
of which a large proportion were owned by J. Fraser & 
Co. With spool-cotton at $12.50 per dozen, sole-leather 
$9.25 per pound, writing-paper $72 per ream, steel pens 
$8.50 per gross, and other foreign goods in like propor- 
tion, enormous profits were realized, as the cotton ex- 



MORRIS ISLAND. 195 

ported cost but little over the ordinary price. A clear 
profit of $150,000 for the round trip was not unusual. 
Captains of vessels frequently realized $5,000 for the 
voyage. 

Colonel Hallowell having at last received permission to 
proceed North to press the claims of the regiment in per- 
son, left Morris Island on June 6, and Major Appleton 
assumed command. On the same day the great ironclad, 
" New Ironsides," steamed away for the North. Our boat 
parties were spurred on to activity by General Schimmel- 
fennig, who was desirous of obtaining information of the 
enemy's lines by such means, or from prisoners who might 
be secured. A steadier and increased fire on the city was 
ordered by General Foster. 

General Jones, the Confederate Department commander, 
about this time bethought himself of an expedient by 
which he hoped to cause a cessation of our bombardment. 
He set forth his inhumane plan as follows : — 

Charleston, June 1, 1864. 

General Bragg, — The enemy continue their bombardment 

of the city with increased vigor, damaging private property and 

endangering the lives of women and children. I can take care 

of a party — say fifty — Yankee prisoners. Can- you not send 

me that number including a general — Seymour will do — and 

other officers of high rank, to be confined in parts of the city 

still occupied by citizens under the enemy's fire ? 

S. Jones. 

In response to this telegram, Generals "Wessells, Scam- 
mon, Shaler, Seymour, and Heckman, and forty-five field- 
officers were sent to Charleston and placed under fire, 
General Jones notifying General Foster of the fact on 
June 13. In compliance with General Foster's request 



196 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

to the President, on the 29th Generals Gardner, Steuart, 
Archer, Jeff. Thompson, and Edward Johnson, besides forty- 
five Confederate field-officers, were received at Hilton Head 
and confined on the brig " Dragoon " there. It was General 
Foster's purpose if necessary to imprison these officers un- 
der fire in retaliation. 

Our Morris Island garrison was reinforced on June 13 
by the return of the Fifty-second Pennsylvania, Col. H. M. 
Hoyt ; and the next day the Thirty-third United States 
Colored Troops landed and camped above the Fifty-fourth. 
A company of the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New 
York relieved Company G, of our regiment, from provost 
duty on the 15th. On the next day at 5 p. m. the enemy 
fired salutes of shotted guns from every battery in view, 
besides two rams, probably in honor of some success to 
their arms. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper returned on the 18th and 
took command of the regiment, Major Appleton assuming 
charge of the defences of the inlet. During May and June 
the following changes took place among the officers : Surg. 
Chas. E. Briggs and Lieutenants Fred. E. Rogers, Joseph 
E. Cousens, Chas. 0. Hallett and Benj. B. Edmands, newly 
appointed, reported ; Capt. R. H. L. Jewett and Lieutenant 
Littlefield re-joined from the North ; Assistant-Surgeon 
Pease resigned ; Assistant-Surgeon Bridgham, who had 
been reappointed, reported June 5, but went to Beaufort, 
sick, resigning there on the 16th. Lieutenant Tomlinson 
was discharged at the North. 

There was variable weather the second week in June, but 
remarkably cool for three days previous to the 15th, with 
rain. Then the hot weather set in, the temperature often 
being 90° in the shade. Orders were given for thorough 



MORRIS ISLAND. 197 

policing, the burial of garbage, and the free use of disin- 
fectants. Every man was required to bathe twice each 
week. Where practicable, sentry-boxes were built for 
shelter. The troops suffered from want of ice. Desiccated 
vegetables, soaked overnight and boiled with fresh beef, 
were issued twice a week. As fresh vegetables were sorely 
needed, Commissary-Sergeant Lee was sent to Beaufort and 
brought back a limited quantity. 

Our daily duties of fatigue and grand guard went on 
unvaryingly week after week. The troops only looked for- 
ward to the arrival of the mails to bring news of events 
taking place elsewhere. Some sick and wounded comrades 
returned ; and on June 20 we received twelve recruits for 
the regiment. That same day Quartermaster Ritchie re- 
corded in his journal that he saw and talked with " Wash- 
ington Smith just escaped from Charleston," who told him 
about the Fifty-fourth prisoners there. This seems to be 
the first news received of these men, then confined nearly 
a year. 

Until late in June it was not expected that any active 
operations would be attempted, at least during the summer 
months. But on the 19th there were demonstrations made 
by our troops from Folly Island about the Stono. By the 
29th evidences of some projected movement became appar- 
ent. Our scouting parties were urged to greater activity ; 
boats were put in order, bridges toward James Island were 
laid, and ammunition was served out. The time seemed 
favorable, for the enemy were few in number, and did not 
expect attack. 

Major Appleton, commanding Lighthouse Inlet, made a 
boat reconnoissance on the night of the 29th, nearly up to 
the enemy's lines at Secessionville. Orders were received 



198 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

on the 30th for the Fifty-fourth, except Companies C, H, 
I, and part of F at Black Island, to move at sunset, with 
arms and intrenching tools. But at 9 p. m., after waiting 
three hours, the orders to march were countermanded for 
twenty-four hours. 



CHAPTER X. 

ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 

ADMIRAL DAHLGREN on June 20 received a letter 
from the Navy Department, informing him that the 
enemy was preparing to attack his fleet, inside and outside, 
to facilitate the shipment of a large amount of cotton from 
Charleston. He conferred with General Foster, and it was 
arranged to engage the enemy in maintaining his own lines 
by simultaneously attacking several points. It was hoped 
that the Charleston and Savannah Railroad might be cut, 
and a nearer and better position gained in front of the city. 
Brig.-Gen. Wm. Birney, ordered to Port Royal from Florida 
with a brigade of colored troops, was to ascend the North 
Edisto and destroy the railroad at Adam's Run. General 
Hatch with two brigades was to land at Seabrook Island, 
cross to John's Island, and be at the ferry near Rantowle's 
Bridge the succeeding night, to demonstrate against the 
city and Fort Pemberton from across the Stono. General 
Schimmelfennig's force, landing on James Island, was to 
front Secessionville ; and he was also to send troops to 
John's Island to open communication with General Hatch. 
The navy was to assist at all these points, but more strongly 
in the Stono. Our batteries at Cumming's Point and on 
Lighthouse Inlet were to engage the enemy's attention. 

July 1, at 6 p. M., the Fifty-fourth moved to the landing, 
crossed to Folly Island on pontoon-boats and scov^s, and 



200 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Companies E and F having joined, marched to Stono. Al- 
though the men were lightly equipped, it was warm and 
exhausting. Arriving at 2 a.m., the regiment embai - ked on 
the steamer " Fraser ; " and after provoking delays, which 
enabled the other regiments to precede us, we landed on 
Cole's Island at 4 a.m., on the 2d. Marching just after 
daybreak, the Fifty-fourth crossed to James Island over the 
route traversed a year before in the opposite direction. As 
the road and bridges had been repaired, there was little to 
remind us of the old pathway. While advancing, skirmish 
firing and cannon-shots were heard in the front. 

Colonel Hartwell, ordered to attack on the right, with his 
regiment, — the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, — the Thirty-third 
United States Colored Troops, and the One Hundred and 
Third New York, passed from Long to Tiger Island in dark- 
ness, and at daylight on the 2d crossed the marsh to James 
Island and advanced to surprise Fort Lamar. His skir- 
mishers received the fire of the enemy's vedettes, drove them, 
and captured some prisoners and horses. Unknown to us, 
a force of the enemy was stationed every night at Rivers's 
Causeway, which this morning was composed of two guns 
of Blake's Battery under Lieutenant De Lorme, posted in 
a small fieldwork and supported by fifteen men of the 
Palmetto Siege Train under Lieutenant Spivey, besides the 
picket reserves. Our force was received with an unex- 
pected fire of grape-shot and musketry, which caused some 
losses and created confusion in the Thirty-third and One 
Hundred and Third. But Colonel Hartwell, promptly de- 
ploying the Fifty-fifth under Lieutenant-Colonel Fox, pushed 
it rapidly forward in spite of a severe fire, drove off the 
supports, and gallantly captured De Lorme's two twelve- 
pounder Napoleons. In this charge the Fifty-fifth had seven 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 201 

men killed, and Captains Thurber and Goodwin and nine- 
teen men wounded. The guns were manned and fired at 
the retiring enemy. Colonel Hartwell moved beyond the 
fieldwork a short distance, and strengthening a hedge- 
bank and ditch, held this position throughout the day 
under fire from Lamar and other works. As all hope of 
a surprise was over, orders were signalled to make no 
farther advance at that point. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett with his Twenty-first United 
States Colored Troops and two guns under Lieutenant 
Wildt, of Battery B, Third New York Artillery, landed 
on John's Island to open communication with General 
Hatch's force. Col. Wm. Heine (One Hundred and Third 
New York), with the Fifty-fourth New York, Seventy-fourth 
Pennsylvania, a section of Battery B, Third New York 
Artillery, and a rocket battery, moved from Cole's Island 
to James Island, driving the enemy's pickets under Major 
Managault. His force started at the same time as Colonel 
Hartwell's, and advanced to the lines of the previous year 
at the head of Grimball's Causeway. Only the gunboat 
"McDonough" was ready to co-operate, for the monitors 
were not on hand. 

Even during these early hours the troops suffered greatly 
from the heat, and in moving over Cole's Island several 
men of the Fifty-fourth fell exhausted, and one dropped 
senseless. The bridge to James Island was crossed at 
6 a.m., bringing us upon familiar ground. Captains Wal- 
ton and Appleton, of General Schimmelfennig's staff, were 
greeted as they passed by the officers. Some prisoners 
were encountered going to the rear under guard. Passing 
our old camp-ground and bearing to the left, the Seventy- 
fourth Pennsylvania (a German regiment, as was the Fifty- 



202 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

fourth New York) was seen deployed as skirmishers. 
About a mile and a half from the bridge the low ground 
was crossed ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper deployed 
the regiment under artillery fire. The line was formed 
as below, with Company D on the right, — 

F G B E A K D 



and with the following officers present : Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper, commanding ; Major Appleton ; Adjutant Howard; 
Company D, Captain Jones and Lieutenant Swails ; Com- 
pany K, Lieutenant Leonard, commanding, and Lieutenant 
Chas. Jewett, Jr. ; Company A, Lieutenant Knowles ; Com- 
pany E, Captain Emilio and Lieutenants Chipman and 
Cousens ; Company B, Lieutenant Newell, commanding, and 
Lieutenant Hallett ; Company G, Lieut. David Reid ; Com- 
pany F, Captain Bridge and Lieutenant Durcn. Sergt. 
Chas. A. Lenox, of Company A, bore the national flag, and 
Corp. Jos. Stiles, of Company F, the State color, in 
the ranks of Company E. There were 363 enlisted men 
present. Quartermaster Ritchie was also on the island. 
Surgeon Briggs was detailed on Morris Island, and an as- 
sistant-surgeon (whose name is not known), was tempo- 
rarily assigned to the regiment. All the horses had been 
left at Stono. 

Though partially concealed by woods and irregularities 
of the ground, we of the Fifty-fourth knew the formidable 
character of the enemy's works in our front, for from the 
" Crow's Nest " on Black Island we had seen in reverse 
the line constructed since the previous summer in advance 
of the older works. Fort Pemberton and Batteries Pringle 
and Tynes were on the Stono to our left front ; and from 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 203 

there to Fort Lamar and Secessionville were mutually 
supporting and detached fieldworks for artillery united 
by curtains for infantry. The enemy's force comprised 
some Georgia Volunteers, Lucas's battalion, the South 
Carolina Siege Train, detachments of the Second South 
Carolina Artillery, Blake's battery, and the Chatham Ar- 
tillery. Brig.-Gen. Win. B. Taliaferro, commanding Jamea 
Island, made drafts on the garrisons of Fort Johnson, and 
Batteries Haskell and Tatom, to supplement the small force 
on the lines. He states that his available troops that 
day, other than artillerymen, did not exceed three hundred 
men. 

Moving slowly, the Fifty-fourth advanced in line of battle 
over open and rising ground. Some distance to the right 
was another regiment and the rocket battery. Our move- 
ment caused the retirement of the enemy ; but the Chat- 
ham Artillery in rear of their skirmish line fired briskly 
on the Fifty-fourth. We had no field-guns with which to 
reply ; but the missiles from the rocket-stands on our right, 
while they did no damage, served to frighten the enemy's 
artillery horses. To avoid casualties from this artillery 
fire, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper kept shifting the position 
of the Fifty-fourth as the enemy secured the range ; and 
the necessary movements were effected with admirable 
precision and promptness, as on ordinary exercise. Pro- 
gress forward was made to within some six hundred yards 
of the enemy, while solid shot came bounding and rico- 
chetting over the intervening space toward the line. Some 
shells too from guns on our right front dropped unpleas- 
antly near. The regiment in this advance passed to the 
right of a small fieldwork, or redoubt. A little distance 
beyond it the Fifty-fourth was halted and ordered to lie 



204 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

down in perfectly open ground, exposed to the hot rays of 
the sun and the dropping fire of the enemy. 

Thougli many solid shot fell about or passed through or 
over the line, only Private Cornelius Price, of Company A, 
was mortally, and Sergeant Palmer, of Company K, slightly 
wounded. There were many narrow escapes, however ; 
among them, a corporal, of Company E, had his canteen 
struck from his side, and his musket doubled up. Colonel 
Heine, commanding at that portion of the field, was a large 
man, rendered more conspicuous by white clothes, and was 
noticeable the whole day for activity and personal gallantry. 
He came to our line and directed Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper to draw back the Fifty-fourth to the old fieldwork. 
Captain Jones, with Companies A, D, and K as skir- 
mishers, advanced and took position well to the front of the 
work, and to the right and left of a hedge, where the men 
were ordered to lie down in the grass and weeds which 
grew waist high. This position the skirmish line kept till 
relieved, unmolested by the enemy's infantry, but subjected 
to cannon-shot whenever our men exposed themselves. 
No opposing skirmishers were seen. Our men held their 
fire so as not to disclose their location. Captain Jones's 
line did not immediately connect with any other ; but some 
distance to the left were troops. 

At the old redoubt the men were put to work with the 
tools they carried, extending the flanks of the intrench- 
ment for better protection. With excessive heat during 
the morning hours, by midday it became almost unbearable 
to the skirmishers, stifled in the high grass on the line, who 
were compelled to maintain a prostrate and immovable 
position, and to the support at the fieldwork, obliged to sit 
crowded for space. Throughout that whole day, with a 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 205 

temperature at 110°, officers and men on James Island, 
both Union and Confederate, were succumbing to the heat 
of the sun. More than fifty men of the Fifty-fourth were 
affected to a greater or lesser degree ; and Private John 
Hale, of Company D, died at his post with the skirmishers. 
Major Appleton was completely prostrated, and while lying 
on the ground received a contusion from a solid shot which 
ultimately forced him to leave the service. Captain Jones, 
commanding the skirmishers, was compelled to retire, and 
was taken to the rear delirious. He suffered all his life 
thereafter in head and brain, and died from the effects 
in 1886. Lieut. Chas. Jewett, Jr., was seriously injured 
from the same cause, and died from it in 1890. Lieu- 
tenants Newell, Chipman, and David Reid were also badly 
affected. Most of those prostrated were on the skirmish 
line. So great were their sufferings that at last word was 
sent to Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper that they could no 
longer endure it, and that many men were lying uncon- 
scious and helpless, for their stronger comrades could not 
leave their positions. It was not possible to send a reliev- 
ing force without sustaining heavy casualties, so stretchers 
were taken out, and upon them a number of men were 
brought back. 

Under such conditions hour after hour of that seemingly 
interminable day wore on. Our position was isolated ; there 
appeared to be momentary probability of attack by an over- 
whelming force ; but Colonel Heine's orders were that the 
position must be held at all hazards. The officers by con- 
fident bearing did their best to make light of the situation, 
and Colonel Heine's actions helped greatly. He was about 
the skirmish line and the fieldwork, and at one time 
mounted the parapet of the redoubt and therefrom fa- 



206 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

cetiously harangued the Rebels, to divert the men. Soon 
after dark the Chatham Artillery in our front withdrew to 
their lines, as General Taliaferro feared a sudden dash. 
There were no further infantry movements or fighting 
during the remainder of the day ; but from the river the 
gunboat continued to fire, and receive shots from Battery 
Pringle. During these events a force of the First New 
York Engineers and civilian employees had thrown up a 
defensive line along our margin of the low ground ; and to 
it General Schimmelfennig ordered all his troops in ad- 
vance to retire after nightfall. It was not until 11 p. m., 
however, that the Fifty-fourth called in its skirmishers 
and silently withdrew to the main line. Bivouac was 
made in a cornfield just at the general's headquarters. 
Lieutenant Leonard and a large part of Company K 
were in the darkness inadvertently left on post until 
Lieutenant Swails, who was sent back with ten men, 
brought them in. 

Thus ended a most memorable day for the regiment, not 
sanguinary, but full of trials requiring not only courage, but 
constancy to suffer and endure. Having drawn the enemy 
to the south lines of James Island, General Schimmelfennig 
prepared a daring attack on Fort Johnson. Colonel Gurney 
commanded ; and his force was the Fifty-second Pennsyl- 
vania, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York, and a 
detachment of the Third Rhode Island Artillery. It left 
Payne's Dock in twenty-eight barges at 2 a. m., July 3, but 
was delayed in crossing the harbor and bar. The boats 
were observed and fired upon. A portion, however, landed 
near Battery Simkins, and was at once repulsed. Colonel 
Hoyt, Fifty-second Pennsylvania, and a number of his 
officers and men, were not supported by their comrades, 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 207 

but landing, captured the Brook's gun battery. They then 
pressed on toward Johnson under heavy fire, before which 
they were obliged to retire to the captured battery where 
they all surrendered. The retreating boats communicated 
their disorder to those carrying the One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh; and they too fell back against the per- 
emptory orders of Maj. Edward H. Little, commanding, 
and Captain Little and Lieutenants Little and Abercrombie, 
who brought their men of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh to land. This surprise, which, if successful, might 
have sealed the fate of Charleston soon after, thus failed. 
A military court, on Nov. 7, 1864, found that — 

" Colonel Gurney, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New 
York Eegiment, commanding Morris Island, who was charged 
with sending the expedition, did not accompany it, but remained 
at Payne's Dock. There seems to be no sufficient reason for 
this conduct." 

The report further says, — 

" The chief cause of failure was the lack of spirit, energy, 
and power of command on the part of subordinate officers." 

Captain Homans with the Fifty-fourth companies at 
Black Island was ordered to cross in boats to James Island, 
and attack toward Secessionville, to co-operate with the 
movement against Johnson. Preparations were made, and 
the boats transported across the island in accordance with 
specific instructions ; but in transit, without proper means, 
they were so damaged as to make their use impracticable, 
and the expedition necessarily impossible. 

At Port Royal three brigades of troops embarked on 
transports and sailed for the Edisto on the evening of July 



208 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

1, arriving early on the 2d. There General Hatch, with 
Saxton's and Davis's brigades, landing at Seabrook, crossed 
to John's Island at the Haulover Bridge, and bivouacked 
some distance beyond for the night. General Birney, with 
his brigade and a marine battery, went up the North Edisto 
and landed at White Point. He then moved toward 
Adam's Run, but meeting the enemy in small numbers, 
halted for the night, after marching but two miles. Resum- 
ing the advance early on the 3d, Birney drove the enemy's 
light troops some five miles to King's Creek, where on the 
opposite bank the Confederates under Gen. B. H. Robert- 
son had a battery which opened on our force. General 
Foster, with two armed transports, ran up the Dawhoo 
River, and co-operated by throwing shells across the inter- 
vening ground. After two or three hours of cannonading 
and skirmishing, and as General Birney reported that it 
was expedient to withdraw, General Foster ordered a re- 
tirement to White Point, where the force took transports 
for James Island. 

In response to General Jones' requests for reinforce- 
ments, the First Georgia (regulars) Fourth Georgia Cavalry, 
and three companies of the Third South Carolina Cavalry, 
all dismounted, were sent to John's Island from Savannah, 
for news had been received of the landing of Hatch's and 
Birney's forces. The enemy was apprehensive of attacks 
by way of the Stono, which was the route taken by the 
British in 1780. During the night of the 2d the Thirty- 
second Georgia, Col. Geo. P Harrison, reported to General 
Taliaferro ; and every available man was taken from other 
points to reinforce the southern lines on James Island. 

Supposing that we still held the positions of the previous 
day, Colonel Harrison, with several companies of his regi- 





: 



: »; - 



4 



; Preston Helman, Corp., Co. E. 
Moses Jackson, Sergt., Co. E. 




James A. Kelly, Pvt., Co. E. 
George Weaver, Pvt., Co. K. 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 209 

ment and two guns, was ordered to ascertain our strength. 
About 9 A. M. on the 3d, this force was discovered ad- 
vancing, and our pickets retired before it. Then the 
monitors " Montauk " and " Lehigh " and the gunboat 
" Pawnee," having taken position in the Stono the previous 
evening, opened, preventing their farther advance, and caus- 
ing a retirement at 11 A. M. But they manoeuvred in our 
front the whole day, with skirmishers established about the 
old fieldwork we held on the 2d. Our rifle trenches were 
strengthened with two guns posted on Colonel Heine's 
front ; and Colonel HartwelPs captured pieces were also in 
position. The naval vessels slackened fire in the afternoon. 
Excessively warm weather continued. No service was re- 
quired of the Fifty-fourth during that day. Surgeon Briggs- 
reported for duty, and Lieutenant Newell was sent to hos- 
pital. At dark the Fifty-fourth relieved the Seventy-fourth 
Pennsylvania. Our main body occupied the rifle trenches, 
with Captain Emilio and seventy-five men, supported by one 
gun thrown forward upon the causeway within three hun^ 
dred yards of the enemy's line, and Lieutenant Cousens and 
twenty-five men still farther advanced. Our line was quiet, 
but on the right there were frequent shots, and a few rifle- 
balls fired by our own troops in rear of our flank fell near. 
Our mortar schooner " Racer " kept firing slowly. So the 
night passed with but one man of another regiment killed. 
General Hatch on John's Island that day advanced on the 
road running parallel with Bohicket Creek and halted at 
Parker's, where a road branched to Stono on the right. 
The march, though short, was severe because of the heat. 

Just at dawn on Independence Day, the Fifty-fourth 
was reduced one half for the day. We could see that 
the enemy had fortified their line at or about the old 

14 



210 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

redoubt. They occasionally showed themselves, and threw 
out a skirmish line whenever we advanced. In the Stono 
the naval vessels at 8 a. m. were dressed with flags at the 
signal given from the admiral's flagship, " Philadelphia." 
Pringle opened immediately after, and some of our vessels 
replied, occasioning a lively duel. Birney's brigade, of the 
Seventh, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-fifth United States 
Colored Troops, landed on James Island that day, occupy- 
ing a second line in rear of our right. Two thirty-pounder 
Parrotts were placed on the lines. Refreshing rain with a 
strong wind came in the afternoon. At the rifle trench 
held by the Fifty-fourth, Captain Emilio in command ad- 
vanced twelve men to draw the enemy's fire, which was 
done without casualty. Later two companies of the Fifty- 
fourth New York moved out, skirmishing, and being met 
by a strong fire from the enemy's pickets commanded by 
Captain Lewis, Thirty-second Georgia, retired with the loss 
of two killed and six wounded. Our naval vessels shelled 
the enemy whenever discovered, and soon forced them to 
cover. After our force fell back, we could see a man of 
the Fifty-fourth New York lying on the open ground be- 
tween the lines. He was alive, for he would occasionally 
raise himself. The enemy would not permit him to be 
brought in. A gallant officer of the staff essayed the dan- 
gerous task, but was fired upon. Our officers and men of 
the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts were exasperated at this 
firing on men engaged in a humane act, and sharply re- 
plied to the enemy for an hour. At dark a field-piece was 
brought near, and under cover of grape, a party of eight 
men from Company E with a stretcher went out to bring 
the poor fellow in. He was found dead. It was impossible 
to secure his body, as the enemy was rapidly advancing 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 211 

with a company. Capt. Gustav Blau and his men of the 
Fifty-fourth New York relieved our force at 9 p. m. 

Admiral Dahlgren records that on the 4th, with Gen- 
eral Foster, he reconnoitred the enemy's position from 
a point on John's Island across the Stono, " right oppo- 
site Pringle, in full view seventeen or eighteen hundred 
yards off." He recommended that a heavy battery be 
there established to enfilade the James Island lines ; but 
it was not done. Our naval vessels fired slowly all that 
night. 

General Hatch, on the 4th, moved on the road toward 
the Stono, making but six miles. He rested at a plantation 
where the road from Legareville came into the one that he 
was following. It was a terribly hot forenoon ; little water 
could be found, and scores of men were sunstruck or fainted 
from fatigue and thirst. At this halting-place the force 
from General Schimmelfennig joined General Hatch. As it 
was feared many musket-charges had been spoiled by the 
rain of the previous day, all the regiments on James 
Island were marched to the front at 9 a. m., on the 5th, 
and discharged their pieces at the enemy. There was 
some light skirmishing. A few shells came over the line 
from Secessionville without damage. Our foe was busy 
erecting an earthwork and extending his trenches, seriously 
interfered with by the huge eleven and fifteen-inch shells 
of the navy and the fire of twelve-pounders from the decks 
of the monitors. 

On the 5th the position of the Fifty-fourth was 
changed to the centre of General Schimmelfennig's line, 
which it held with the Thirty-third United States Col- 
ored Troops, both regiments under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper's command. 



212 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

General Hatch on the 5th moved forward some miles 
and took post at the " Huts." He occupied a good defen- 
sive line behind a creek, crossed at one point by a bridge. 
The failure to push on to the head of John's Island that 
day, before the enemy had concentrated there, was unfortu- 
nate, for they posted several guns of the Marion Artillery 
on a hill supported by infantry, and on the 6th shelled 
Hatch's lines. 

All the day-hours of the 6th the Fifty-fourth was rest- 
ing in bivouac. At 8 P. M., a picket of four officers and 
132 men under Captain Bridge went out in front of the 
right. The weather was more comfortable. It was very 
apparent that the enemy was stronger. The succeeding 
day, on the lines, only an occasional shell from the enemy 
disturbed the quietness. A mail came in the afternoon. 
Supplies were more abundant ; and from sutlers at Cole's 
Island some additions to the army fare were procured. 
In the morning the naval vessels shelled Pringle and the 
woods until later, when they concentrated upon the bat- 
tery. During the ensuing evening Colonel Montgomery 
with Birney's brigade was sent to join General Hatch. 
General Birney had returned to Florida. 

At John's Island on the 7th, Colonel Silliman, with his 
regiment, the Twenty-sixth United States Colored Troops, 
supported by Lieutenant Wildt's section of Battery B, 
Third New York, made a gallant but unsuccessful 
attempt to capture the enemy's field-guns on the hill be- 
yond the lines. Some ninety-seven men were killed and 
wounded. General Jones was considerably reinforced by 
this date from Atlanta and Wilmington. He also stripped 
Sullivan's Island of troops to confront us. 

Quietness reigned at James Island on the 8th during 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 213 

the early hours, after a night disturbed only by the slow 
firing of the navy. As the day advanced, however, our 
vessels opened a terrific fire on Fort Pringle and Battery 
Tynes, which was continued for several hours, our fire 
overpowering that of the enemy and so exhausting the 
garrison of Pringle as to require its relief. There was a 
conference that afternoon between Generals Foster and 
Hatch and Admiral Dahlgren, when it was decided that 
the enemy's force, in connection with their works, was 
" too large to render further serious efforts profitable," and 
that General Hatch should withdraw from John's Island 
on the night of the 9th. The admiral records, " I am 
utterly disgusted," and in another place, speaking of General 
Foster, " The general remarked that he had done all he 
intended." 

In the afternoon a fire broke out in the hamlet of Legare- 
ville on John's Island. Lieutenant Spear, who came in a 
rowboat from Black Island, visited the regiment, and in- 
formed us that mortars were being planted there to fire 
upon James Island. At 7 P. M. Captain Emilio was placed 
in charge of a fatigue detail of two hundred men from the 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts and Thirty-third 
United States Colored Troops, and began work on a road 
from the left of our line toward a point of woods in our 
front, designed to facilitate the advance of infantry and 
artillery in the event of an assault. 

Early on the morning of the 8th at John's Island, there 
was an artillery duel between our field-pieces and those of 
the enemy on the hill. From the tree-tops our lookouts 
there saw reinforcements crossing the Ashley River to 
join the enemy. An attack was fully expected the 
next day ; and the troops slept in position on their arms 



214 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

that night, their rest being broken by shells from Battery 
Tynes. 

Gen. B. H. Robertson, the Confederate commander on 
John's Island, with four regiments, a battalion of Georgians, 
and two field batteries was ordered to attack General Hatch 
in his threatening position. Colonel Harrison led the ad- 
vance at 4 a. M., on the 9th, covered by a fog, and surprised 
the One Hundred and Forty-fourth New York on picket 
beyond the bridge, driving it back. But the troops defend- 
ing the lines received the enemy with a hot fire of musketry 
and canister, which forced them to a sheltered position and 
strewed the ground with dead and wounded. Bringing up 
artillery, the enemy made another attempt to carry the 
bridge at 6.30 a.m., with a similar result, after which their 
main body withdrew. This engagement is known as 
" Bloody Bridge." We lost some eighty-two killed and 
wounded, the enemy some seventeen killed and ninety- 
three wounded, according to their own account. That 
night, in pursuance of the prearranged plan, General Hatch 
withdrew from John's Island upon transports without 
molestation, Montgomery's brigade returning to James 
Island. 

About daylight our troops on James Island heard the 
sounds of battle across the Stono. The day was close and 
sultry. There occurred the usual bombardment of Pringle, 
Tynes, and the enemy's lines. Replies from a Brook gun 
and a ten-inch Columbiad in Pringle were effective against 
our gunboats, but the monitors stood their ground. Late 
that day it was seen that we were to abandon James Island. 
A fatigue party of the Fifty-fourth was engaged construct- 
ing another bridge to Cole's Island ; all the surplus stores 
were conveyed away, and the wharf repaired. When it was 



ATTACK ON JAMES ISLAND. 215 

dark the troops began to move over the bridges, the Fifty- 
fourth marching with other regiments, all in silence. Com- 
panies G and K were detailed to burn a house, the lookout, 
and one of the bridges. Our pickets were supported by the 
Seventy-fourth Pennsylvania until all the other troops were 
withdrawn, when they crossed to Cole's Island. Colonel 
Hartwell conducted the retreat and put out a picket line on 
Cole's Island. Our naval vessels kept up the usual night- 
shelling until daylight, when they got under way and ran 
down the river. 

After a scanty breakfast the Fifty-fourth, at 9 A. M., 
marched to Stono, accomplishing the three miles in as 
many hours, for the day was hot and the men much 
exhausted. There a sutler was found, from whom some 
supplies were obtained. The regiment crossed the inlet 
on the steamer " Golden Gate," whose captain kindly 
furnished refreshments for the officers. Our march to 
Lighthouse Inlet was equally severe, for the temperature 
was at 98° Thence the companies repaired to their sev- 
eral stations, and welcomed the opportunity for rest, baths 
in the surf, and clean clothes. 

Thus the combined movements, admirably planned, 
against a weaker enemy came to naught, for want of con- 
certed action and persistence in attack. At every point 
we largely outnumbered the enemy. General Hatch's 
force, had it not been so delayed, might have found no 
enemy in its front capable of withstanding its advance. 
Many thought at the time that had Hatch's force been 
sent against the repulsed enemy after the action at Bloody 
Bridge, John's Island might have been swept of them, and 
the James Island lines thus flanked, Charleston would 
have fallen. Our total of losses in all the forces engaged 



216 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

was perhaps three hundred men, including the one hun- 
dred and forty captured with Colonel Hoyt, and eighteen 
drowned by the capsizing of a boat in the Stono. That 
of the enemy must have equalled ours. Their accounts 
of our losses, exaggerated as usual, gave the number as 
seven hundred. 



CHAPTER XT. 

SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 

UPON returning to their several stations, the Fifty- 
fourth companies reassumed the old duties. The 
first noteworthy incident occurred on July 13, when, at 
noon, six shells passing over the Third Rhode Island Ar- 
tillery camp, fell into ours, one of which, exploding in a 
tent, killed Private John Tanner and Musician Samuel 
Suffhay, both of Company B. We had supposed the location 
safe from any shell firing. These missiles came from Sulli- 
van's Island, clear across the harbor. A lookout posted 
on the sand-bluff near by gave warning thereafter when 
this gun opened, which it did at intervals until the last of 
August. At such times, day or night, we were obliged to 
leave the camp for the sea beach. No further casualties 
occurred, however. 

Another example of dislike to colored troops took place 
on the 15th. Lieut. John S. Marcy, Fifty-second Pennsyl- 
vania, when directed to join the Fifty-fourth detail for duty 
at the Left Batteries, with some of his men, the whole 
force to be under one of our officers, refused to do so, say- 
ing, " I will not do duty with colored troops." He was 
arrested and court-martialled, and, by General Foster's 
order, dishonorably dismissed. Colonel Hallowell returned 
on the 16th, bringing assurances that the men would soon 
be paid. With him came as visitors Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, 
relatives of Quartermaster Ritchie. 



218 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

During the heated term, which began with the month 
and seemed interminable, we went about arrayed in 
as few clothes as possible. The blazing sun heated the 
sand beneath our feet, and reflected from land and sea, 
dazzled the eyes. No relief came until nightfall, when the 
sea breeze sprang up. On the 21st a change of weather 
brought cooler temperature for some days. Mr. Hoadly, 
the efficient agent of the Sanitary Commission on Morris 
Island, was supplying the troops with stores. Ice was 
still scarce. 

For some weeks Sumter had been bombarded with un- 
usual vigor, as during our season of quietness the enemy 
had constructed two large bombproofs there, and mounted 
five guns on the channel face. It was estimated that one 
hundred of the garrison were killed or wounded during 
this latest bombardment. Captain Mitchel, its com- 
mander, was killed, July 19, by a mortar-shell, and was 
succeeded by Capt. T. A. Huguenin, First South Caro- 
lina (regulars), who continued in charge until its final 
abandonment. 

A special exchange of the fifty Confederate officers for 
the same number of ours in Charleston was effected on 
August 3. The released officers were received with cheers 
and a display of flags from the vessels. From Edward R. 
Henderson, steward of the truce boat " Cosmopolitan," 
Quartermaster Ritchie received a list containing forty 
names of Fifty-fourth prisoners captured July 16 and 18, 
1863, which was smuggled out by an exchanged officer. 

Maj.-Gen. Daniel Sickles, who was on a tour of inspec- 
tion, landed on Morris Island on the 3d, accompanied by 
General Foster, and was received with a salute of thirteen 
guns. During the succeeding night two officers of the One 



SIEGE OF CHAELESTON. 219 

Hundred and Third Ohio came to our lines, having escaped 
from Charleston, and, with the assistance of negroes, pro- 
cured a boat in which to cross the harbor. The enemy's 
fire on Cumming's Point on the night of the 6th wounded 
five men of a colored regiment. A large propeller was 
discovered aground toward Sullivan's Island on the morn- 
ing of the 8th, whereupon our guns opened from land and 
sea, soon destroying her. We gave our fire sometimes 
from the great guns in volleys, — their united explosions 
shaking the whole island and covering the batteries with 
a white pall of smoke. Peaceful intervals came, when 
the strange stillness of the ordnance seemed like stopped 
heart-beats of the siege. Then the soft rush of the surf 
and the chirp of small birds in the scant foliage could be 
heard. 

Major Appleton, who had been in hospital since the 
movement to James Island, departed North on the 7th, 
and never returned. His loss was a great one to the regi- 
ment, for he was a devoted patriot, a kind-hearted man, and 
an exceedingly brave soldier. Captain Emilio came to 
camp with Company E from Fort Green, on the 8th, when 
relieved by Lieutenant Newell with Company B. Captain 
Tucker and Company H reported from Black Island on the 
20th, and Lieutenant Duren and Company D were relieved 
at Fort Shaw on the 23d. Captain Pope succeeded Cap- 
tain Homans in the command of Black Island on the 24th. 
Our details for grand guard were increased after the 16th, 
when the Thirty-second United States Colored Troops was 
ordered to Hilton Head. 

Salutes in honor of Admiral Farragut's victory at Mobile 
were fired on the 25th. On the 28th, and again on Sep- 
tember 1, the navy sent torpedoes, heavily charged, to float 



220 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

and explode near Fort Sumter, in the hope of shattering 
the structure ; but they caused no damage. 

In Congress the third Conference Committee reported, 
on June 10, that the House recede from the amendments 
reducing the bounty, and that all persons of color who were 
free on April 19, 1861, should, from the time of entering 
service, be entitled to the pay, bounty, and clothing allowed 
by the laws existing at the time of their enlistment. The 
Attorney-General was to determine any law question, and 
the Secretary of War make the necessary regulations for 
the pay department. After discussion this unjust com- 
promise was accepted by both branches of Congress. Over 
two months, however, passed, until, on August 18, the War 
Department issued Circular No. 60, providing that officers 
commanding colored organizations should make an investi- 
gation to ascertain who of their men enlisted prior to Jan- 
uary 1, 1864, were free April 19, 1861. The fact of free- 
dom was to be settled by the sworn statement of the sol- 
dier, and entered against the man's name on the muster- 
rolls. 

August 29, Sergeant Cross and a few men of the Fifty- 
fourth returned from Beaufort, where they had received 
full pay from enlistment in accordance with the foregoing 
regulations. Colonel Hallowell made the first effective 
muster for pay of the regiment on the 31st. As no par- 
ticular form of oath had been prescribed, he administered 
the following : — 

"You do solemnly swear that you owed no man unrequited 
labor on or before the 19th day of April, 1861. So help you 
God." 

This form had been the subject of much thought, and 
was known in the regiment as the " Quaker Oath." Some 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 221 

of our men were held as slaves April 19, 1861, but they 
took the oath as freemen, by God's higher law, if not by 
their country's. A more pitiful story of broken faith, with 
attendant want and misery upon dependent ones, than this 
deprivation of pay for many months cannot be told. If 
ever men were seemingly driven to desperation and overt 
acts, they were. How they bore it all, daily exposing 
their lives for the cause and the flag they loved, has been 
feebly told. That they were compelled to take this or 
any oath at the last was an insult crowning the injury- 
There was another meeting of truce steamers in the 
harbor on the 3d, when a release without equivalent was 
made by the enemy of thirty persons, — chaplains, sur- 
geons, and some women. General Schimmelfennig, who 
had removed district headquarters from Folly to Morris 
Island August 2, on September 4 departed North, when 
General Saxton took command. The next day the Fifty- 
sixth and One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York ar- 
rived ; and Col. Charles H. Van Wyck of the Fifty-sixth 
assumed command of Morris Island, relieving Colonel 
Gurney. 

Captain Homans, with Company A, having reported from 
Black Island to camp about September 1, there were the 
following companies with the colors ; namely, A, D, E, G, H, 
and K, a larger number than for some months. On the 
6th, several boxes of canned goods were received for the 
regiment, — the gift of Count Leo B. Schwabe, of Boston. 
This gentleman belonged to a noble family, and was born 
at Castle Schaumberg on the Weser. Before the war he 
lived in South Carolina, where he owned slaves and planta- 
tions. The slaves he freed as the war broke out. His 
means were lavishly given for building chapels and hos- 



222 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

pitals, establishing camp libraries, besides donations of 
money and provisions for Union soldiers. He died but 
recently ; and it is sad to record that his last days were 
passed in reduced circumstances. 

September 1, several hundred Confederate officers, sent 
to be confined under fire in retaliation for a similar hard- 
ship suffered by our officers in Charleston, arrived off Mor- 
ris Island on the steamer " Crescent." An enclosed camp 
was made for them just north of Wagner, in full view of 
the enemy and exposed to his fire. The enclosure was 
228 by 304 feet, and formed of palisading of pine posts, ten 
feet above ground, supporting a platform from which sen- 
tinels could watch the prisoners. The " dead line," marked 
by a rope stretched on posts, was twenty feet inside the 
palisading. Good A tents, each to hold four men, were 
pitched and arranged, forming eight streets. The ground 
was clean, dry, quartz sand. 

Several days before, the Fifty-fourth was assigned to 
guard this prison camp. On September 7, Colonel Hallo- 
well, with Companies D, E, G, and K marched to the land- 
ing, where the steamer " Cossack " soon arrived with the 
Confederates. The escort was composed entirely of colored 
soldiers. First came three companies of the Twenty-first 
United States Colored Troops in column, then the priso- 
ners, flanked on either side by two companies of the Fifty- 
fourth, the rear closed by two companies of the Twenty- 
first in column. In this order the Confederates were taken 
to the camp. 

This body of five hundred and sixty officers thus placed 
in our charge was a singular-looking set of soldiers. There 
were among them tall, lank mountaineers, some typical 
Southerners of the books, — dark, long-haired, and fierce 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 223 

of aspect, — and a lesser number of city men of jauntier 
appearance. The major part were common-looking, evi- 
dently of the poorer class of Southerners, with a sprinkling 
of foreigners, — principally Germans and Irish. Hardly 
any two were dressed alike. There were suits of blue jeans, 
homespuns, of butternut, and a few in costumes of gray 
more or less trimmed. Upon their heads were all sorts of 
coverings, — straw and slouch hats, and forage caps of 
gray, blue, or red, decorated with braid. Cavalry boots, 
shoes, and bootees in all stages of wear were on their feet. 
Their effects were wrapped in rubber sheets, pieces of car- 
pet, or parts of quilts and comforts. Some had hand-sacks 
of ancient make. Haversacks of waterproof cloth or cotton 
hung from their shoulders. Their physical condition was 
good ; but they made a poor showing for chosen leaders of 
the enemy. It did seem that men of their evident mental 
and intellectual calibre — with some exceptions — might 
be supporters of any cause, however wild or hopeless. They 
were of all grades, from colonels down in rank. 

At the camp the prisoners were divided into eight de- 
tachments, with a non-commissioned officer of the Fifty- 
fourth, detailed from the guard, in charge of each, as 
warden. Clean straw was provided for the tents, and a 
good blanket given each officer. The regulations, so far 
as they related to the prisoners, were read to them. Our 
six companies of the Fifty-fourth were formed into three 
reliefs ; namely, A and H, D and G, and E and K, each relief 
furnishing one hundred men, with proper officers, for duty 
at the stockade from 6 P. M. until the same hour the fol- 
lowing day. When relieved, the detachment went into 
Wagner for the succeeding night, returning to camp the 
next morning. At the gate of the stockade was posted a 



224 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Requa rifled battery in charge of the reserve, and a sec- 
tion of Battery B, Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, 
reported there each day. 

Three times a day the roll was called by the wardens, 
and every man accounted for to the officer of the day. 
Policing of the streets was done by the prisoners. Sick 
call was attended to by a surgeon, who removed the severe 
cases to hospitals outside. Barrel-sinks were provided and 
cared for by the prisoners. At night the camp and vicinity 
were made bright as moonlight by means of a calcium light 
on "Wagner's parapet. Oil lanterns were also used inside 
the stockade when required. After taps sounded, no light 
was allowed the prisoners, and they were not permitted 
to enter the streets except to go to the barrel-sinks. Dur- 
ing the day they had free range of the camp ; but groups 
of more than ten prisoners were warned to disperse under 
penalty of being fired upon if the order was disregarded. 
Our charges were allowed to purchase writing materials, 
pipes, tobacco, and necessary clothing. Letters could be 
sent after inspection. Their rations were cooked by men 
of the guard. The nearness of the enemy necessitated the 
utmost vigilance. It was a tempting opportunity for some 
bold rescue, and a boat attack was not improbable. At 
first there was thought to be some danger from stray shells, 
as Cumming's Point was the focus of the enemy's fire. 
But as time passed, this seeming danger to friend and foe 
was not realized. 

Everything was done to care for and protect these unfor- 
tunate officers whom the fortunes of war placed in our 
hands except in two particulars, — they were kept in a 
place within reach of the enemy's fire, and their rations 
were reduced to conform in quantity to those furnished 






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SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 225 

our officers in Charleston, at first to one half the army- 
ration, and after some time still less. Food and cook- 
ing was the same otherwise as furnished the Fifty-fourth. 
Of these inflictions in retaliation the enemy was duly in- 
formed as the result of their own uncivilized acts, which 
would be discontinued whenever they ceased to practise 
the same. 

September 9, Wagner fired a salute of shotted guns in 
honor of the capture of Atlanta, Ga. The next day a re- 
connoissance was made in small force by the army and 
navy about Bull's Bay. Our shells caused a large fire in 
Charleston on the 17th, plainly seen from Cumming's 
Point, by which twenty-five buildings were destroyed. 
Another, the next day, burned two mansions at the corner 
of Trade and Meeting streets. With increased elevations. 
our shells fell a distance of two blocks beyond Calhoun 
Street. A prisoner of war in Charleston thus graphically 
describes the firing : — 

" Every fifteen or twenty minutes we could see the smoke and 
hear the explosions of ' Foster's messengers,' — two hundred- 
pound shells. They told us of the untiring perseverance of our 
forces on Morris Island. So correct was their aim, so well 
did the gunners know our whereabouts, that shells burst all 
around, in front, and often fell, screeching, overhead, without 
injury to us. When the distant rumbling of the Swamp Angel 
was heard, and the cry, ' Here it comes,' resounded through 
the prison-house, there was a general stir : sleepers sprang to 
their feet ; conversation was hushed ; and all started to see 
where the messengers would fall. The sight at night was 

truly beautiful. We traced through the sky a slight stream 
of fire similar to the tail of a comet, followed its course, until 
' whiz ! whiz ! ' came the little pieces like grape-shot." 

15 



226 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Charleston papers gave us information that yellow fever 
was prevalent and increasing, not only among the pris- 
oners, but the citizens, and especially the Germans. 

At the stockade the captives gave no trouble, and readily 
conformed to the rules. The wardens took great pride in 
their office. At roll-calls they accurately dressed the lines, 
and doubtless imparted some useful hints to the Con- 
federate officers. From Major McDonald, Fifty-first North 
Carolina, who was present in Wagner during the assault 
of July 18, 1863, very interesting particulars of the affair 
were obtained. He confirmed the story of Colonel Shaw's 
death and manner of burial. 

After a few days' experience the prisoners lost all fear 
of being struck by stray shells thrown by their friends ; 
but they watched the bombardment always with interest, 
so far as they were able. When Wagner opened, the heavy 
Parrott projectiles passed directly over the camp, but high 
in air. Our charges lounged about during the da} r , visiting 
friends, or played cards, smoked, and read. There were 
ingenious fellows who passed much time making chains, 
crosses, rings, and other ornaments from bone or gutta- 
percha buttons. Our officers found a number of most 
agreeable gentlemen among them, who seemed to appre- 
ciate such attentions and politenesses as could be extended 
within the scope of our regulations. 

Sudden orders came on September 21, at 10 A. M., to re- 
move the prisoners to Lighthouse Inlet. This was done 
by the Fifty-fourth, and they were placed on two schooners. 
The reason for this temporary change is not known. Pos- 
sibly some fear of a rescue under cover of the exchange 
which was to take place may have occasioned it. On the 
23d, after the truce had expired, the Fifty-fourth escorted 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 227 

the prisoners back to the camp. When the rolls were 
called, it was discovered that six officers were missing. 
Without a moment's delay, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper and 
Quartermaster Ritchie rode to Lighthouse Inlet, and with 
guards, searched all the vessels there. Five officers were 
recaptured just as they came from the hold of a vessel with 
no clothes on, prepared to swim in an attempt to escape. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper himself searched every part of a 
steamer previously examined, and at last found his missing 
man concealed in the paddle-box. The recaptured officers 
were doubtless surprised when the lieutenant-colonel took 
them to his tent, offered stimulants, told them they were 
blameless, and gave them permission to try again, before 
sending them to join their comrades. 

Among the prisoners were some rabid Secessionists 
who would receive no favors at our hands. It is pleas- 
ant to record, that, on the 27th, Capt. Henry A. Buist, 
Twenty-seventh South Carolina (now a prominent lawyer 
of Charleston), about to be exchanged, politely expressed 
his thanks to our officers for kindnesses received. 

September 28 was a red-letter day for the Fifty-fourth. 
Paymaster Lockwood, on that date and the 29th, paid the 
men from enlistment. They were wild with joy that their 
only trouble was over. An officer wrote : — 

" We had been eighteen months waiting, and the kaleidoscope 
was turned, — nine hundred men received their money ; nine 
hundred stories rested on the faces of those men, as they 
passed in at one door and out of the other. Wagner stared 
Readville in the face ! There was use in waiting ! Two days 
have changed the face of things, and now a petty carnival pre- 
vails. The fiddle and other music long neglected enlivens the 
tents day and night. Songs burst out everywhere ; dancing is 



228 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

incessant ; boisterous shouts are heard, mimicry, burlesque, 
and carnival ; pompous salutations are heard on all sides. Here 
a crowd and a preacher ; there a crowd and two boxers ; yon- 
der, feasting and jubilee. In brief, they have awakened ' the 
pert and nimble spirit of mirth, and turned melancholy forth to 
funerals.' " 

It required $170,000 to pay the Fifty-fourth. Over 
$53,000 was sent home by Adams' Express ; and the sum 
ultimately forwarded reached $100,000. There was for a 
time lavish and foolish expenditure of money on the part 
of some. 

October came in with clear, warm mornings and soft 
breezes in the afternoon. During a truce on the 3d some 
prisoners were exchanged, and two thousand suits of cloth- 
ing and many packages were sent to our prisoners. We 
received clothing and tobacco for the Confederate officers 
from Charleston people. Brig.-Gen. E. P Scammon on the 
4th relieved General Saxton of the district command, and 
reviewed the Morris Island troops on the 6th. We had 
twenty-four officers and seven hundred and twenty-six 
enlisted men of the regiment present for duty at the 
several posts on this date. 

For some time the freedmen had been contributing to a 
Shaw monument fund to which the Fifty-fourth added 
liberally. The following letters relate thereto : — 

Headquarters Fifty-fourth Mass. Vols., 
Morris Island, S. C, Oct. 1, 18C4. 
Brig.-Gen. R. Saxton. 

Dear General, — In behalf of the enlisted men of the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1 respectfully request 
you to receive the enclosed sum of money to be added to the 
sum subscribed by the freedmen of the Department for the 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 229 

purpose of erecting a monument to the memory of Col. Eobert 
G. Shaw and those who died with him. 

Thanking you for the interest you have always manifested in 
the cause which is so dear to us, and for the trouble you have 
taken to do honor to those who so nobly died in its support, I 
have the honor to be, General, very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

E. N. Hallo well, 
Colonel Commanding Regiment. 

Headquarters U. S. Forces, 
District of Beaufort, Oct. 17, 1864. 

My dear Colonel, — I have received your letter of the 7th, 
forwarding $1,545, as a contribution from the enlisted men of 
your regiment to the monument soon to be erected in memory 
of their former colonel, Robert Gould Shaw, and those who fell 
with him in the assault on Fort "Wagner. Please inform the 
donors that their generous contribution with that contributed 
by the freedmen in this Department makes the fund now about 
$3,000. It is safely invested in Massachusetts interest-bearing 
bonds. The glorious work which our armies in the field and 
patriots at home are now doing means that the day is not far 
distant when a granite shaft shall stand unmolested on South 
Carolina soil, to mark the spot where brave men died, not, as 
recent developments have shown, alone as soldiers, but as mar- 
tyrs in the cause of Freedom. When for a month under my 
command, your brave regiment guarded so vigilantly and so 
soldierly six hundred Rebel officers near the spot where their 
colonel and comrades were massacred, it required but little 
faith to believe that the scales of justice were turning toward 
the right, and that it was time to commence the monument. 
I am, Colonel, with great respect, yours sincerely, 

R. Saxton, 
Brig.-Oen. Volunteers. 

To Col. E. N. Hallowell, 
Commanding Fifty-fourth Mass. Infantry. 



230 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Further sums were subsequently sent by the Fifty-fourth, 
until, on the last of October, the total contributed by them 
was $2,832. A much larger amount would have been 
given had it been proposed to erect the monument else- 
where than near Fort Wagner. It was then seen that 
what has since occurred would take place, — the sea was 
gradually washing away Morris Island at that point. Be- 
sides, there was no confidence that a monument erected on 
South Carolina soil would be respected when the Union 
forces were withdrawn. Ultimately the project was given 
up and the money used to aid in establishing a free 
school for colored children in Charleston, bearing Colonel 
Shaw's name. Efforts were made in the North to erect 
some memorial to our colonel. One fund at least exists. 
To this day no object stands in public place to point the 
lesson of Shaw's life and glorious death. Nevertheless he 
lives in memory, and his work renders his name immortal. 

A large steamer on the night of October 5, in attempting 
to run into Charleston, struck a wreck and sank, showing 
only her masts above water when daylight came. On the 
8th the weather suddenly grew colder, with lower tempera- 
ture the next day, when a chilling northwest wind blew. 
We received forty-seven recruits on the 11th, who had 
looked forward to joining the regiment of their choice. 
As our rolls were full, they were transferred to the Fifty- 
fifth Massachusetts on Folly Island. Our musicians were 
made happy by the receipt of twelve brass drums. Still 
another change of post commander occurred on the 19th, 
when Colonel Hallowell relieved Colonel Van Wyck, who 
went North temporarily. 

General Foster, when informed that the Union officers 
under fire in Charleston were removed elsewhere, ordered 



SIEGE OF CHAELESTON. 231 

the Confederates on Morris Island to be conveyed to Fort 
Pulaski. Accordingly, on the 21st, Captain Emilio, with 
a battalion of the Fifty-fourth composed of Companies 
D, E, G, and K, escorted the prisoners to the landing and 
turned them over to Col. P. P Brown and his One 
Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York. During the time 
they were in our charge not one had been injured by the 
artillery firing ; there was no disturbance, no complaint of 
ill usage or lack of medical attention. None had escaped. 
Only two cases of shooting by the guard occurred. In 
one instance two quarrelsome men engaged in a fight, 
and when warned by a sentinel to desist, failed to do so, 
were fired upon, and both were slightly wounded. The 
other case occurred at night, when a light being discovered, 
a sentinel fired as instructed, wounding an innocent man. 
In both instances it was a clear disregard of orders, involving 
a penalty known to the offenders and their comrades. The 
following official letter was received at headquarters and 
read as ordered, fitly closing the record of the duty. 

Headquarters Northern District, Department op the South, 
Morris Island, Nov. 2, 1864. 
Col. E. N. Hallowell, Fifty-fourth Mass. Vols. 

Colonel, — The brigadier-general commanding desires me, in 
the name of the major-general commanding the Department, to 
tender you his sincere thanks for the prompt and efficient 
manner in which you and the officers and men of your command 
discharged their duties while guarding the Rebel prisoners-of- 
war. Your close observance of orders and vigilance have at- 
tracted the attention of the major-general commanding. This 
letter will be read to your command on dress parade. I have 
the honor to be, Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Thomas J. Robinson, 
First Lieutenant Twenty-First U. S. C. T. and A. A. A. Gen'l. 



232 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Nearly every night about this period escaped prisoners 
came into our lines at various points about Charleston. 
Each had a new and thrilling story to tell of trial and peril 
on the way ; but all united in acknowledging the kind- 
ness and assistance of their only friends, the negroes. 
Besides the departure of the One Hundred and Fifty- 
seventh New York, on the 21st, the Morris Island gar- 
rison was further reduced by the transfer of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York to Beaufort. 
This necessitated the detail the next day of Lieutenant 
Leonard and Company K as provost guard, and Company 
A joined in that duty shortly after. At a meeting of the 
officers on the 24th the Rev. James Lynch, a colored man, 
was elected chaplain of the Fifty-fourth. He was subse- 
quently commissioned, but not mustered. Sergeant Cezar, 
of Company D, was appointed acting sergeant-major, and 
Wm. J. Netson, principal musician. 

With a diminished garrison the duties bore heavily on 
the remaining troops. The Fifty-fourth began furnishing 
grand-guard details when relieved of the prisoners. It was 
nearly two miles from the camp to Gregg. Reliefs going 
beyond Wagner were exposed to the enemy's fire. On this 
service, after the pickets were established on posts about 
the works, and along the water-fronts, the reserves were 
held inside the forts, sheltered in the damp and vermin- 
infested bombproofs. The officers were generally the 
guests of the permanent officers in charge, and occupied 
tents. There were also the ceaseless calls for fatigue de- 
tails to land ordnance and other stores at the wharf, drag 
guns to the front, and return disabled pieces to the depot, 
besides constant work repairing the batteries damaged by 
the enemy's fire or the elements. 







Capt. Edward L. Jones. 
Capt. Francis L. Higginson. 



Capt. James W Grace. 
Capt. Charles G. Chipman. 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 233 

A large sidewheel steamer with smokestacks painted red 
and lead-color, called the " Flore," was chased ashore on 
Sullivan's Island during the night of the 22d, and was de- 
stroyed the next day by our guns. On or about the 29th, 
Brig.-Gen. Edward E. Potter assumed command of the dis- 
trict, relieving General Scammon. About this period our 
fire upon the city was stronger than for some time. No- 
vember 5, a small vessel was discovered ashore in front of 
Fort Moultrie. She seemed to be loaded with cotton and 
turpentine, for our shells soon set her on fire, and she 
burned until after dark. Colonel Mulford, our commissioner 
of exchange, had arrived at Hilton Head with 3,200 Con- 
federate prisoners. He met Captain Black, the Confederate 
agent, on the 11th, in the Savannah River, and arranged 
for exchanges at that point which took place soon after- 
ward. With November came colder and more stormy 
days, rendering it bleak and cheerless on Morris Island, 
exposed to the chilling winds and damp atmosphere. 
News of the re-election of President Lincoln was re- 
ceived with enthusiasm as a guarantee that the war 
would be vigorously prosecuted. Brigadier-General Hatch 
relieved General Potter on the 17th of the district 
command. 

Some changes had taken place among the officers since 
the return from James Island. Lieut. Frederick H. Webster 
reported for duty July 16, and Asst.-Surg. Louis D. Rad- 
insky, August 16. Captain Jones departed North sick, 
July 29, and never returned. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, 
Adjutant Howard, Quartermaster Ritchie, and Captains 
Emilio and Tucker received leave of absence for short 
periods. Lieutenant Swails was furloughed to prosecute 
his claims for muster in the North. Captain Bridge was 



234 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

in. command of the regiment during Lieutenant-Colonef 
Hooper's absence ; and Lieut. David Reid acted as quarter- 
master while Lieutenant Ritchie was away. 

Thanksgiving Day, November 24, Colonel Hallowell as- 
sembled the regiment and conducted proper services. Af- 
terward there were foot and sack races on the beach, 
" Spanish horse," and various sports. In the evening the 
Shaw Glee Club gave a musical performance in the store- 
house of the post quartermaster. 

Orders were received on the 24th for the Fifty-fourth to 
be prepared for moving at short notice. When the depart- 
ure took place, Colonel Hallowell remained in command of 
Morris Island with Captain Walton and Lieutenant Duren 
on his staff. Captain Bridge with Company F at Battery 
Purviance, Lieutenant Newell with Company B at Fort 
Green, and Lieutenant Edmands with part of Company F 
at Black Island remained at their posts. Companies C 
and I at Black Island were relieved by two companies of 
the Fifty-second Pennsylvania, under Capt. John B. Fisk, 
end reported at camp to proceed with the regiment. 
Lieutenant Littlefield was ordered to remain in charge 
of the camp and sick on Morris Island. Owing to the 
scarcity of transportation, the Fifty-fourth departed in 
detachments. Acting Major Pope, with Companies A, D, 
I, and K, crossed to Folly Island on the evening of the 
26th, made a night march, and arrived at Stono about 
midnight. At dark the next day this force embarked 
with the Fifty-sixth New York and General Hatch and 
staff on the " Cosmopolitan," reaching Hilton Head on 
the 28th. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, with Companies C, 
E, G, and H, left Morris Island on the steamer " Gen- 
eral Hooker " on the 27th, arriving at Hilton Head about 



SIEGE OF CHARLESTON. 235 

3 A. M. the next day. This departure from Morris Island 
was the final one for these eight companies and their 
officers. The companies of the regiment that remained 
held their several stations until Charleston fell into our 
hands. 



CHAPTER XII. 

HONEY HILL. 

OUR arrival with other troops at Hilton Head was in 
consequence of General Foster's orders to co-operate 
with General Sherman in his " march to the sea," for the 
latter had telegraphed General Halleck from Kingston, 
Ga., November 11, — 

" I would like to have Foster break the Charleston and Sa- 
vannah Railroad about Pocotaligo about the 1st of December." 

A force of some five thousand men was gathered at Port 
Royal and organized as the " Coast Division," under com- 
mand of General Hatch. Gen. E. E. Potter's First Brigade 
was composed of the Fifty-sixth, One Hundred and Twenty- 
eeventh, One Hundred and Forty-fourth and One Hundred 
and Fifty-seventh New York, Twenty-fifth Ohio, Thirty- 
second, Thirty-fourth, and Thirty-fifth United States Colored 
Troops ; Col. A. S. Hartwell's Second Brigade, of the 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty -fifth Massachusetts, Twenty -sixth 
and One Hundred and Second United States Colored 
Troops. Lieut.-Col. William Ames commanded the artil- 
lery, consisting of Batteries B and F, Third New York, and 
Battery A, Third Rhode Island. Capt. George P Hurlbut, 
Fourth Massachusetts Cavalry, had a detachment of his 
regiment. Admiral Dahlgren formed a naval brigade of 
sailors and marines with some howitzers for duty ashore 
under Commander George H. Preble, and ordered the 



HONEY HILL. 237 

gunboats " Pawnee," " Mingoe," " Pontiac," " Sonoma," 
" Winona," and " Wissahickon " to take part. 

Our regiment started on this expedition in light marching 
order, with Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, commanding, Acting 
Major Pope, Surgeon Briggs, Assistant-Surgeon Radzinsky, 
Adjutant Howard, Quartermaster Ritchie ; Company C, 
Captain Homans and Lieutenants Bridgham and Spear ; 
Company E, Lieutenant Chipman, commanding, and Lieu- 
tenant Cousens; Company G, Lieut. David Reid, command- 
ing, and Lieutenant Webster ; Company H, Captain Tucker 
and Lieutenant Stevens ; Company A, Lieutenant Knowles ; 
Company D, Lieutenant Emerson, commanding, and Lieu- 
tenant Hallett ; Company I, Lieut. Lewis Reed ; Com- 
pany K, Lieutenant Leonard, commanding, and Lieut. 
Charles Jewett, — a force of twenty-one officers and 540 
men. Captains T. L. Appleton and R. H. L. Jewett were 
on staff duty with General Hatch. 

A large fleet was ready at Port Royal, the decks of the 
transports crowded with troops ; and the pier at Hilton 
Head was full of stores and men awaiting transportation. 
During the 28th Captain Pope's companies were trans- 
ferred to the steamer " Golden Gate," on which was Colonel 
Hartwell. After Companies C and E under Captain 
Homans were taken upon the steamer " Fraser," General 
Hatch made the " General Hooker " his flagship. 

Orders were issued that the fleet start before daylight 
on the 29th at a signal light ; but just as anchors were 
hauled up, a heavy fog came drifting in, preventing much 
progress. Owing to a mistake, the naval vessels did not 
move until 4 a. m., by which hour it was clear overhead, 
but the fog clung to the water below. However, they crept 
up Broad River, and at 8 a. m. entered a creek and were 



238 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

soon at Boyd's, where a dilapidated wharf served as a land- 
ing ; not an army transport was to be seen, for they had 
either run into the wrong estuary, grounded, or come to 
anchor in consequence of the thick weather. 

As the naval vessels approached, loud " holloas " came 
from a picket of the Third South Carolina Cavalry through 
the misty atmosphere ; and their fires were seen burning in 
front of some huts. Soon uncultivated fields, stock graz- 
ing, and fine woodland about a plantation house were dis- 
covered as the fog lifted. From the landing a tortuous 
wagon-road led to Grahamville, — a village some eight or 
ten miles distant, near the Charleston and Savannah 
Railroad. Only a squadron of the Third South Carolina 
Cavalry and one field-piece were in the vicinity at this 
time. General Foster had selected this line of advance 
instead of the fortified roads leading to Coosawhatchie 
and Pocotaligo. 

General Hatch's flagboat, the " Fraser," flying a blue 
pennant with a single star, on which were Companies G 
and H, was the first army vessel to arrive. The Fifty-fourth 
men, headed by Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, sprang ashore 
eagerly, and were the first troops to land. A skirmish 
line was formed, and advanced without opposition, though 
several of the enemy's cavalrymen were seen along the 
edge of the stream. Moving about half a mile, the com- 
panies were then halted and disposed to watch the enemy 
and resist attack. The Naval Brigade landed and advanced 
to the first cross-road, pushing a small force farther to 
the right, which met a few of the enemy. It then moved 
to a second cross-road and halted. The Thirty -second 
United States Colored Troops, one of the first regiments 
to arrive, was sent to support the blue jackets. 



HONEY HILL. 239 

Our companies on the " Golden Gate " started at the 
signal ; but about daylight the pilot admitted that he was 
lost. When the fog lifted and land was seen near by, a 
boat was sent ashore to obtain information. At last the 
proper course was ascertained, and the craft made Boyd's 
Landing, the fourth transport to arrive. Captain Pope 
landed his men on the rude wharf one at a time, and then 
joined Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper up the road. Captain 
Homans's companies on the " Fraser " moved on time, but 
the steamer grounded. After a while she floated, and this 
detachment also disembarked at the landing and joined the 
regiment. 

In the afternoon the creek was crowded with craft. 
General Foster was there at 2 p. m., and General Potter 
at 3.30. The latter infused new life into affairs. Small 
boats were employed to put men ashore. General Potter 
moved out with the larger part of his brigade about 4 p. M. 
At the cross-road the general and Commander Preble 
had a consultation. Concluding that the map furnished 
was incorrect, and that the Naval Brigade was on the wrong 
road, General Potter moved the whole force back to the 
Coosawhatchie cross-road. There the Naval Brigade re- 
mained; and Potter's troops, continuing on to Bolan's 
church two miles distant, marched to the left in the di- 
rection of Savannah, when they should have turned to the 
right at the church to reach Grahamville. It is said 
that the guide employed was either ignorant or faithless. 
Potter continued the march on the wrong road until after 
midnight, when he retraced his steps, going into bivouac 
about 2 a. M., on the 30th, at Bolan's church. About this 
rude structure painted white, the troops rested without 
fires, the pickets disturbed by occasional shots on the 
Grahamville road during the night. 



240 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Our failure to seize the railroad on the 29th or very- 
early the next morning was fatal to success, for the enemy 
took prompt and effective measures to oppose us. Their 
small cavalry force in the vicinity was collected ; word was 
sent in every direction of our landing, and that reinforce- 
ments must arrive the next morning or the positions would 
be given up. General Hardee could spare no troops from 
Savannah, but ordered two regiments from Charleston to 
Grahamville. But fortune favored the enemy by the op- 
portune arrival at Savannah at 2 A. M., November 30, of 
Gen. Gustavus W Smith with a force of Georgia militia 
brought from Macon by a roundabout way. Governor 
Brown had refused to allow his State troops to serve else- 
where than in Georgia ; but General Smith permitted himself 
to execute the instructions of General Hardee, and the cars 
holding the Georgians were shunted from the rails of the 
Gulf to those of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad ; 
the leading brigade arriving at Grahamville about 8 a. m., 
on the 30th. With Smith's and the local force it was 
hoped to protect the railroad until the arrival of other 
troops later in the day. 

Col. C. J. Colcock, the district commander, who was 
temporarily absent, arrived at Grahamville at 7 a. m. It 
was arranged that General Smith should advance about 
two miles to Honey Hill, which was already fortified for 
defence, and that Colonel Colcock should take some cavalry 
and one field-piece, and move in advance of that point to 
support his pickets and contest our advance. 

Colonel Hartwell at the landing made his headquarters 
at Boyd's house, and saw to the disposition of the troops 
as they arrived. The regiments were bivouacked in the 
fields ; and the troops, not knowing how moments necessary 
for success were being lost, were in fine spirits. 



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HONEY HILL. 241 

Before daybreak on November 30, the regiments of Pot- 
ter's brigade at the landing moved to join him, followed by 
Colonel Hartwell, with the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts and 
the remaining artillery. The Twenty-sixth and One Hun- 
dred and Second United States Colored Troops had not 
arrived at that hour. At about 7 a. m. our cavalry be- 
yond Bolan's church reported the enemy advancing down 
the Grahamville road. General Hatch moved his column 
at 7.30 a. m., preceded by the One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh New York, skirmishing. For half a mile the road 
was bounded by dense woods, then a cotton-field, beyond 
which were thick woods reaching to a creek crossed by a 
causeway. Across this field our skirmishers at 8.15 a. m. 
met the enemy's light troops, who retired slowly. 

Our advance had crossed the field, when, at 8.30 a.m., 
the first cannon-shot was heard, coming from the enemy. 
General Hatch formed line of battle, and Lieut. E. A. 
Wildt's section, Battery B, Third New York, shelled the 
Confederates. Then our skirmishers entered the woods, 
and Col. George W Baird's Thirty-second United States 
Colored Troops, moving along the causeway by the flank at 
the double-quick, through a severe fire which wounded 
Lieut.-Col. Edward C. Geary and killed or wounded a num- 
ber of men, cleared the head of the causeway. Befoi'e this 
retirement the enemy set fire to the dead grass and stubble 
of an old field beyond the swamp which delayed our pro- 
gress as intended, and they continued to annoy our ad- 
vance with occasional shots. Over part of the way still 
farther onward the troops were confined to the narrow 
road in column by woods and swamps, while the skir- 
mishers and flankers struggled through vines and under- 
brush. At a point where the road turned to the left, Col- 

16 



242 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

cock made his last stand before seeking his works at 
Honey Hill ; and in the artillery firing that ensued the 
brave Lieutenant Wildt received a mortal wound. 

General Smith was in position, protected by the earth- 
works at Honey Hill. In his front was a swamp thick with 
underbrush and grass, through which flowed a sluggish 
stream. This stream was about one hundred and fifty 
yards in front of the earthwork, and was crossed by a 
bridge, the planks of which were torn up. Bushes and 
trees covered the slight elevation occupied by the enemy. 
Their left reached into pine lands ; the right along a fence 
skirting the swamp. The enemy's position and the bridge 
were concealed from our troops, coming up the road to 
the turn, by a point of woods. Just before the turn was 
reached, as one came from Bolan's church, a wood-road 
ran from the main road to the right, with an old dam 
between it and the creek. 

General Smith's force engaged in the battle is given as 
about fourteen hundred effectives, and consisted of the 
First Brigade of Georgia Militia, the State Line Brigade of 
Georgia, Thirty-second and Forty-seventh Georgia Volun- 
teers, Athens Battalion, Augusta Battalion, detachments 
from four companies Third South Carolina Cavalry, and 
two guns each of the Beaufort Artillery and De Pass's Bat- 
tery, and three guns of the Lafayette Artillery. It is be- 
lieved, however, that this force exceeded the total as given. 
General Smith posted his main body at the earthwork sup- 
porting the guns in position, a heavy line of skirmishers on 
either flank and a small reserve, giving Colonel Colcock 
the executive command. 

Our skirmishers, on turning the bend of the road, were 
at once met by a heavy fire which drove them to cover. 



HONEY HILL. 243 

General Hatch, perceiving that the enemy held a strong 
position, directed General Potter to put his troops into line, 
and the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York 
formed on the left of the road, then the Fifty-sixth New 
York and the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York 
on the extreme left. To the right of the road he sent the 
One Hundred and Forty-fourth New York and Twenty-fifth 
Ohio. Lieut. George H. Crocker, with the section of Bat- 
tery B, Third New York, was ordered into battery at the 
turn. Although it is difficult to establish the relative time 
of events, it is believed that these dispositions having been 
made, the Thirty-fifth United States Colored Troops, Col. 
James C. Beecher, charged up the road. It went forward 
with a cheer, but receiving a terrible fire, after severe loss, 
was forced to retire and form in support of the artillery. 

Colonel Hartwell, commanding the Second Brigade, with 
eight companies of the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts under 
Lieut.-Col. Charles B. Fox, hearing volley firing breaking 
the pervading stillness, moved rapidly to the front. There 
the leaders filing along the wood-road, three companies 
became separated from the regiment when Colonel Hart- 
well ordered a charge in double column. Twice forced to 
fall back by the enemy's fire, their brave colonel giving the 
command, " Follow your colors ! " and himself leading 
on horseback, the Fifty-fifth turned the bend, rushed up 
the road, and in the face of a deadly fire advanced to the 
creek. But it was fruitless, for the pitiless shot and shell 
so decimated the ranks that the survivors retired after 
losing over one hundred men in five minutes, including 
Color Sergeant King, killed, and Sergeant-Major Trotter, 
Sergeant Shorter, and Sergeant Mitchell, wounded. Colonel 
Hartwell, wounded and pinned to the ground by his dead 



24-4 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

horse, was rescued and dragged to the wood by the gallant 
Lieut. Thomas F. Ellsworth of his regiment. Captains 
Crane and Boynton were both killed after displaying fear- 
less gallantry. The One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
New York supported this charge by an advance, but after 
the repulse retired also. On the right the Twenty-fifth 
Ohio and Thirty-second United States Colored Troops, 
swinging to the left, moved from the wood-road, forcing 
the enemy's left back to their works, but being met by a 
murderous fire, were brought to a stand, sustaining their 
position with great tenacity under severe losses for a con- 
siderable time. To this line the Battalion of Marines from 
the Naval Brigade was brought up later, forming on the 
right of the Thirty-second ; and the three companies of the 
Fifty -fifth Massachusetts under Maj. William Nutt, which 
had separated from their regiment, formed to the left of 
the Twenty-fifth, while the One Hundred and Forty-fourth 
New York remained in support. 

General Smith, on the part of the Confederates, was 
obliged to put his reserve into action when the full force of 
our attack was made. A Confederate officer wrote, when 
the action was at its height : — 

" The noise of the battle at this time was terrific, — the artil- 
lery crashing away in the centre, while volley after volley of 
musketry ran down both lines and were reverberated from the 
surrounding forests." 

It was 5 A. M. when reveille sounded for the Fifty-fourth, 
and two hours after, the regiment moved from bivouac. 
It was the rear-guard, and was directed to secure the 
communications for the division. The regiment marched 
rapidly over good roads with a bright sun overhead, mak- 



HONEY HILL. 245 

ing the morning hours delightful. Not a hostile sound 
reached their ears as the men moved at route step, with 
only the tinkle, tinkle, of pans and cups striking the 
bayonets, for music. After marching about two and a 
half miles, we came to the Coosawhatchie cross-road 
unprotected even by a picket. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, 
deeming it imperative that this important point should be 
covered, detached Captain Pope with Companies C, D, G, 
and K to remain there until relieved. He then moved 
on with the other companies to Bolan's church, where 
Companies A and I under Lieut. Lewis Reed were left 
to picket the road beyond. 

Pushing forward again over a road clear of troops, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Hooper proceeded with only Companies E 
and H. Nearing the front, from which came sounds of 
battle, some stragglers and soldiers were encountered sit- 
ting on or about the fences at the sides of the road. As 
we approached, they took off their hats, and after hurrahing, 
shouted, " Here 's the Fifty-fourth ! " Farther on the 
Bailors were found halted. They were in good spirits, call- 
ing out, " Go in, boys ! No loading in nine times there ! " 
Still farther onward at about noon Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper was met by Col. William T. Bennett, the chief of 
General Hatch's staff, to whom application was made for 
orders. Bennett seemed excited, according to the lieu- 
tenant-colonel's account, and said but little else than 
" Charge ! charge ! " pointing to the front. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper naturally asked, " Where ? " but received 
no other reply than " Charge ! " Desirous to render ser- 
vice, but realizing the folly of attempting to carry out such 
orders with but two companies when there was no con- 
certed movement, and the artillery just at that time not 



246 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

being served, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper moved his men to 
the left of the road and attempted to enter the wood by 
company front. Vines and underbrush, however, offered so 
great obstructions that at last, pushing on ahead, the men 
followed him as best they could. He formed line not far 
from the road on wooded ground sloping to the creek, 
through the middle of which ran a fence. There the men 
were ordered to lie down, to avoid the enemy's fire, which 
at times was sharp, and to which they were directed not to 
reply, but husband their ammunition. Firing came in their 
direction too from the rear, and as it was found to proceed 
from the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York, 
stationed behind and somewhat to the left, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper sent word of our position, and it was dis- 
continued. Hugging the ground, although the firing in 
front swelled out at times into volleys, we suffered com- 
paratively little. The whole left was paralyzed, in the 
position occupied, throughout the action. Such was the 
nature of the ground that it could have easily been held 
with a smaller force, and a part of the troops been spared 
for more enterprising work on the flanks. 

Meanwhile at the Coosawhatchie cross-road the wisdom 
of having that point guarded was demonstrated. Captain 
Pope's account is, — 

"I immediately threw out one company (K) under Leonard 
on the Coosawhatchie road as skirmishers, and with the others 
threw up a barricade across the road. Soon Leonard reported 
a body of cavalry coming down the road, and at the same time 
a naval ensign with two boat howitzers manned by sailors re- 
ported to me, sent back by Hatch from the main force. I was 
very glad to see them, and at once sent word to Leonard to fall 
back as fast as the Rebel cavalry advanced. This he did ; and 



HONEY HILL. 247 

when within easy range I ordered the ensign to fire. He gave 
them shrapnel with good aim, and they were apparently sur- 
prised, as they had seen nothing of artillery." 

After this repulse and some time had elapsed, Captain 
Pope was relieved by the Thirty-second United States Col- 
ored Troops, and moved on. Halting at the church for 
dinner, just as fires were lighted, heavy volleys were heard, 
and he again moved forward at the double-quick. Nearing 
General Hatch and staff, the enthusiastic Capt. T. L. Ap- 
pleton of " ours " flung up his cap, shouting, " Hurrah ! 
here comes the old Fifty-fourth ! " The road was found 
blocked with ambulances, caissons, and wagons causing 
the men to be strung out. It was about 1.30 p. m. Cap- 
tain Pope continues, saying, — 

" I saw General Hatch speak to Colonel Bennett, chief of 
staff, who at once rode to me and said, 'Follow me.' I replied, 
'I would like a moment to close my men up, Colonel,' when he 
said in a most excited manner, ' General Hatch's orders are for 
you to follow me.' Well, after Bennett's remark I had 

only to follow, which I did. Arriving near the section of artil- 
lery posted at the intersection of the roads, he halted, and said, 
' Go to the rear of that battery, file to the left, and charge.' 
I obeyed orders, all but charging. Arriving on the right of the 
battery, I looked round for the first time and found only Lieut. 
David Reid and eight men. How the shot tore down that hill 
and up the road ! I could see where the Fifty-fifth had charged, 
and their dead lying there. I went back, and only two men 
followed me." 

Lieutenant Reid and Corp. R. M. Foster of Company C 
were there killed. Captain Pope joined Colonel Beecher, 
Thirty-fifth United States Colored Troops, in the front battle- 
line, and after nearly an hour, hearing a familiar cheer on 



248 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the right of the Thirty-fifth, found his companies there. 
Captain Homans's account is that the four companies were 
following Captain Pope, when, owing to the blockaded road 
and the passage of a light battery at full gallop, few were 
able to cross the road and they lost their leader. In conse- 
quence, the column halted, uncertain where to go. Homans 
took command and led to the right along the wood-road 
and formed on the right of the Thirty-fifth United States 
Colored Troops. Adjutant Howard, the colors, and guard, 
owing to a mistaken order, did not follow Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper's companies, but joined the four com- 
panies when they came up. In the position taken, 
Homans ordered the men to lie down. Color Sergeant 
Lenox, writing of that time, says, — 

" We were hurried up and went into the woods on the right 
side of the road, and took our position near where there were, I 
think, three pieces of artillery. The gunners had a hard time 
of it. I believe two of the cannon were disabled. I saw two 
of the horses struck by shells, and an officer pitching out car- 
tridges with his sword, and in a few minutes the caisson blew 
up. The woods were so thick in front that the movements of 
most of the force could not be seen. Wagner always 

seemed to me the most terrible of our battles, but the musketry 
at Honey Hill was something fearful. The so-called ' Eebel 
yell ' was more prominent than I ever heard it." 

It is probable that the battery at full gallop which Cap- 
tain Homans refers to was Battery F, Third New York 
Artillery, relieving Battery B, which Lieutenant Crocker 
bad fought long and gallantly, although wounded. 

Our last regiment to reach the field was Col. H. S. Chip- 
man's One Hundred and Second United States Colored 
Troops. That officer took command of the Second Brigade. 









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HONEY HILL. 249 

After a severe contest our right fell back to the line of the 
old dam. Reconnoissances made from this force to the 
right front found no enemy. As the afternoon wore on, the 
sounds of battle sometimes stilled down to scattering shots, 
to rise again into crashes of musketry and cannon dis- 
charges. After a while the musket ammunition ran low ; 
and as the supply received was small, it was sparingly used 
to repel attack. It was reported to General Hatch by de- 
serters that the enemy was receiving reinforcements by 
railroad ; and indeed Gen. B. H. Robertson arrived with 
the Thirty-second Georgia, a battery, and a company of 
artillery. 

Our Fifty-fourth companies on the wood-road held an 
angle of the line much exposed to the enemy's fire. They 
at times blazed away into the woods they fronted. Lieu- 
tenant Emerson was severely wounded in the face ; and 
Lieutenant Hallett in the left thigh. Captain Homans 
received a severe contusion on the inside of the left leg, 
a pocket-book with greenbacks therein saving him from 
a mortal wound. Besides the officers, one enlisted man 
was killed, twenty-one wounded, and three missing. Ser- 
geant-Major "Wilson states that sometime in the afternoon, 
with Sergt. H. J. Carter, Corp. John Barker, and Privates 
J. Anderson, Thomas Clark, and Peter J. Anderson, all 
of Company G, he went out from Captain Homans's posi- 
tion, and brought back Lieutenant Reid's and Corporal 
Foster's bodies. The former was killed by a grape-shot. 

Meanwhile Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper with Companies 
E and H maintained their line unchanged on the left of 
the main road. During the afternoon Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper made a personal reconnoissance of the ground in 
front, and returning, sent two notes to General Hatch, say- 



250 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing that with two regiments the enemy's right could be 
flanked. His suggestion was not acted upon. Lieutenant 
Chipman was wounded in the left arm, and thirteen enlisted 
men wounded. At one time that day Colonel Beecher, 
Thirty-fifth United States Colored Troops, who was 
wounded, came along in rear of our line acting in a dazed 
sort of way. Fearing he would be killed, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper sent two men to assist him to the rear. 

At about 3.40 p. m., Battery F's section was relieved by 
two of the heaviest naval howitzers under Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Matthews. In hauling back the army guns by 
hand, the One Hundred and Second United States Colored 
Troops lost a number of officers and men. When the 
naval guns began firing, the sailors worked their pieces 
in a lively manner on their hands and knees. The enemy's 
fire slackened at 3.30 p. M. They made no serious attempt 
to advance at any time ; neither did we make further 
aggressive movement. Preparations were made for re- 
tirement at dark by General Potter, who bore himself 
with conspicuous gallantry at the front throughout. He 
caused a reserve of two regiments supported by artil- 
lery to be first posted half a mile in rear ; and when 
darkness covered the field, the retreat began and was 
executed by means of successive lines. One section of 
the naval howitzers fired until the ground was abandoned 
about 7.30 p. m. The retirement was effected without 
alarm or loss. 

When the order came for the Fifty-fourth to move, Cap- 
tain Pope filed off, meeting Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper's 
companies, which were coming into the road from the left. 
Our few ambulances, crowded with sufferers, had departed; 
and as many wounded remained, the Fifty-fourth and Fifty- 



HONEY HILL. 251 

fifth were broken into squads to remove them. Stretchers 
were improvised from muskets, shelter tents, and blankets, 
by which means and bodily help the Fifty-fourth alone 
carried one hundred and fifty wounded from the field. 
When we came to Bolan's church, the whole vicinity was 
weirdly lighted by great fires of fence-rails and brush- 
wood. A confused turmoil of sounds pervaded the night 
air, from the rumbling of artillery, the creaking wagons of 
the train, and the shouts of drivers urging on their ani- 
mals. The church, cleared of seats, afforded resting-places 
for the wounded, whom Surgeon Briggs of the Fifty-fourth 
and his assistants were attending there or outside. Stores 
of every description were strewn about to make room in 
the vehicles for their further conveyance to the landing. 
General Potter arrived at Bolan's church about midnight. 
Having disposed troops to cover it, he addressed himself to 
the task of further retirement, and did not cease therefrom 
until 3 a. m., December 1. 

After moving back to the church, the Fifty-fourth took a 
large number of wounded onward, many men making more 
than one trip. Our regiment bivouacked on the ground 
occupied the night before. General Hatch's front line was 
kept at the Coosawhatchie cross-road, where the guns 
were placed in position, supported by the Naval Brigade 
and the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth United States Col- 
ored Troops. 

Regarding this battle, General Potter reports of the 
troops : " Nothing but the formidable character of the ob- 
stacles they encountered prevented them from achieving 
success." Capt. Charles C. Soule, Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, 
a participator, in his admirable account of the battle in the 
Philadelphia " Weekly Times," says : " The generalship 



displayed was not equal to the soldierly qualities of the 
troops engaged. There appears to have been a lack of 
foresight in the preparations." He gives our loss, from 
official sources, as eighty-eight killed, six hundred and 
twenty-three wounded (of which one hundred and forty 
were slight cases), and forty-three missing: a total of 
seven hundred and fifty-four. Of the Fifty-fourth (with 
six companies engaged, numbering sixteen officers and 
three hundred men), the loss was one officer killed and 
three wounded ; and of enlisted men, one killed, thirty-five 
wounded, and four missing : a total of forty -four. Lieu- 
tenant Reid, who was killed, fully expected his fate. He 
gave last injunctions regarding his family before leaving 
Morris Island to a brother officer. At Hilton Head he 
purchased an emblem of the Freemasons, with which 
order he was affiliated. Lieutenant Chipman wrote : — 

" I can remember poor Reid that morning before we broke 
camp at the landing. He was blue enough, and said to me that 
it was his last day on earth ; that he should be killed in the 
fight. Lieutenant Reid was a faithful, experienced, and brave 
officer, and met his death in the forefront of battle, his body 
lying in advance of the artillery pieces until brought back." 

The Confederates fought steadily and gallantly. But 
their position more than counterbalanced our preponder- 
ance of numbers. It is doubtful, however, if we had 
more than thirty-five hundred men engaged. Lieut.-Col. 
C. C. Jones, Jr., in his " Siege of Savannah," gives their 
loss as four killed and forty wounded. But the Savannah 
" Republican " of Dec. 1, 1864, stated, " Our loss was be- 
tween eighty and one hundred killed and wounded." Our 
defeat lost us results which are thus summarized by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Jones : " The victory at Honey Hill re- 



HONEY HILL. 253 

leased the city of Savannah from an impending danger, 
which, had it not thus been averted, would have necessi- 
tated its immediate evacuation." 

As Sherman's army on November 29 was about Louis- 
ville, Ga., threatening Augusta, it would seem now that if 
our movements had been delayed a week, when Sherman 
was near Savannah, Hardee's whole army might have been 
captured, as the enemy then would not have dared to de- 
tach against Foster, and our force could have cut the rail- 
road, thus preventing escape of the Confederates by the 
only available route. 

It would seem with the light of the present that our 
position was as strong for us to hold as was the enemy's. 
This granted, the natural criticism is, Would not the battle 
have been better fought to have held the position with a 
portion of our troops and pushed out the main body well 
on one flank or the other, drawing the enemy from his 
work to fight us and preserve his communications ? 



CHAPTER XIII. 

OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 

ABOUT Boyd's Landing on the morning of December 1, 
the wounded were being gathered for conveyance to 
Hilton Head. In the forenoon the division moved out to 
the cross-road, where with the other troops, the Fifty- 
fourth maintained a line of battle for some time. It was 
formed in the woods, a small stream and swamp covering 
a portion of the front. The Twenty-sixth United States 
Colored Troops having arrived, its colonel, William Silli- 
man, assumed command of our Second Brigade. During 
the day Companies A and I with Captain Homans as 
brigade officer of the day went out on the skirmish line. 
A few of the enemy were seen, but they made no demon- 
stration, though reinforced since the battle by Brig.-Gen. 
James Chestnut, with three hundred and fifty South Caro- 
lina Reserves and Baker's brigade of two thousand men. 
Their Georgia State troops returned to Savannah that day 

A quiet night followed : but at 7 a.m. on the 2d the 
enemy opened with field-pieces, forcing the skirmishers 
back and then shelling the centre of our line, to which our 
guns replied. An intrenchment was ordered constructed 
covering the cross-road, and the Fifty-fourth completed 
its allotted work rapidly. Trees were cut and laid to 
form a foundation for the parapet. As the ground was 
wet in places, large areas of the surface had to be taken 
to procure sufficient earth. Rations were not procurable; 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 255 

but our quartermaster borrowed hard bread from the naval 
force, and secured three head of cattle. Good weather pre- 
vailed on the 3d, when the Fifty-fourth moved to the right 
for work on a prolongation of the fortifications. In the af- 
ternoon the Thirty-second and One Hundred and Second 
United States Colored Troops and part of the Fifty-fifth 
Massachusetts and two guns went toward Bolan's church, 
and after light skirmishing returned with but one casualty 
That night there was much wild picket firing by men of 
new colored regiments ; and Capt. Alonzo B. Whitney, 
Twenty-sixth United States Colored Troops, was mortally 
wounded by our own people. 

Except occasional shots from the outposts and gun dis- 
charges from the naval howitzers on the left to try the 
range, the forenoon of the 4th passed quietly. Later, a 
reconnoissance was made by the Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
fifth United States Colored Troops, the One Hundred and 
Forty-fourth New York, and some artillery four miles to- 
ward Coosawhatchie, driving the enemy's skirmishers to a 
battery, with which cannon-shots were exchanged. That 
day the Twenty -fifth Ohio went by water to Blair's Landing, 
advanced on the Beaufort road, and flanking a work of the 
enemy, compelled its abandonment and captured two guns, 
one of which was brought away, and the other spiked. Our 
naval vessels were daily reconnoitring up the rivers and 
shelling hostile works when discovered. 

From the cross-road on the 5th two reconnoitring par- 
ties went out, — the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts and two naval 
howitzers to the left as a diversion, while General Potter, 
with part of his brigade, moved upon the battery found 
the previous day, which was again cannonaded. Important 
information was received from a " galvanized Yankee," 



256 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

who deserted from the Forty-seventh Georgia to Potter's 
force. His regiment had a considerable number of men 
like himself, — Union soldiers who enlisted to escape starva- 
tion when prisoners-of-war, — numbers of whom deserted to 
us subsequently. That evening the outposts were drawn 
closer in, and dispositions made to hold the line with the 
Second Brigade only, as the remainder of our force, with a 
part of the artillery, moved at midnight to the landing. 
Just as daylight broke on the 6th the Fifty-fourth marched 
to the extreme right of the intrenchments near Merceraux's 
Battery B, Third New York Artillery. That day the cav- 
alry made a short reconnoissance ; and at sunset our guns 
shelled the woods vigorously. 

Potter's and the Naval Brigade landed on the 6th at 
Devaux's Neck, and with the howitzers pushed toward the 
railroad, which, crossing to the Neck by means of a bridge 
over the Coosawhatchie, ran over the peninsula and left it 
by another bridge spanning the Tullifinny River. Potter, 
leading his skirmishers, forced back the enemy's light 
troops, making a few captures. Brig.-Gen. L. H. Gartrell, 
the Confederate district commander, sent the Fifth Georgia, 
supported by a body of Georgia Reserves and a battery, to 
oppose us. They took position in the woods along the 
State road, between us and the railroad, and delivered a 
sharp musketry fire as we advanced. After some prelim- 
inary movements, a charge of the Fifty-sixth and One 
Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York was made, which 
nearly enveloped the Fifth Georgia, and secured some 
prisoners and its flag. The enemy, on retiring, left twenty 
killed and wounded, and partially destroyed the Coosaw- 
hatchie Bridge. Our loss was about twelve killed, and 
perhaps one hundred wounded. Potter, first destroying 






Joseph T. Wilson, Pvt., Co. C. Harrison Lee, Pvt., Co. D. 

Richard Gomes, Pvt., Co. H. 
Charles A. Smith, Pvt., Co. C. Arthur B. Lee, Com'y Sergt. 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 257 

Mason's Bridge on the State road, over the Tullifinny, and 
throwing out a skirmish line, intrenched, awaiting rein- 
forcements. 

December 7, orders came for the abandonment of the 
cross-road at Boyd's Neck. General Hatch directed the 
Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, the cavalry, and some artillery to 
remain and hold the landing covered by the gunboat " Pon- 
tiac." About midnight the pickets were drawn in by 
Captain Emilio, brigade officer of the day, and joined the 
Fifty-fourth, which had marched to the landing. From, 
its arrival until nearly daylight, the regiment was embark- 
ing amid a heavy rain-storm on the steamer " Mayflower," 
on which were General Hatch and Colonel Silliman. Our 
transport started out of the creek when day dawned, ran 
up Broad River, and into the Tullifinny, where she 
grounded. Small craft were brought, and the command 
was ferried to the lower landing, while rain still poured' 
down. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper without delay, soon- 
after 2 p. M., marched to the front, where the regiment 
formed division column and bivouacked. 

General Jones, upon receiving news of our invasion of 
Devaux's Neck, gathered a force to attack us. Col. A. C. 
Edwards, Forty-seventh Georgia, with his regiment, a bat- 
talion of the Thirty-second Georgia, Major White's battalion 
of South Carolina Cadets, and the German Artillery (four 
guns), was to move from the Tullifinny trestle-bridge, and 
give battle. General Gartrell, with the Coosawhatchie force, 
was ordered against our left. At 7 a. m. on the 7th, covered 
in their advance to within sixty yards of our front, by a 
heavy growth of timber and foggy weather, the enemy 
moved to surprise us. He first struck the Thirty-second 
United States Colored Troops, causing severe losses ; but 

17 



258 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

the regiment repulsed the foe. The attempt was renewed, 
but we were then better prepared, and our infantry and 
artillery beat them back with loss. Our left was then 
assailed by Gartrell's force, when the same result fol- 
lowed. After an action lasting about three hours the 
enemy called back his troops, with a loss which we esti- 
mated at one hundred ; ours was about eighty- That 
day a detachment from the Coast Division landed at 
Mackay's Point across the Tullifinny, marched up, and 
took post opposite Gregory's plantation, where it in- 
trenched. Gregory's was made the landing-place on De- 
vaux's Neck for all our supplies and stores. 

So near were the troops to the railroad that the rumbling 
of trains and whistling of locomotives could be heard. 
The position was in an open space surrounded by woods, 
the main body well intrenched, with pickets in the forest 
confronted by those of the enemy. Our attempts to reach 
the railroad on the Neck having failed, the purpose now 
was to destroy or command it with artillery. It was also 
important to keep as many of the foe in our front and 
from Sherman's as possible, for the coming of the Western 
army was daily looked for. No change occurred in the 
position of the Fifty-fourth from that first taken up until 
6 P. M. on the 8th, when, carrying boards for intrenching, 
it moved to slightly higher ground in rear of the right of 
our line, and worked all night by reliefs. 

Brig.-Gen. B. H. Robertson on the 8th assumed com- 
mand of the enemy in our front, comprising some fifty- 
five hundred effectives. 

It was determined to cut an opening through the woods 
before our right, to better cannonade the railroad. Ac- 
cordingly, on the 9th, Colonel Silliman led forward with 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 259 

the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh and One Hundred 
and Fifty-seventh New York, skirmishing. General Potter 
followed with the Fifty-sixth and One Hundred and 
Forty-fourth New York and One Hundred and Second 
United States Colored Troops, constituting the main line ; 
then came the Twenty-fifth Ohio with axes to execute the 
work, and a reserve of the Thirty-second, Thirty-fourth, 
and Thirty-fifth United States Colored Troops. The Naval 
Brigade also took part. In this order, on that cold, raw 
morning, the troops having formed at 8.45 o'clock, ten 
pieces of artillery opened fire for fifteen minutes to clear 
the woods in front. Colonel Silliman advanced the skir- 
mishers about half a mile and became engaged just before 
10 a. m., the enemy replying briskly. General Potter sup- 
porting with the main line, the woodsmen from the West 
followed, felling the trees. This novel operation of war 
caused the familiar sound of battle to be allied on this 
occasion with that of falling timber crashing down to 
earth. The path of the forest reapers, twenty yards 
wide, could be plainly seen from the rear as the axemen 
advanced. 

Our skirmishers moved to within six hundred yards of 
the railroad. General Potter was at the extreme front. 
Capt. W C. Manning of his staff, ascending a tall tree to 
make a sketch of the ground, could see the railroad, and a 
Rebel battery firing, to the left. It was 3 p. m. when the 
lane, five hundred yards long, was cut through the belt of 
wood to an opening beyond. Suddenly, as we were about to 
withdraw, the enemy became bolder, and a regiment out of 
cartridges fell back, exposing the woodsmen of the Twenty- 
fifth Ohio. Lieutenant-Colonel Haughton of that regiment 
ordered muskets unslung, and as the foe came on with their 



260 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

mobbish scream, gave them a costly repulse. All attacks 
along our whole line were successfully met ; but when 
driven back, the enemy still maintained a brisk response. 
From the reserve, late in the afternoon, the Thirty-second 
United States Colored Troops relieved the One Hundred 
and Forty-fourth New York and Twenty-fifth Ohio, when 
their ammunition was expended. Our artillery, supple- 
mented by Hamner's Third Rhode Island Battery, toward 
the close, was ably handled. At dark the enemy fell 
back, when our troops retired to their fortified camp. 
The enemy's loss was about one hundred in all, including 
General Gartrell wounded. Ours was about two hundred. 
Colonel Silliman, after displaying marked gallantry, was 
mortally wounded. His aid, Lieut. Edwin R. Hill, Fifty- 
fifth Massachusetts, an able soldier of experience and 
valor, was also mortally wounded. 

In this action the Fifty-fourth was in reserve, and 
throughout the day continued working upon the rifle 
trench, and a battery for guns to command the opening 
cut in the forest. All was in readiness for a call to 
the front, but the demand was not made. At 5 P. M. 
that day Colonel Hallowell arrived with five hundred men 
of the Fifty-fourth New York and Thirty-third United 
States Colored Troops. He took command of our Second 
Brigade, retaining Lieut. Geo. F. McKay, Fifty-fifth Mas- 
sachusetts, as acting assistant adjutant-general. At night 
Lieutenant Knowles was wounded on picket, and went to 
the rear. 

Though foiled in further advance, we held on, not know- 
ing where Sherman might strike the coast. Deserters re- 
ported his near approach. We were within good range of 
the railroad. Another battery was constructed in the 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 261 

swamp on our left, mainly to command a culvert on the 
railroad. From that point four half-moons of the enemy 
could be seen near Coosawhatchie. General Hatch made 
his headquarters under canvas, while General Potter occu- 
pied Talbird's house. 

From our camp of shelter tents pitched in an open field, 
details for picket and work on the intrenchments went out 
daily. Damp, rainy weather prevailed, causing consider- 
able sickness, but it cleared, with sunny outbursts, on the 
11th. The Seventy-fifth and One Hundred and Seventh 
Ohio joined the division on the 10th. Our brigade the 
next day was increased by the transfer to it of the Thirty- 
fourth United States Colored Troops. We were shelling 
the railroad through the cut whenever trains were heard, 
and also at intervals after nightfall. Firing in the direc- 
tion of Savannah occurred on the 11th, and, as we hoped, 
proved to be Sherman's guns. On the 12th, Captain Dun- 
can, Third Illinois Cavalry, and two men, drifted down 
past the enemy's batteries at Savannah in a boat, and 
brought a despatch that the Western army was confronting 
that city. 

Frosty nights were now the rule, and the troops, lightly 
sheltered, thinly clothed, and in many cases without 
blankets, suffered. Supplies came regularly, and fresh 
beef in limited quantity was issued. The Sanitary Com- 
mission at Devaux's Neck did much for the sick and well. 
It was now a daily occurrence to hear Sherman's guns. 
Companies D and 1, on the 14th, were detailed as guard at 
brigade headquarters. We had present at Devaux's Neck 
about four hundred and ninety enlisted men. News came 
on the evening of the 14th that Fort McAllister was taken, 
and Sherman and Foster in communication. As the news 



262 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

spread through the camps the men turned out, giving re- 
peated cheers, while the only band present played the 
" Star Spangled Banner." These noisy demonstrations 
aroused the Johnnies, who set up the usual yelling. Cap- 
tain Emilio, in command of the pickets, on the 17th made 
a reconnoissance with a few men to a point near the enemy's 
line on the Tullifinny. 

In a letter from General Sherman to General Foster 
dated December 18, the former expressed his desire to 
have the railroad cut. As an alternative he suggested, 
" or it may be that you could diminish that force and use 
the balance in a small handy detachment east of Tulli- 
finny over about old Pocotaligo." 

December 19, at 11 p. m., the Fifty-fourth and Thirty- 
third United States Colored Troops moved to Gregory's 
Landing, whence the Thirty-third first crossed on the " Gen- 
eral Hooker." The Fifty-fourth followed at 3 A. m. on the 
20th, upon the same steamer. We ran up the river a short 
distance, and disembarked at Graham's Neck. Rain was 
falling, as was usual, seemingly, when the regiment moved. 
Marching about two miles to higher ground included in the 
" Mike " Jenkins plantation, arms were stacked, and we 
rested. Near by were the Twenty-sixth and Thirty-third 
United States Colored Troops, which, with the Fifty-fourth, 
constituted the force under Colonel Hallowell. We per- 
haps made up the " small, handy detachment " Sherman 
had suggested, as old Pocotaligo was in our front. 

When morning came, preparations were made for an ad- 
vance. About 4 p. M. the Thirty-third made a reconnois- 
sance, and Companies H and I of the Fifty-fourth moved 
in support. The Thirty-third met some of the enemy's 
light troops after a march of two miles or more, drove 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 263 

them, and then returned to camp. It is probable that 
Colonel Hallowell's force would have been called upon 
for an attempt against the enemy's works about old Poco- 
taligo had not Savannah fallen on the night of the 20th. 
Hardee evacuated the city after abandoning or burning 
immense stores and many guns, retiring to Hardeeville, 
S. C, across the river. 

Graham's Neck, occupied by our brigade, is the point of 
land between the Tullifinny and Pocotaligo rivers. Along 
its length farther inland than our position was a road from 
Mackay's Point on the Broad to the State road, which 
crossed Graham's as well as Devaux's Neck. In our vi- 
cinity were the abandoned plantations known to us as the 
Dr. Hutson, Mason, Steuart, and Howard places. To our 
right front was an open country as far as Framton Creek ; 
but in our immediate front bordering the Tullifinny were 
creeks, swamps, and heavy woods. 

During the night of the 21st, the pickets of the Twenty- 
sixth United States Colored Troops captured three cavalry- 
men. In retaliation, the next morning the enemy attacked 
their line, killing one man and wounding another, forcing 
them back. Major Pope, with Companies C, E, H, and K, 
relieved the Twenty-sixth men later that morning, taking 
up the same badly run and dangerous line, which was 
given up for a better position the same evening. 

Our brigade expected an attack the succeeding day, as 
Colonel Hallowell was warned to be on the alert. At night 
news came of the occupation of Savannah, causing great 
enthusiasm. Early each morning the brigade moved to 
and occupied an intrenched line beyond the Fifty-fourth 
camp. Daily scouting parties were sent out. Quarter- 
master Ritchie drew rations at Gregory's, ferried them 



264: FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

over in pontoons, and brought them to camp with details 
of men, as there were no teams. A commissary was 
established at Gregory's, but no sutler was with the 
troops. 

Christmas was a cloudy day, and brought no festivities 
for the regiment. Some " Quaker " guns were made and 
mounted to deceive the enemy, as we had no artillery. On 
the 26th a party of five deserters came in, bringing a false 
report that Wilmington was captured. Across the river 
on Devaux's Neck little was going on besides shelling the 
railroad. Such portions of Hardee's army as passed, did 
so on foot, but cars laden with guns and ammunition ran 
the gauntlet of our fire over the rails. General Beauregard 
expected that Sherman would make an immediate advance, 
and directed Hardee to oppose his progress behind the 
large streams, and secretly to prepare for evacuating 
Charleston. Governor Magrath of South Carolina and 
the newspapers were frantically but fruitlessly calling 
upon all men to arm and defend the State. 

From Devaux's Neck, on the 28th, the Naval Brigade 
departed for Port Royal, where it disbanded two days later. 
A family of ten contrabands came in to us at Graham's 
on the 29th, reporting but few Confederates in our imme- 
diate front, and that they were taking up the railroad iron. 
Captain Tucker, the next day, with twenty men, went out 
on a scout, and exchanged shots with the enemy. The 
last day of the year was warm and springlike ; but after 
sundown the temperature fell, ice formed, and large fires 
were found necessary for warmth. The chilly nights drove 
the officers to make huts of logs or slabs, first covered with 
straw and then with earth. Though cave-like, they proved 
warm. 



OPEEATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 265 

By this date the troops on Devaux's Neck were reduced 
by the departure of some regiments. January 3, at night? 
the Twenty-sixth United States Colored Troops left Gra- 
ham's for Beaufort, and the Fifty-fourth the next morning 
took position at the former regiment's old camp close 
behind the intrenchment. With the shanties there, and 
boards brought from a plantation, the command found 
better shelter. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, with four offi- 
cers and 125 men, reconnoitred that day toward Pocotaligo, 
returning at dark, having seen a few mounted men only. 

Sherman was now transferring his right wing from 
Thunderbolt to Beaufort ; his left wing was ordered to 
Robertsville. There seemed to be some uncertainty re- 
garding the movements of the Fifty-fourth about this time, 
for it was rumored at Morris Island that we were to return 
there, and on the 5th our horses were ordered to Hilton 
Head. A deserter from the Fiftieth North Carolina came 
in on the 10th, reporting ten regiments in our front, — 
making a total force of two thousand men. 

January 14, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper at 10 A. M., with 
four officers and 125 men, went out to the Stewart house, see- 
ing but a picket of the enemy. Colonel Hallo well, about 
4 p. M., with 225 men and officers of the Fifty-fourth and 
about the same number of the Thirty-third, marched out 
under instructions to find and engage any hostile force. 
We fully expected a fight, but at the Steuart house orders 
came from General Hatch postponing the attack. That 
evening there were cannon-shots in our front, and at De- 
vaux's Neck the sound of moving wagons and artillery 
was heard. Those of the Fifty-fourth on picket very 
early on the 15th were first mystified and then elated by 
hearing drums and fifes far to our right and front, sound- 



266 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

ing reveille and playing national airs. Captain Emilio, in 
charge of the line, at once sent word to brigade headquar- 
ters that a part of Sherman's army was near. Colonel Hal- 
lowell, at 11 a.m., with the Fifty-fourth and Thirty-third, 
moved to the Steuart house, and coining to the Mackay 
Point and Pocotaligo road, turned into it. Captain Tucker, 
with Companies A, G, H, and I, preceded the column, 
skirmishing. It was a fine bright day, and we moved on 
over high rolling land on the route pursued by Gen. J. M. 
Brannan's force, when, in October, 1862, he attacked the 
enemy at Pocotaligo. Remains of fires and the debris of 
picket posts were seen as we advanced. Coming near lower 
ground, we could see a strong line of works beyond a swamp 
with heavy woods in rear, the road running along the front 
of the low ground bordering Framton Creek. It had been 
fortified since Brannan's attack, and could have been held 
by a small force against an army. Halting our column 
on the higher ground, Colonel Hallowell sent the skir- 
mishers forward, and they soon occupied the abandoned 
works. Moving onward past the intrenchment, we at last 
gained the State road, coming in from the left. A mile and 
a half farther on we arrived near a bridge and Pocotaligo, 
where the strong works were found in possession of a 
division of the Seventeenth Corps ; near there we halted. 
The Fifty-fourth had formed a junction with Sherman's 
army, the first body of Eastern troops in the field to meet 
the stalwart Westerners. 

On the morning of January 14, the larger part of the 
Seventeenth Corps, under Maj.-Gen. Frank Blair, crossed 
from Port Royal Island to the main on a pontoon bridge, 
and moved toward Pocotaligo, twenty-five miles from 
Beaufort. They encountered Colonel Colcock, our old 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 267 

friend of Honey Hill, at Gardner's Corners, and drove him 
with loss to the works mounting twelve guns, at Pocotaligo, 
before which they bivouacked, intending to assault in the 
morning ; but the enemy under Gen. L. McLaws during 
the night abandoned this and all his positions along our 
front, and retired behind the Combahee. Thus fell a strong- 
hold before which the troops of the Department of the 
South met repeated repulses. It was the most important 
position between Charleston and Savannah, for there, over 
the Pocotaligo River, was a trestle of a mile in length, cross- 
ing a swamp over which the railroad ran. This trestle the 
enemy attempted to destroy ; but it was only partially 
damaged. After resting, at 3.30 p. m. the brigade took up 
the return march for camp, where the regiment arrived, 
well tired out. At Devaux's Neck that morning the usual 
pickets of the enemy in front of the railroad were not seen, 
and our men soon discovered that their works were aban- 
doned ; several regiments at once occupied them. 

It was a welcome change to be freed from the anxiety of 
the enemy's proximity and thus enabled to sleep until day- 
light, and relieved from all picket duty. With rest, sup- 
plies and drills the regiment was speedily brought into 
fine condition once more. It soon became manifest that 
we were to assist in refitting Sherman's troops. Poco- 
taligo was thoroughly strengthened as a base. Gen. 0. 0. 
Howard, commanding that wing, was directed not to de- 
monstrate up the peninsula, but toward the Salkehatchie, 
as if preparing to advance directly on Charleston; and 
as early as the 15th he made such movements. Dense 
smoke-clouds over the railroad indicated its destruction 
along our whole front. 

South Carolina was already feeling the mailed hand her 



268 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

temper had invoked. Her sons made frantic efforts to 
convince others that the success of the Confederates de- 
pended upon meeting Sherman there even at the expense 
of Richmond. The newspapers also assailed their chosen 
leaders. The Charleston " Mercury " said on January 12 : 

" Let old things pass away. We want no more Jeff. Davis 
foolery. North Carolina, Georgia, and South Carolina 

are in no mood for trifling. South Carolina don't intend 

to be conquered. She don't intend to be hampered or turned 
over to the enemy. When she is thus dealt with, there will 
be reckoning, — a reckoning where there will be no respecter 
of persons." 

By orders from the War Department received January 
17, Lieutenant Swails was permitted to muster, thus end- 
ing a struggle waged in his behalf for nearly a year by 
Colonel Hallowell and Governor Andrew. He was one 
of the earliest if not the first colored officer mustered ; 
and this decision, persistently solicited and finally granted, 
must rank high with the moral victories wrung from the 
general government by the regiment and its founders. 

On the 18th the steamer " Wyoming " landed the first 
supplies for Sherman's army at our wharf. That day news 
was received of the capture of Fort Fisher, North Carolina, 
by our old commander, Gen. A. H. Terry, causing great 
rejoicing. Our horses were returned from Hilton Head 
on the 19th. Rainy weather seriously interfered with 
bringing up supplies. Daily details from the Fifty-fourth 
were sent out repairing roads or to the wharf unloading 
stores. All the enlisted men and eight officers were em- 
ployed on the 21st making a corduroy road from the 
landing. Innumerable wagons of Sherman's army came 
and went over the roads, carrying supplies from various 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 269 

landings on the Tullifinny and Pocotaligo rivers to the 
camp. 

January 24 was cold but clear, after several days of rain. 
In accordance with orders received to move when favor- 
able weather came, Colonel Hallowell that day transferred 
his command to Devaux's Neck. The Fifty-fourth moved 
at 8.30 a. m., and crossing the river on lighters, camp was 
established in a large field near the hospital. While in 
this location the regiment received clothing and camp 
supplies, long sadly needed. 

Sherman was now ready for his " great next," and 
Hatch's Coast Division was ordered to Pocotaligo to relieve 
Gen. Giles S. Smith's division of the Seventeenth Corps. 
With the Second Brigade the Fifty-fourth moved at 8 a.m., 
on the 28th, through the old intrenchments to the State 
road, and along it to Pocotaligo. We passed through the 
Rebel fort there, and by the Seventeenth Corps, noting 
the immense train of wagons, ambulances, and pontoons 
parked thereabout. Keeping on to the extreme right front, 
after a march of some ten miles we halted at a point 
a mile and a quarter from Salkehatchie Creek. Brigade 
line was formed with the Fifty-fourth, Thirty-third, Thirty- 
fourth, and One Hundred and Second United States Colored 
Troops and the artillery, in the near vicinity of some of 
Sherman's men. In a good position with low ground in 
front, the Fifty-fourth being in the woods, a rifle trench 
was made, shelters were pitched, and we camped. 

Here we had a brief opportunity of seeing the Western 
troops. They were a seasoned, hardy set of men. They 
wore the army hat, instead of the forage-caps affected by 
most of our regiments. Their line-officers were generally 
clad in government clothes, with only shoulder-straps and 



270 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

swords to distinguish them. Altogether they impressed 
us with their individual hardiness, powers of endurance, 
and earnestness of purpose, and as an army, powerful, full 
of resources and with staying qualities unsurpassed. 

In letters to General Foster dated January 28 and 29, 
General Sherman expressed his wish that Hatch's force 
should not be reduced or moved until Foster ascertained 
the effect of his (Sherman's) appearance west of Branch- 
ville, upon the Charleston garrison. He said, — 

" My movement to the rear of Charleston is the principal, 
and all others should be accessory, merely to take advantage 
of any ' let go.' " 

He did not wish the railroad broken until the latter part 
of the succeeding week. Should the enemy retire beyond 
the Edisto, then Foster was to cut the railroad on our side 
anywhere. Admiral Dahlgren should make demonstrations 
on February 1 and 2 in the Edisto and Stono, and the 
troops on Morris Island effect a lodgement, if possible, on 
James Island. 

Colonel Van Wyck's brigade, of Hatch's division, came to 
our vicinity on the 29th. Sherman's men near us moved 
on the morning of the 30th, to get into proper position for 
advancing. When they departed, our men visited the de- 
serted camps, finding much corn and rice, besides many 
useful articles. Four cannon-shots were heard in the dis- 
tance that morning. The Salkehatchie Bridge had been 
burned by the enemy ; and the high water which overflowed 
the banks made it difficult to reach the stream itself. 

By General Sherman's order General Hatch sent the 
Twenty-fifth Ohio, on the 30th, to the forks of the wagon- 
road and railroad, from where a reconnoissance was pushed 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 271 

to the stream, and shots were exchanged. Strong works 
were seen on the farther bank. Again the camp of the 
Fifty-fourth was changed, for on the 31st, we marched 
along the railroad track back to Pocotaligo. Passing 
around the fort there, we camped near the railroad station, 
on the extreme left of our line, upon ground formerly 
occupied by Sherman's men. From the debris strewn 
about and log foundations for shelter tents, we soon made 
this resting-place comfortable. Brigade headquarters were 
located at John A. Cuthbert's house, the mansion of a fine 
rice plantation previously occupied by Gen. Frank Blair. 

There the writer first saw the famous William T. Sher- 
man. He was riding unattended upon a steady-going horse, 
and was instantly recognized from his portraits. His 
figure, tall and slender, sat the horse closely, but slightly 
bowed. Upon his head was a tall army hat covering a 
face long and thin, bristling with a closely cropped sandy 
beard and mustache. His bright keen eyes seemed to 
take in everything about at a glance. There was hardly a 
sign of his rank noticeable, and his apparel bore evidence 
of much service. He was on his way to General Hatch's 
headquarters. Captain Appleton relates what occurred 
there. He and others of the staff were playing cards when 
the door opened and a middle-aged officer asked for General 
Hatch. Without ceasing their card-playing, the young offi- 
cers informed the stranger of the general's absence. Im- 
agine their consternation when their visitor quietly said, 
" Please say to him that General Sherman called." They 
started up, ashamed and apologizing, but the general softly 
departed as he came. The next day he took the field with 
the Fifteenth Corps. 

February 1, a report came that the enemy had crossed 



272 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

to oar side of the Conibahee River and intrenched. At 
noon, Colonel Hallowell with the Fifty-fourth and two 
guns moved to Gardner's Corners, whence, with the One 
Hundred and Seventh Ohio also, he proceeded. "We ar- 
rived at Combahee Ferry about 6 p. M., where observations 
were purposely made quietly, after dark. Abandoned 
works were found on our side, and a foot-bridge crossing 
the stream. On the farther bank were posts of the 
enemy and their camp. 

After Sherman departed, we picketed the front again. 
Our camp was near Daniel B. Heyward's plantation, in a 
rice country. It was rainy weather, with mud everywhere 
under foot. At this time Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper 
wrote, — 

" Sherman destroys everything that stands in his line of 
march, — rice-mills, houses, fences. All through this country, 
as far as it can be seen, pillars of black smoke rise. The 

saying is that ' when Sherman gets through South Carolina, a 
crow can't fly across the country unless he carries rations with 
him.' " 

The Western army had crossed the Salkehatchie and 
compelled McLaws to fall back upon Branchville. In 
the action at Rivers's Bridge, Brig.-Gcn. Wager Swayne lost 
a leg, and with other wounded was brought back to Poco- 
taligo. Foster, on the 3d, made demonstrations with the 
Fifty-fifth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Forty- 
fourth New York in the South Edisto, and with the Thirty- 
second United States Colored Troops on Edisto Island. 
On the 4th, the Twenty-fifth Ohio crossed at Combahee 
Ferry, and after unsuccessful attempts to flank works be- 
yond the rice-fields, recrossed with small loss. 

News came of Lieutenant Webster's death, at Beaufort, 







Lieut. James A. Pratt. Lieut. Andrew W. Leonard. 

Lieut. John H. Conant. 
Lieut. William L. Whitney, Jr. Lieut. Benjamin B. Edmands. 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 273 

January 25, of fever. This faithful young officer was the 
only one the Fifty-fourth lost by disease. On the 5th a 
force went to a cross-road three miles in advance, from 
whence the enemy retired over a branch of the Salke- 
hatchie, rendering the bridge spanning it impassable. 
We lost three men wounded in an attempt to cross. 

February 7, at 8 a.m., Colonel Hallowell with the Fifty- 
fourth and One Hundred and Second United States Col- 
ored Troops marched in a rain-storm over the destroyed 
railroad to Salkehatchie. The enemy had abandoned his 
extensive works on the farther side of the burned trestle- 
bridge there. We were joined there by two guns of the 
Third New York Artillery and two companies of the 
Fourth Massachusetts Cavalry. An advance was then 
made simultaneously along both the railroad and turn- 
pike. Crossing the river, the Fifty-fourth moved on the 
turnpike, Captain Emilio, with Companies E, H, and I, 
preceding the column skirmishing. Rain was falling, and 
continued nearly all day, drenching us to the skin, and 
making the road a quagmire. Soon the enemy, supposed 
to be of Cobb's Georgia Legion, was discovered in small 
force, mounted, with a piece of artillery. They halted on 
every bit of rising ground, or on the farther side of 
swamps, to throw up barricades of fence-rails against a 
rush of our cavalrymen, and delayed our advance by shell- 
ing us with their field-piece. But our skirmishers moved 
on steadily through water, swamp, and heavy under-growth, 
until their flanks were threatened, when, after exchanging 
shots, they would retire to new positions. About noon, 
the enemy were driven out of their camp in haste ; and 
after a rest, the column moved on again. At dark, orders 
came for Colonel Hallowell to retire about a mile, to a 

18 



274 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANT KY. 

cross-road, five miles from Pocotaligo, where liis force 
halted and intrenched. 

Maj. Newcomb Clark, One Hundred and Second United 
States Colored Troops, on the 8th, with four companies of 
his regiment, made a reconnoissance toward Cuckwold 
Creek, and after light skirmishing, destroyed a part of 
the railroad. Our force at the cross-road was joined by 
the Twenty-fifth Ohio and two guns. Lieut. P McLaughlin, 
quartermaster of the One Hundred and Second United 
States Colored Troops, was killed by guerillas on that date. 
February 9, the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New 
York and Twenty-fifth Ohio advanced with some artillery 
and cavalry, driving the enemy from positions about the 
rice plantations, and damaging the railroad. The Fifty- 
fourth was now divided up and stationed on picket at 
several points. 

General Gillmore had returned and relieved General 
Foster, whose old wound required attention. This change 
gave great dissatisfaction to Admiral Dahlgren, who dis- 
liked Gillmore, and he asked to be relieved. Our naval 
vessels were engaging the enemy's batteries in the Edisto. 
General Schimmelfennig on the 10th landed the Fifty-fifth 
Massachusetts, One Hundred and Forty-fourth New York, 
and Thirty-second and Thirty-third United States Colored 
Troops on James Island, and drove the enemy from some 
advanced works, effecting captures. He withdrew his force 
on the succeeding day. General Hatch, on the 10th, with 
a portion of the division, attempted to pass Cuckwold 
Creek, but desisted after finding the bridge burned and the 
enemy in strong position. This force bivouacked ten miles 
from Salkehatchie that night, and retired the next day 

February 12, Captain Homans had a man wounded, while 



OPERATIONS ABOUT POCOTALIGO. 275 

foraging. A scouting party of the One Hundred and Sev- 
enth Ohio was fired into that morning, having one man 
wounded and another missing. Guerillas, or small parties 
of the enemy, were about, and Captain Emilio with Com- 
pany E and Lieutenant Reed with Company G scoured the 
region for them without success. At dark the Fifty-fourth, 
except Companies E and G, left on picket, moved back from 
the cross-road in company with the Twenty-fifth Ohio, our 
regiment bivouacking inside the fort at Salkehatchie. 

On the evening of the 12th, word was received that the 
enemy had abandoned Combahee Ferry. The Twenty-fifth 
Ohio, by a night's march, crossed the river the next day, 
and took station at Lownde's plantation. The effect of 
Sherman's advance was being felt in our front, for the 
Western army was across the North Edisto near Orange- 
burg. Gen. A. R. Wright retired from Ashepoo across the 
Edisto, and McLaws from Branchville to Four Hole Swamp. 
Hardee was also concerned for Charleston, as General Pot- 
ter, with the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, One Hundred and 
Forty-fourth New York, and Thirty-second United States 
Colored Troops entered Bull's Bay on the 12th, shelled the 
enemy's batteries at Owendaw Creek, and landing on the 
16th, intrenched. General Schimmelfennig was again 
making demonstrations on James Island. 

We received early news of this retirement, for on the 
13th a party of thirteen contrabands arrived and reported, 
" De Rebs clean gone to Ashepoo." During the night 
Company H joined the others on picket, and two escaped 
Union prisoners came in, one of whom, unfortunately, our 
pickets wounded. General Hatch pushed the One Hundred 
and Second United States Colored Troops along the rail- 
road, and the Twenty-fifth Ohio through Green Pond, to 



276 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Ashepoo, on the 14th, where the bridges were found burned. 
A force crossed the river in boats, and drove a few of the 
enemy away. 

Meanwhile, during our field service, the following changes 
had occurred in the Fifty-fourth : Lieutenant Duren, hav- 
ing broken a leg by falling from his horse at Morris Island, 
went North, and never returned. Lieutenant Littlefield 
resigned, and Lieutenant Hallett took charge of the camp. 
Lieutenant Rogers re-joined the regiment from there. 
Lieutenant James, recommissioned, reported ; but his old 
wound soon forced him to return to Hilton Head. Cap- 
tain Pope was made major, Lieutenant Howard captain of 
Company I, and Second Lieutenants Stevens and Charles 
Jewett, Jr., were promoted first lieutenants. Lieutenants 
Charles F. Joy and William L. Whitney, Jr., newly 
appointed, joined. 



CHAPTER XIV 

CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH. 

ALL the strong positions along the railroad having been 
abandoned by the enemy, the road to Charleston 
was now open to the Coast Division for an advance without 
opposition. Colonel Hallowell, on February 15, was ordered 
with the Fifty-fourth, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh 
New York, some artillery, and a small force of cavalry to 
proceed to Ashepoo by way of a road above the railroad 
leading through Blue House. We moved at noon of a 
bright, warm day, the companies on picket joining the regi- 
ment as it passed. From recent rain the road was heavy 
with clayey mud, making marching most wearisome. There 
was constant delay passing through overflowed places, or 
while bridges were being repaired. We reached Blue 
House and a mile beyond at 8 p. M., making but six miles. 
Three bridges had been rebuilt, and two more were reported 
just in front. Colonel Hallowell, finding it impossible to 
longer pursue that route, then moved back. We were on 
a causeway, and in turning around, a wagon stalled and 
was abandoned. The Fifty-fourth secured from it one hun- 
dred and thirty pairs of trousers and three hundred pairs 
of shoes, free of government charges. After one of the 
hardest marches the Fifty-fourth ever made, we reached 
Salkehatchie fort at 3 A. m. on the 16th. Our advance 
troops were, on the 15th, at the junction of the roads to 
Jacksonboro and Parker's Ferry. 



278 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

February 16, Colonel Hallowell was directed to move 
forward again by way of Combahee Ferry ; and at 9 A. M. 
the Fifty-fourth proceeded, with the usual rests, over a 
rough country. Much standing water was found in places, 
and at times the wading was knee-deep. In the afternoon 
we came to a higher point, where a view of the region bor- 
dering the river was obtained. Spread below us was the 
finest tract we saw in the South, — a cultivated countrv, 

7 •/ 7 

thickly spotted with plantations. It was the famous and 
fertile valley of the Combahee, devoted to rice culture. 
The negro quarters and mills had been burned by our ad- 
vance. After crossing a bridge over the river, we moved 
on a mile and rested after a march of twelve miles. 

With fine weather again, on the 17th the Fifty-fourth 
marched at 9 a. m. toward Ashepoo, which being only eight 
miles distant and the road excellent, we reached at 1 p. m. 
There we camped near the railroad bridge on the planta- 
tion of Col. Charles Warley. The mansion of this gentle- 
man of wealth and prominence had been plundered by the 
first comers; and fine books, furniture, and household effects 
were strewn about, making a sad scene of wastage and 
pitiless destruction. 

Reveille was sounded by the Fifty-fourth bugles at sun- 
rise on the 18th. Foraging parties brought in immense 
quantities of corn, poultry, sweet potatoes, and honey. 
Many of the field-hands were found on the plantations, 
and our coming was welcomed with joyful demonstra- 
tions. A Dr. Dehon and his son were brought in and 
entertained by the brigade staff that night. Refugees and 
contrabands were coming into our camps in considerable 
numbers. 

Having repaired the bridge over the Ashepoo, the First 



CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH. 279 

Brigade crossed on the 19th. and marched for the South 
Edisto. Our Second Brigade remained. Dr. Dehon had 
been sent to General Hatch, but returned that afternoon. 
Lieutenant Ritchie relates the following particulars of 
this gentleman's troubles : — 

" While gone, his ' chattels ' had been helping themselves ana 
carrying furniture off by whole boat-loads. Dehon brings an 
order from General Hatch that his ' slaves ' shall be permitted 
to choose for themselves whether to go back to the plantation 
with him or not. Dehon got us to back this up, and as a con- 
sequence, loses all his slaves, young and old." 

Just at dark, we received the great news that Charleston 
was evacuated by the enemy. Cheer after cheer rang out ; 
bonfires were lighted ; and the soldiers yelled long and fran- 
tically. Far into the night nothing else was talked about 
around the camp-fires. 

Our Third Brigade having arrived at Ashepoo on the 
20th, at 1 P. M., the Second Brigade moved for Jacksonboro 
and the Edisto, where our advance had crossed that day in 
boats. The Fifty-fourth arrived at the Edisto by 5 p. m., 
going into bivouac in a pine grove but thirty miles from 
Charleston. We were detained there by repairs upon the 
burnt bridges over the river until noon of the 21st, when 
the march was resumed. Just beyond, we passed a Rebel 
work mounting four guns. Proceeding three miles, the 
Second Brigade turned to the right into a road running 
nearly parallel with the main route, and four miles farther 
brought us to Adam's Run. This was a small hamlet 
with numerous rough barracks, — an old and important 
camp of the Confederates. Beyond, some four miles, we 
camped at a cross-road about 6 p. m., where the One Hun- 
dred and Second United States Colored Troops joined us at 



280 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

9 P. M. During that day the country was thoroughly scouted 
as the division advanced by the different roads. 

February 22 we resumed the onward march at 9 A. M., 
the Fifty-fourth in rear, and passed through woods nearly 
the whole day, with here and there a plantation and cul- 
tivated fields. By orders everything along the road was 
burned. Foraging parties brought in all kinds of provi- 
sions which they loaded into every description of vehicle ; 
wagons, carts, and even antiquated family coaches were 
used, drawn by horses, mules, and bullocks, which, with 
the contrabands, made our train a curious spectacle. Some 
twelve miles from the Ashley River we passed an aban- 
doned battery of three guns commanding Rantowle's Ferry ; 
another was found on the right at Wallace's. The Fifty- 
fourth camped at dark ten miles from Charleston. Our 
bivouac was a festive one, for supplies of chickens, turkeys, 
ducks, geese, honey, rice, meal, sheep, and beef, were in 
profusion. Only a few armed but ununiformed men had 
been seen, who, when we followed, escaped, and were 
thought to be guerillas. 

A move was made early on the 23d, our Second Brigade 
in advance, the Third Brigade following. The First Bri- 
gade remained to secure abandoned guns, for the whole 
region was thickly studded with works. We marched 
rapidly over good roads, arriving at the Ashley at 1 P. M. 
There, across the river, we saw Charleston, long the Mecca 
of our hopes ; but the bridges were burned, so we camped 
with our long train, impatiently awaiting orders to cross. 
Captain Emilio was made acting assistant provost-marshal 
of the division, with Company E and a company of the 
One Hundred and Second as the guard. While there, the 
weather was rainy and chilly. On the 25th orders came 








Lieut. Thomas S. Bridgham. 

T.HrlTT f^UADT T7-C7 AT FlimT?*- 



Lieut. William McDkrmutt. 
Lieut. Charles O. Hallett. 



CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH. 281 

for the First Brigade to report to General Potter, our 
Second Brigade to take post on Charleston Neck and 
the Third Brigade to remain. At 6 p. m. we marched to 
a wharf, but as transportation was not furnished, returned 
again to camp. With this day the Fifty-fourth completed 
its longest term of field service. 

General Hardee in command of Charleston, disregard- 
ing General Beauregard's orders, deferred abandoning the 
city until the last moment. For some days previous to> 
February 17, trains loaded with army supplies and citi- 
zens with their effects were being sent away. At the last 
the place was largely deserted by its people, the streets 
littered with refuse and the books and papers of the 
merchants, and stores and residences showed few signs 
of occupancy. From James and Sullivan's islands the 
Confederates moved to the city on the 17th, thence tak- 
ing the road to Cheraw, their ranks depleted by desertion 
as they marched. Detachments were left in the city until 
the 18th with orders to burn every building holding cotton. 
They fired a large shed at the Savannah railroad wharf 
and another on Lucas Street. Lucas's mill and Walker's 
warehouse were destroyed. The bridge over the Ashley 
was burned. A terrific explosion occurred at the North- 
eastern Railroad Depot, filled with ordnance stores, causing 
great loss of life and communicating the flames to several 
adjoining blocks. 

Not only on land but on the water was this fell work 
carried out. The gunboats " Palmetto State," " Chicora," 
and " Charleston " were fired, and blew up with deafening 
reports ; and vessels in the shipyards, torpedo-boats, and 
blockade-runners, were scuttled or burned. Over 450 
pieces of ordnance in the city and vicinity were abandoned, 



282 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

besides immense stores of provisions and army supplies. 
That the whole city was not obliterated in consequence of 
these acts of General Beauregard and his subordinates, can 
only be attributed to the exertions of our soldiery and the 
negro inhabitants. 

Our companies at Morris Island passed the winter months 
with little of moment to disturb the quiet of garrison life. 
At about 1 a.m., on February 18, the bridge over the 
Ashley River was discovered burning, fires were seen in 
various parts of Charleston, and the storeship "John 
Ravenel" was a mass of flames lighting up the harbor. 
At 6 a. m. the magazine of Battery Bee blew up. When 
day dawned, a heavy fog covered the waters, but at 7.45 a. m. 
it lifted. With powerful glasses no enemy could be seen 
at Sumter, James, or Sullivan's Island, although Rebel 
flags were over the works. 

Lieut.-Col. A. G-. Bennett, Twenty-First United States 
Colored Troops, commanding Morris Island, gave orders 
for his force to gather at Cumming's Point, and had boats 
prepared to transport the troops. Major Hennessy, Fifty- 
second Pennsylvania, was sent to Sumter, and Lieut. John 
Hackett, Third Rhode Island Artillery, to Moultrie, and the 
navy despatched Acting Ensign Anson to Moultrie, and 
Acting Master Gifford to Mt. Pleasant. At all these points, 
about 9.30 a.m., the Rebel flags gave place to the stars and 
stripes planted by these officers. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett, with Lieut. J. F. Haviland, 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York, joined on 
the way by other boats containing a few officers and men 
of the Fifty-second Pennsylvania and Twenty-first United 
States Colored Troops, reached Mills's wharf on the city 
front at 10 a.m., after hoisting the United States flag over 



CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH. 283 

Castle Pinckney and Fort Ripley. There they were wel- 
comed by a gathering of colored people, who cheered them 
and the national symbol. Soon George W Williams, 
Dr. Albert G. Mackey, and other citizens appeared, and 
representing that the Rebel rear-guard was still in the 
place, begged protection, and assistance in quelling the 
flames, which threatened the total destruction of the city. 
Major Hennessy was despatched to the arsenal, and Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Bennett with the remainder of his force, which 
had been increased by the arrival of some of the Third 
Rhode Island Artillery, moved to the Citadel. Guards 
were soon sent to public buildings, storehouses, and impor- 
tant points, and the abandoned fire apparatus, manned by 
negroes, firemen, and soldiers, was put into use, checking 
the fires. 

Captain "Walton and Lieutenant Newell with Company B, 
and Captain Bridge with Company P, on the 18th, proceed- 
ing from Morris Island in rowboats, reached Charleston 
after the advance troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett. 
Being the first considerable body of colored soldiers to 
arrive, their march through the streets was a continual 
welcome from crowds of their people of both sexes. Upon 
reaching the Citadel, officers and men were placed on pro- 
vost duty. Lieutenant Edmands and his Fifty-fourth men 
at Black Island, with the Fifty-second Pennsylvania com- 
panies there, rowed to Fort Johnson, where they remained 
until the 19th and then joined Company F in Charleston. 

General Schimmelfennig, with a force from Cole's Island, 
crossed to James Island on the night of the 17th. He 
early discovered the evacuation, and at 1 p. m., on the 18th, 
entered Charleston after crossing the Ashley. General 
Potter learned of the abandonment on the 19th, and moved 



284 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

from Bull's Bay through the Christ Church lines to Mt. 
Pleasant on the 20th. Potter, on the 22d, with a force, 
followed Hardee's track to St. Stephen's depot, but as the 
latter had burned the Santee River Bridge, he returned. 

Into the war-ravaged city of Charleston, with its shat- 
tered buildings, disrupted grass-grown streets, deserted 
wharves, and scuttled hulks, the Fifty-fourth entered at 
9 a.m., on the 27th, having crossed the river on the steamer 
" Croton." We could not but be exultant, for by day and 
night, in sunshine and storm, through close combat and 
far-reaching cannonade, the city and its defences were the 
special objects of our endeavor for many months. Moving 
up Meeting and King streets, through the margin of the 
" burnt district," we saw all those fearful evidences of fire 
and shell. Many colored people were there to welcome the 
regiment, as the one whose prisoners were so long confined 
in their midst. Passing the Mills House, Charleston Hotel, 
and the Citadel, the Fifty-fourth proceeded over the plank 
road one and a half miles to the Neck, where the Confeder- 
ate intrenchments extended clear across the peninsula. 
Turning to the right, we entered Magnolia Cemetery, through 
which the line of works ran, and camped along it among 
the graves. It was the extreme right of the fortifications, 
fronting Belvedere Creek. The One Hundred and Second 
took post on our left. Brigade headquarters were at the 
Cary house near by. Companies B and F, relieved in the 
city, re-joined the regiment that clay. 

Our camp among the tombstones seemed a desecration 
of the beautiful grounds which should have been sacred to 
the dead ; but our foes were responsible for constructing 
the lines there. Lieutenant Cousens, on the 28th, was sent 
for our camp effects at Morris Island, and as a portion 



CHAELESTON AND SAVANNAH. 235 

was brought in small boats, some damage by water resulted 
to company books and officers' baggage. Major Pope, on 
March 1, with Companies C, B, H, and I, visited the Ben- 
jamin Whaley place thirteen miles distant, moving over 
the plank road and fording Nine-Mile Run on the way. 
At the plantation the detachment rested for the night, re- 
ceiving abundant supplies from the negroes. Some fifty 
hands were found there, and the next day returned to 
Charleston with our force. 

There was bad weather the first week of March ; then 
warm and springlike days came. We received a large 
number of men who had been detailed, detached, or were 
sick when the Fifty-fourth left Morris Island. Details 
were furnished for picket duty, generally along the plank 
road. Headquarters for the line were at the Four-Mile 
House, which had been a tavern, but was then occupied by 
a hospitable Irishman — Lawler by name — and his wife. 
Opportunities were given officers and men to visit the city, 
where they wandered about, deeply interested in sight-seeing. 
Several Fifty-fourth officers were detailed there, and always 
entertained visiting associates. The most interesting build- 
ing to us of the Fifty -fourth was the jail, — a brick struc- 
ture surmounted by a tower and enclosed with a high wall, 
where the prisoners of the regiment were confined many 
months with black and white criminals as well as other 
Union soldiers. 

Of the townspeople but some ten thousand remained, 
largely blacks, all mainly dependent upon our bounty. The 
whole banking capital of Charleston was lost. A loyal 
edition of the " Courier " newspaper was being issued ; the 
" Mercury " had decamped to Cheraw. Schools were opened, 
and market-wharves designated. The post-office was estab- 



286 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

lished at the southwest corner of King and George streets, 
the headquarters of the commandant at the northwest cor- 
ner of Meeting and George streets, and General Hatch, the 
district commander, was at No. 13 King Street. Applicants 
thronged the provost-marshal's office to take the oath of 
allegiance, and the recruiting of colored troops was going 
on rapidly. 

Regimental orders, on the 8th, directed the line to be 
formed as below, with Company F on the right, — 

EGDAHBIKCF 



The brigade having been ordered to Savannah, on the 
12th, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper marched the right wing to 
the city and embarked on the steamer " W W Coit," 
which in the afternoon ran down the harbor past the now 
silent batteries on either side, and arrived at Hilton Head 
about midnight. Proceeding in the morning, the steamer 
entered the Savannah River and tied up at the city front 
at noon. Disembarking, the wing moved out Bull Street 
and to the edge of the place, where on high ground it took 
possession of a fine camp of board shelters constructed by 
Sherman's men, near the One Hundred and Second United 
States Colored Troops, camped on our right. Major Pope, 
with the left wing, left Charleston March 13 on the 
steamer " Chas. Houghton," arriving at Hilton Head about 
midnight. There the men disembarked on the pier, while 
the vessel went elsewhere to coal. At 3 p. m., on the 14th, 
this wing proceeded by way of Shell Creek and the inside 
channel, arriving at Savannah four hours later. 

Upon the 14th also the Thirty-third United States Colored 
Troops arrived, and with the Fifty-fourth and One Hundred 



CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH. 287 

and Second United States Colored Troops, made up the 
colored brigade under Colonel Hallowell, who occupied No. 
109 Broad Street, procured for him by Lieutenant Ritchie 
at the same rent as the Jacksonville houses. Bvt. Maj.- 
Gen. Cuvier Grover commanded the district, and his division 
of the Nineteenth Corps held the posts. Bvt. Brig.-Gen. 
E. L. Moleneux commanded the defences. 

Savannah was a most attractive city, with wide, shaded 
streets, numerous parks, and many good buildings, and 
elegant residences. All the approaches to it had been 
well fortified by the enemy, for there were heavy works on 
the river and a line of fortifications from the Savannah 
to the Little Ogeechee Eiver. Beyond, facing this land 
defence, were the works thrown up by the besiegers. On 
every side were the deserted camps of Sherman's and Har- 
dee's armies, marked by debris, rough shanties, cleared 
spaces, and approaching roads. When captured, the popu- 
lation was estimated as twenty thousand, of whom thou- 
sands were supported upon army supplies or those sent 
from the generous North by ship-loads. The most attrac- 
tive spot was the beautiful cemetery of Bonaventure, with 
its majestic live-oaks and wooded paths. Savannah had 
fallen by siege in every war ; to the British in 1788 and 
1812, and to the Federal troops in 1864. 

It was a busy time, our short stay there, for returns were 
in arrears, and the books had to be written up. Clothing 
was issued and drills resumed. The regiment furnished 
picket details in proper turn for the brigade. It was 
delightful weather, the gardens already blooming with 
camellias, japonicas, and Cape jessamine. On the 18th, 
the Fifty-fourth with the whole division was inspected by 
Brig.-Gen. Seth Williams, U. S. A. Our regiment was in 



288 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

excellent condition, and the colored brigade made a good 
appearance, numbering twenty-three hundred men. 

It seemed that the government, having paid us once in 
the two years' service, was allowing that to suffice, for six 
months' pay was due at this time. The officers were penni- 
less, and had to send North for money or borrow it to subsist 
upon. Sherman's victorious progress, Sheridan's brilliant 
successes, Lee's inability to hold back Grant, and the 
whole seaboard fallen, made it manifest that the war was 
virtually over. The Fifty-fourth then expected but a brief 
period of garrison duty, followed by a homeward voyage, 
without again hearing a hostile shot ; but a new field of 
service was before them, for after a review of the troops on 
the 25th by General Grover at " The Plain," orders came 
for the Fifty -fourth and One Hundred and Second United 
States Colored Troops to proceed to Georgetown, S. C. 

The following changes took place among the officers at 
Savannah, — Lieutenant Emerson re-joined ; Lieutenant 
Knowles resigned at the North ; Captains Emilio and 
Homans were mustered out at the expiration of their 
personal terms of service ; Lieutenant Chipman was pro- 
moted captain of Company D ; Lieutenant Duren, still at 
the North, was appointed adjutant. 

On the 27th Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper embarked with 
the right wing on the steamer "WW Coit," accompanied 
by Colonel Hallowell. The same day Major Pope with the 
left wing boarded the steamer " Canonicus." After getting 
to sea, both transports touched at Hilton Head and then 
went on to Charleston, where Colonel Hallowell was directed 
to report to General Hatch. Bad weather and the want of 
coal prevented sailing thence until the morning of the 31st, 
when the voyage was resumed. 




Lieut Alexander Johnston. Lieut. Henry W Littlefield. 

Lieut. Daniel G. Spear. 
Lieut. Alfred H. K~C"'"*s - Lieut. Frederick E. Rogers. 



CHAPTER XV 

potter's raid. 

WHILE at Columbia, S. C, General Sherman sent 
and destroyed the railroad to Kingsville and the 
Wateree Bridge. From Cheraw he broke the railroad 
trestles toward Florence as far as Darlington, and the 
enemy burned the railroad bridge over the Pedee. Between 
Florence and Sumterville was a vast amount of rolling- 
stock thus hemmed in. Sherman, considering that this. 
should be destroyed before the roads could be repaired, and 
that the food supplies in that section should be exhausted, 
wrote General Gillmore from Fayetteville, N. C, directing 
him to execute this work. He suggested that Gillmore's 
force be twenty-five hundred men, lightly equipped, to move 
from Georgetown or the Santee Bridge, that the troops be 
taken from Charleston or Savannah, and added, — 

" I don't feel disposed to be over-generous, and should not 
hesitate to burn Charleston, Savannah, and Wilmington, or 
either of them, if the garrisons were needed. Those cars 

and locomotives should be destroyed if to do it costs you five 
hundred men." 

These instructions caused the concentration of a selected 
force at Georgetown, of which the Fifty-fourth formed a 
part. The resultant movement, called "Potter's Raid," 
during which almost the last encounters of the Rebellion 
occurred, is little known, as it took place when momentous 
military events were taking place elsewhere. 

19 



290 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Georgetown was the port of one of the richest regions 
in the South, and until our vessels were stationed off its 
entrance, a resort of blockade-runners. There were de- 
cayed wharves, regular streets, some fine residences, public 
buildings, and the hall of the Winyaw Indigo Society in the 
place. Up the Waccamaw some fifteen miles was " The 
Oaks," the plantation of Governor Alston, whose wife, the 
beautiful and accomplished Theodosia, only daughter of 
Aaron Burr, was lost at sea on the pilot-boat " Patriot," 
with all on board. 

Major Pope and the left wing of the Fifty-fourth on the 
" Canonicus " entered Winyaw Bay, ran up the river some 
eleven miles past Battery White and other works, and dis- 
embarked on March 31, the first troops to arrive. The 
wing marched to the outskirts and camped in a field where 
the right wing soon joined. Most of the troops for the 
expedition having arrived, on April 2, General Gillmore 
reviewed them in a large ploughed field. The " Provisional 
Division," under Gen. Edward E. Potter, was organized, 
composed of the First Brigade, commanded by Col. P P 
Brown, One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York, of 
the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York, a detach- 
ment of the Fifty-sixth New York, and the Twenty-fifth 
and One Hundred and Seventh Ohio ; and the Second 
Brigade under Colonel Hallowell, composed of the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts, eight companies of the Thirty-sec- 
ond United States Colored Troops, and five companies of 
the One Hundred and Second United States Colored 
Troops. There were also detachments of the First New 
York Engineers and Fourth Massachusetts Cavalry, and 
two guns of Battery B, Third New York Artillery. It was 
a total force of about twenty-five hundred men. 



POTTER'S RAID. 291 

Our regiment marched with six hundred and seventy-five 
enlisted men and the following officers: Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper, Major Pope, Surgeon Briggs, Acting Adjutant 
Whitney, and Acting Quartermaster Bridgham ; Company 
F, Captain Bridge ; Company C, Lieutenant Spear ; Com- 
pany B, Lieutenant Hallett ; Company H, Captain Tucker 
and Lieutenant Stevens ; Company A, Lieutenant Rogers ; 
Company D, Captain Chipman and Lieutenant Swails ; 
Company G, Captain Appleton ; Company E, Lieutenant 
Emerson, commanding, and Lieutenant Cousens ; Com- 
pany I, Captain Howard ; Company K, Lieutenant Reed. 
Lieutenants Newell and Joy took part on Colonel Hal- 
lowell's staff. Lieutenant Leonard was directed to remain 
in charge of the camp. A pioneer corps of twenty men 
was placed under Sergeant Wilkins of Company D for this 
field service. 

April 5, at 8 A. M., Potter's force moved from George- 
town, the First Brigade in advance, over the centre or 
Sampit road for three miles, when the column took another 
to the right leading to Kingstree. Marching through a 
heavily timbered country and encountering no hostiles, the 
division compassed nineteen miles, camping at nightfall 
near Johnson's Swamp. Hallowell's brigade had the ad- 
vance on the 6th, preceded by the cavalry, the close, warm 
day causing some exhaustion and straggling. The column 
entered a better region with rolling ground, where foraging 
parties found good supplies and draught animals. Major 
Webster of the cavalry encountered a few of the enemy's 
mounted men, who skirmished lightly, and toward even- 
ing exchanged shots with them at Seven-Mile Bridge on the 
right, which the foe burned. Camp was made at Thorntree 
Swamp after a nineteen-mile march, with Kingstree across 
the Black River, seven miles to our right. 



292 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

An early start was made on the 7th toward the north- 
west, through a more open and settled country, containing 
still more abundant supplies, which our foragers secured, 
but, by orders, burned all cotton and mills. Light troops 
of the enemy, easily dislodged, kept in front of the column. 
Potter reached the Northeastern Railroad that day and 
broke the track for several miles, and the One Hundred 
and Second United States Colored Troops, sent to the 
right, destroyed the Kingstree Bridge across the Black 
River, exchanging shots with a small force. 

Captain Tucker, with Companies A and H of the Fifty- 
fourth, was sent to Eppes's Bridge on the Black River at 
about 3 p. M. That officer furnishes the following account 
of what befell him : — 

" Leaving the main column, we filed to the right, marching by 
that flank nearly or quite a mile. I had previously mounted 
old Cyclops [a horse of Lieutenant Ritchie's, who was not on 
the raid], and put on as many ' general ' airs as my general 
health and anatomy would endure. (Jreat clouds of smoke 
were now coming up over the woods directly in our front. 
Stevens deployed one platoon on the left of the road, holding 
the other for support. Rogers disposed of his company on the 
right in the same way. Advancing, we soon found the ground 
low and overflowed with water. The men were wading knee- 
deep. We had not gone far before we received the fire from 
the enemy. The fire was returned. We advanced in sight of 
the bridge and easy musket-range, when the enemy abandoned 
the temporary works they had improvised from the flooring of 
the bridge on the opposite side of the river, making quick their 
retreat and leaving behind the heavy timbering of the work in 
flames. During the interchange of shots Rogers and two men 
of his company were wounded. We did not or could not cross 
the river. I remember well of being sufficiently near to give them 
a bit of my Yankee eloquence and calling attention to their 



POTTER'S RAID. 293 

nervousness in not being able to shoot even old ' Cyclops.' 
Our object being accomplished, we started for and joined the 
regiment at Mill Branch about two o'clock next morning. My 
impression is that the force opposed to me was a company, or 
part of a company, of dismounted cavalry." 

Privates J. C. Johnson and J. H. White, of Company H, 
were the men wounded. "When Lieutenant Rogers was 
disabled, Lieutenant Stevens took command of Company A, 
which he retained until his death. After a march of fifteen 
miles the Fifty-fourth camped at Mill Branch. 

April 8, the column moved over fair roads through a 
wooded country, with a bright sky overhead, our advance 
sighting the enemy now and then on the flanks and front. 
For four miles the course was westerly ; then, in conse- 
quence of a false report that a bridge in front near Ox 
Swamp was burned, to the left five miles, on a road running 
toward the Santee. Then turning again to the right 
northwesterly until the road of the morning was again 
entered, it was pursued toward Manning. On the edge of 
that town our cavalry had a slight skirmish, driving out a 
small force. Manning, a town of a few hundred inhabi- 
tants, was occupied at dark, after an eighteen-mile march 
that day. General Potter established himself at Dr. 
Hagen's house. Major Culp, Twenty-fifth Ohio, Colonel 
Cooper, One Hundred and Seventh Ohio, and some soldier- 
printers took possession of " The Clarendon Banner " 
newspaper office, and changing the title to read " The 
Clarendon Banner of Freedom," issued an edition which 
was distributed. In the evening Colonel Hallowell, receiv- 
ing orders to build a bridge across Pocotaligo Swamp, 
moved his force to the river of that name, and prosecuted 
the work to completion by midnight. 



294 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

At 1.30 a. m. on the 9th the Second Brigade broke camp, 
marched to and crossed the Pocotaligo Bridge, and advanced 
two miles, where it bivouacked in readiness for attack. 
At daybreak on a rainy morning the troops moved towai'd 
Sumterville, through a fine region with numerous planta- 
tions, from which the negroes flocked to the force by hun- 
dreds. The train had grown to a formidable array of 
vehicles, augmented every hour. During the morning the 
enemy's light troops fell back readily after exchanging 
shots. Information was received that the enemy was to 
dispute our progress at Dingle's mill on Turkey Creek four 
miles from Sumterville, with five hundred men, chiefly 
militia, and three guns. A mile from Dingle's the division 
halted, and a reconnoissance was made. Hallowell's brigade 
was then sent to the left and rear of the enemy's position ; 
but the guide furnished proving incompetent, the brigade 
returned to the main force, arriving after the action was 
over. At 2 p. m. the skirmishers of the First Brigade 
pushed toward the swamp, the enemy holding earthworks 
beyond a burned bridge, and opening with artillery as we 
came in range. The Twenty-fifth and One Hundred and 
Seventh Ohio, on either side of the road, moved forward to 
a dike on the border of the swamp, from which a musketry 
fire was maintained. At the same time Potter sent the 
One Hundred and Fifty-seventh and Fifty-sixth New York 
to turn the enemy's left, which was done, the Rebels re- 
tiring, leaving their dead, wounded, and some prisoners, 
besides the three guns, in our hands. 

Our force then crossed the creek, the Twenty-fifth Ohio 
forcing the enemy into the woods, where they made another 
stand along a fence skirting the timber. Upon the arrival 
of the One Hundred and Seventh Ohio, the force advanced 



POTTER'S RAID. 295 

and the enemy fled, closing the action, in which our loss 
was small. The division then moved to Sumterville, arriv- 
ing at dark, after a march of eighteen miles that day. 

Sumterville, on the Manchester and Wilmington Railroad, 
boasted some good dwellings, two female seminaries, and 
the usual public buildings. Here the soldier-printers issued 
a loyal edition of the " Sumter Watchman." Every one 
was in fine spirits at having gained the railroad without 
serious opposition, for the rolling-stock was known to be 
below on the Camden Branch. Another cause of exultation 
was the news that Richmond, Mobile, and Selma were in 
our hands, in honor of which a salute of thirteen shots 
was fired from the captured guns. During the 10th, the 
Thirty-Second United States Colored Troops moved along 
the railroad to Maysville, where some seven cars and a 
bridge were destroyed. The One Hundred and Second 
United States Colored Troops went at the same time 
toward Manchester about three miles, burning a long cov- 
ered railroad-bridge, four cars, two hundred bales of cot- 
ton, a gin-house, and a mill filled with corn. Our regiment, 
from its bivouac in the town, sent details which destroyed 
three locomotives, fifteen cars, and the large and thor- 
oughly equipped railroad machine-shop in the place. 

Gen. A. S. Hartwell with the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, 
Fifty-fourth New York, and two guns of the Third New 
York Artillery, from Charleston, reached Eutaw Springs 
on April 10, by way of Monk's Corner and Pineville, to 
co-operate with General Potter. An effort was made to 
open communication from there by Maj. William Nutt, 
Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, with two companies of his regi- 
ment, which was unsuccessful, for Potter was thirty miles 
distant. Hartwell's force returned to Charleston on the 



296 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

12th, with over one thousand negroes and many wagons 
and draught animals. 

Potter resumed the march April 11, leaving the Twenty- 
fifth Ohio as a covering force for the division, the large 
number of contrabands, and the immense train. The Fifty- 
fourth passed through Sumterville singing John Brown's 
hymn in chorus, and with the brigade, reached Manchester 
after a march of twelve miles. A mile and a half beyond 
that town the other regiments of the brigade bivouacked 
toward evening on the Statesburg road ; the First Brigade 
moved on a mile or so farther, camping in a fine grove on 
the Singleton plantation. 

At Manchester the Fifty-fourth was detached, moving 
along the railroad about six miles and to a point near 
Wateree Junction. A reconnoissance made by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper resulted in the discovery at the junction of 
cars, water-tanks, and several locomotives, — one of which 
had steam up. It was not known whether there was any 
armed force there or not ; and it was important to seize the 
locomotive before it could be reversed and the rolling-stock 
run back. Night had set in. Some sharpshooters were 
posted to cover an advance and disable any train-men. 
Then our column, led by Lieutenant Swails, First Sergeant 
Welch, of Company F, and eighteen picked men, rushed 
over an intervening trestle for the junction. Swails was 
the first man of all, and jumped into the engine-cab where, 
while waving his hat in triumph, he received a shot in his 
right arm from our sharpshooters, who in the darkness 
probably mistook him for the engineer. The train-hands, 
some fifteen in number, fled down the railroad embank- 
ment into the swamp. 

There were five engines and thirteen cars, besides tanks, 



POTTER'S RAID. 297 

a turn-table, and a large quantity of finished timber found 
at Wateree Junction. Learning from a contraband that 
there was more rolling-stock to the westward, after first 
burning the trestle-bridge on the Camden Branch, so that 
the enemy could not interfere suddenly, Captain Tucker 
with two companies was sent in search of it. Shortly after, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper started on the return, leaving 
Major Pope with a detachment at the junction. Later the 
One Hundred and Seventh Ohio came there from the direc- 
tion of Camden along the railroad. 

Captain Tucker proceeded some three miles, and secured 
three locomotives and thirty-five cars without opposition. 
Steam being up in one engine, to return more rapidly he 
embarked his men, and himself acting as engineer, ran 
back until he came in sight of the trestle, which we had 
fired, supposing he would march back. Captain Tucker 
thus narrates the sequel : — 

" Knowing that any delay would be dangerous, and that life 
and death hung in the balance, I crowded on all steam, and we 
crossed the bridge through flame and smoke in safety, but with 
not a moment to spare, for scarcely had we accomplished the 
passage when it tottered and fell, a heap of blazing ruins." 

While coupling cars, Sergeant-Major Wilson and Private 
George Jarvis of Company K were injured. Lieutenant 
Swails, with his wounded arm in a sling, assisted by Lieu- 
tenant Whitney, took charge of the leading engine and 
train and proceeded slowly away. The Fifty-fourth men 
and One Hundred and Seventh Ohio embarked on the cars 
brought in, Major Pope helping Captain Tucker with his 
engine. The destruction of all property at the junction 
was effected, and then the trestle leading toward Man- 



298 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Chester was burned after crossing it. As progress was 
slow with the heavy second train, to lighten it cars were 
dropped from time to time and destroyed, until at last the 
engine alone proceeded with the injured men, while the 
troops marched. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper's force was 
joined on the roadside. It was the hope to run the 
engines and remaining cars to Manchester ; but a flue had 
blown out of Lieutenant Swaiis's locomotive, so they like 
the others were burned with the army supplies in them, 
estimated at a total value of $300,000. 

When this was completed, and rest taken, the Fifty- 
fourth moved on, re-joining the Second Brigade at 7 a. m. 
on the 12th, after marching twenty-five miles and working 
all night. Sergeant Wilkins of Company D, relieved from 
charge of the pioneers by Sergeant Dorsey, of Company I, 
was appointed acting sergeant-major on the 12th. At 11 
a. M. the regiment with the brigade moved forward and 
joined the First Brigade at Singleton's plantation. From 
there, on that day, Capt. Frank Goodwin of Potter's staff, 
accompanied by Lieutenant Newell of Hallowell's, with the 
Thirty-second United States Colored Troops as escort, took 
the wounded, several thousand contrabands, and the long 
train to Wright's Bluff on the Santee, twenty-five miles 
distant. They found some of our light draught vessels in 
the river, on which the wounded and the women and chil- 
dren were placed. Captain Goodwin distributed some two 
hundred captured muskets to the men and sent them 
overland to Georgetown. 

From Singleton's on the 13th the One Hundred and Fifty- 
seventh New York went to Statesburg, thirteen miles dis- 
tant, where it destroyed some stores. 

The next day the Twenty-fifth Ohio was sent to gain the 



POTTER'S RAID. 299 

rear of the enemy on the Statesburg road. Throughout 
the 13th and 14th the remainder of the division was sta- 
tionary. Toward evening of the 14th some twenty of 
the enemy made demonstrations against our Fifty-fourth 
pickets, and later, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, with the 
right wing of the regiment, reconnoitred for two miles 
toward Statesburg, but found no enemy, and returned. 

Everything was ready for an early advance on the 15th, 
but it was not made until 3 P. M., when the Thirty-second 
United States Colored Troops having returned from 
Wright's Bluff, the division moved from Singleton's. It 
rained in the afternoon and evening. That morning the 
Twenty-fifth Ohio, ordered to Statesburg to await the di- 
vision, encountered the enemy and drove them to Round 
Hill, where they made a stand, causing the Twenty-fifth 
some loss in repulsing them from there. Potter coming 
up with the main force, the One Hundred and Seventh 
Ohio was sent with six companies of the Twenty-fifth to 
engage the enemy as a demonstration, while the rest of 
the division, taking a road five miles from Singleton's, lead- 
ing to the right, moved to flank the enemy collected on the 
main road. Potter marched until midnight, making twelve 
miles, and bivouacked near Jenning's Swamp and Provi- 
dence Post-Office. The force on the main road after dark 
withdrew, joining the main column. 

April 16, the march was resumed, the colored brigade 
leading, and Providence Post-Office was left on the right 
hand. With good weather the route was through a hilly 
and rolling country sparsely settled with poor whites. A 
halt was made for dinner at Bradford Springs ; and when 
the column again proceeded, the enemy's skirmishers were 
encountered, who gave way readily, but kept up a running 



300 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

fight all the afternoon. Private Lewis Clark, of Company C, 
was killed, and Private Levi Jackson, of the same company, 
wounded that day while foraging. The skirmishers of the 
Thirty-second United States Colored Troops killed one 
Rebel and captured another. By sunset the colored brigade 
had advanced sixteen miles and camped at Spring Hill. 

On the 17th the last forward march of the division was 
made. It moved at 6.30 a. m. toward Camden, the First 
Brigade leading, the foe yielding until we came to swampy 
ground, where works were discovered. There the First 
Brigade fronted the enemy ; and a part of the Twenty-fifth 
Ohio flanked the position, when the Rebels retired. The 
Second Brigade was also sent to the left for the same pur- 
pose, but its aid was not required. No further opposition 
was made ; and Potter's force entered Camden, the Second 
Brigade following the First, coming in at dark. Camden 
was historic ground, for there Gates was defeated by Corn- 
wallis in 1780, and Greene by Lord Rawdon at Hobkirk's 
Hill near by in 1781. Sherman's Fifteenth Corps entered 
the town Feb. 24, 1865, after some resistance, when the rail- 
road bridge, depot, and much cotton and tobacco were de- 
stroyed. It was ascertained that the rolling-stock had 
been sent below during our advance from Singleton's, 
making success assured, though fighting was expected. 

Potter turned back from Camden toward Statcsburg at 
7 A. M. on the 18th. Our main body moved along the pike ; 
the One Hundred and Seventh Ohio on the railroad with 
only slight resistance until we came to Swift Creek, after 
marching some seven miles. There the enemy held earth- 
works running through a swamp and over the higher ground 
beyond the creek. Gen. P M. B. Young commanded the 
Confederates, his force consisting of four hundred men of 



POTTER'S RAID. 301 

Lewis's Tennessee, and three hundred and fifty of Hannon's 
Alabama brigades of mounted men, and Hamilton's field 
battery 

General Potter, demonstrating with his main body along 
Swift Creek in front, sent the Fifty-fourth, One Hundred 
and Second United States Colored Troops, and One Hun- 
dred and Seventh Ohio to attempt crossings down the 
stream to the right, under the guidance of a native. In 
this flanking movement Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper led the 
Fifty-fourth along the creek over ploughed fields bordering 
the wood of the swamp, with Company F, under Captain 
Bridge, skirmishing. From contrabands it was learned 
that the swamp was impassable nearer than Boykin's Mills, 
some two miles from the road. When in the vicinity of 
the mills, the enemy's scouts were seen falling back. 

Leading from a small clearing, a road was found ap- 
parently running in the proper direction, and our skir- 
mishers were again ordered forward. Just then "Warren 
Morehouse, of Company E, who had been scouting in the 
woods to the left, came to Major Pope, saying, " Major, 
there's a lot of Rebs through there in a barn." The regi- 
ment was moving on ; and deeming quick action essential, 
Major Pope faced the left company about and led it toward 
the point indicated through the woods ; and as we ap- 
proached, the enemy retired across the stream. This com- 
pany was left at that point temporarily, and the major 
hastened to rejoin the regiment. 

Captain Bridge pushed forward his skirmishers through 
the wood bordering the road until the mills were in view. 
It was found that the stream was there dammed by a dike, 
the water above it forming a pond. At each end of the 
dike were sluice-gates, controlling the water, which served 



302 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

to run a grist-mill at one extremity and a saw-mill at the 
other. The divided waters passed away in two streams, form- 
ing a sort of island ; but the two branches united farther 
on. The road discovered ran to the first stream, where the 
water, seven feet deep, was crossed by a bridge, which had 
been burned, only a stringer remaining, thence over the 
island to the second stream, where was a ford through water 
waist-deep. Some fifteen yards beyond the ford up a slight 
ascent, the enemy held breastworks of cotton-bales. It 
was found that the dike and the road were one hundred 
and fifty yards apart on our side of the creek ; but as the 
stream made a bend there, they met on the enemy s 
bank. 

Captain Bridge's skirmishers, moving rapidly over the 
road, came to the ruined bridge. The leaders at once 
attempted to cross over the stringer, but received a volley 
which killed Corp. James P Johnson, mortally wounded 
Corp. Andrew Miller, and wounded Sergeant Bennett and 
Privates Harding, Postley, and Sylvia, all of Company F. 
Thus checked, Captain Bridge retired to cover of the 
ground, keeping up a return fire. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper, seeing that the position was strong and well de- 
fended against an attack in front, determined to make a 
diversion a quarter of a mile farther down the stream, 
where a ford was reported to be. He therefore sent Acting 
Adjutant Whitney to Major Pope with instructions to take 
the left wing and essay the task under the guidance of an 
old white-headed negro. 

As the left company was already detached, Major Pope 
took only Companies A, D, G, and I, proceeding by a de'tour 
through the woods and swamps, with Company A under 
Lieutenant Stevens skirmishing ; after pursuing a road 



POTTER'S RAID. 303 

fringed with heavy timber and underbrush, this force 
arrived near the point indicated. The enemy was there, 
for Major Pope and Lieutenant Stevens in crossing the 
wood-road drew several shots. To feel tbe strength of the 
opposing force opposite, Company A, which was in the 
brush along the bank of the creek, was directed to fire a 
volley. As if acting under the same impulse, at the very 
moment this order w^as executed, the enemy also fired a 
volley, one shot striking Lieutenant Stevens in the head, 
killing him instantly- He fell partially into the stream. 
It was a dangerous duty to remove him ; but two men were 
selected from volunteers, who, crawling forward, brought 
back his body. As the orders were to entail no unneces- 
sary risk of life, word was sent to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper of the situation. Captain Chipman with Company 
D relieved Company A on the skirmish line. 

"While awaiting the result of Major Pope's flanking move- 
ment, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper caused a musketry fire 
to be kept up from about the mill and the bridge, which 
enfiladed the enemy's breastworks. He also caused the 
sluice-gates of the dam at the first stream to be broken 
to allow the water in the pond to flow off, that a crossing 
there might be facilitated should Major Pope's project 
not succeed. When word came of Major Pope's en- 
counter, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper sent a message to 
General Potter informing him that the stream could only 
be crossed with a considerable sacrifice ; but that if a field- 
gun was sent him, the enemy might be driven out, or a 
charge covered. At the same time Major Pope was ordered 
to hold his position. 

A gun having been brought, dispositions were made to 
charge over the log dike at the mill. Lieutenant Hallett 



304 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

with a force was directed to cross the dam to the island 
between the streams, and open a covering fire from there 
when all was ready. Then the gun having fired some half 
a dozen shells, the Fifty-fourth, led most gallantly by Lieu- 
tenant Reed, charged across the dike in single file, re- 
ceiving the enemy's fire, but causing their precipitate 
retirement. In this charge Corp. Win. H. Brown, of Com- 
pany K, always conspicuous for bravery, was the first 
enlisted man to gain the farther bank. We sustained the 
loss of Privates Scott, Freeman, and Green, of Company 
H ; Johnson and Jay, of Company B ; and McCullar, of 
Company K, — all wounded. 

This last fight of the Fifty-fourth, and also one of the 
very last of the war, was well managed by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper, when less discretion would have resulted 
in a repulse and heavy loss. The charge was a plucky 
affair under exceptionally adverse conditions. Our total 
regimental loss that day was one officer killed, one enlisted 
man killed, one mortally wounded, and twelve wounded : 
a total of fifteen, the greatest number of casualties sus- 
tained by one regiment in any action during Potter's Raid. 

It was about 4 p. M. when the position was carried. 
Simultaneously with our victorious cheers, the One Hun- 
dred and Second United States Colored Troops and One 
Hundred and Seventh Ohio on the creek above, as well as the 
troops on the main road, advanced, the enemy flying before 
them. Major Webster with the cavalry pursued for some 
distance. At the mills the Fifty-fourth destroyed fifty-four 
bales of cotton and three of corn fodder used in the breast- 
works, besides the grist and saw mill. Lieutenant Stevens's 
body was buried at Boykin's, as was that of Corporal John- 
son. Their bodies and resting-places were marked. In 



POTTER'S RAID. 305 

July, 1885, through the information furnished by Lieuten- 
ant Whitney, secretary of the " Association of Officers 
Fifty -fourth Massachusetts Volunteers," their bodies were 
removed to the National Cemetery at Florence, S. C. Lieu- 
tenant Stevens was a genial comrade and brave officer. 
He must have been the last officer, or one of the very 
last officers, killed in action during the Rebellion. 

Leaving Boykin's by a cross-road, the Fifty-fourth marched 
to the pike and re-joined the division, which proceeded sev- 
eral miles and camped for the night, after making twelve 
miles that day. A thunder-storm prevailed, the rain con- 
tinuing all night. At this camp Colonel Chipman, with the 
right wing of the One Hundred and Second United States 
Colored Troops, joined Potter's force, having left Charles* 
ton April 11, crossed the Santee at Wright's Bluff, and 
made a bold march, meeting the enemy and losing some 
men. 

April 19, a start was made at 6 a. m., the First Brigade 
in the lead, the Second Brigade following with the Fifty- 
fourth as rear-guard. Hardly had the column left camp 
and passed from the woods into open country, when the 
enemy was found posted behind breastworks of rails, sup- 
ported by a piece of artillery. The Twenty-fifth Ohio and 
One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York on the road and 
flank soon drove him thence, and later, from another stand 
on higher ground, until he retired across Big Rafting Creek. 
Some forty or fifty of the enemy followed the Fifty fourth 
in rear during the inarch, occasionally firing upon us. 
Reaching the creek, the main body engaged the attention 
of the foe, while the One Hundred and Second and a wing 
of the Thirty-second went to flank him on the right ; the 
other wing of the Thirty-second, and the One Hundred and 

20 



306 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Seventh Ohio, were ordered down the Camden Branch of 
the railroad. After a slight resistance the enemy fell 
back. 

At noon the Fifty-fourth was relieved as rear-guard, and 
for the rest of the day was with the advance. It was 
showery in the afternoon. Our road was through an open 
hilly country Near Statesburg at a swamp and creek the 
enemy again fronted the division ; but our skirmishers 
pressed him over the creek and in spirited style up the 
rising ground beyond, in full view of the troops. Lieuten- 
ant Chickering, of the cavalry, was wounded. Beyond 
Statesburg the resistance was slight, the column proceeding 
until 10 p. M., when the Fifty-fourth reached its former 
camp at Singleton's, having marched eighteen miles. 

Fighting was now over. The rolling-stock was ours, 
massed on the Camden Branch, whence it could not be 
taken, as the Fifty-fourth had destroyed the trestle at 
Wateree Junction, on the 11th. General Potter devoted 
the 20th to its destruction. That day the Fifty-fourth 
marched to Middleton Depot and with other regimenls 
assisted in the work. About this place for a distance of 
some two miles were sixteen locomotives and 245 cars 
containing railway supplies, ordnance, commissary and 
quartermaster's stores. They were burned, those holding 
powder and shells during several hours blowing up with 
deafening explosions and scattering discharges, until prop- 
erty of immense value and quantity disappeared in smoke 
and flame. Locomotives were rendered useless before the 
torch was applied. The Fifty -fourth alone destroyed fifteen 
locomotives, one passenger, two box and two platform cars 
with the railway supplies they held. After completing this 
work, the regiment returned to Singleton's. 



POTTER'S RAID. 307 

Every purpose of the movement having been accom- 
plished, on April 21 the return to Georgetown was ordered. 
It was about one hundred miles distant by the proposed 
route through Manchester and Fulton Post-Office. Early 
that morning three companies of the One Hundred and 
Second United States Colored Troops on picket were at- 
tacked by two hundred of the enemy, whom they repulsed. 
The column started at 6 a.m., the Second Brigade in ad- 
vance, moving over the Santee River road southwesterly. 
Our rear-guard was the Twenty-fifth Ohio, the enemy 
following and attacking near Manning's plantation, but 
they were driven back. 

John L. Manning, a former governor of South Carolina, 
was at home. He was a distinguished man and one of the 
leaders of the Union party in nullification times. After 
the war he was elected United States Senator, but was not 
allowed to take his seat. He died only recently. While 
we were at his plantation, a Confederate officer came to the 
outposts with a flag of truce, to notify General Potter that 
an armistice had been concluded between Generals Sher- 
man and Johnston. Hostilities were not to be renewed 
without forty-eight hours' notice. This great news created 
the most intense joy and excitement, for it seemed to end 
the war, as the Rebels themselves acknowledged. Cheers 
without number were given, and congratulations exchanged. 
Then the Fifty-fourth was brought to a field, where the 
last shots loaded with hostile intent were fired as a salute. 
Soon after, the march was resumed in sultry weather with 
frequent showers. Ten miles from the Santee the division 
bivouacked after completing a journey of twenty miles. 

On the 22d the troops continued on over the Santee road. 
When opposite Wright's Bluff, the wounded, sick, and about 



308 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

five hundred contrabands were sent to the river for trans- 
portation by water. News was received of Lee's surren- 
der which, though not unexpected, caused great rejoicing. 
General Potter turned over the command to Col. P P 
Brown, One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York, and 
departed for Charleston to convey news of the armistice. 
After marching twenty-three miles, the troops halted for 
the night. At 5.30 a. m., on the 23d, the Second Brigade 
led out for the day's march. Now that hostilities had 
ceased, the force was dependent upon such supplies as could 
be purchased. A very large number of contrabands were 
with the column, straggling, and obstructing the rapid 
progress it was desirable to make. The day was cool and 
pleasant ; the route through a fine country mainly, but 
wooded and low in places. Intelligence of President Lin- 
coln's assassination was received, — sad tidings which could 
hardly be credited. There was much bitter feeling indulged 
in by the soldiery for a time. The division accomplished 
twenty-three miles that day, bivouacking at Staggef s Mill. 

April 24, the troops proceeded through a wooded region 
where no supplies could be obtained. As a substitute for 
rations two ears of corn were issued to each man. A 
journey of twenty-three miles was made. Our last bivouac 
in the field was broken on the morning of April 25th, 
when in good weather through a timbered country we 
completed the march. Major Pope and Acting Quarter- 
master Bridgham preceded the regiment into Georgetown 
to prepare camp and rations. The troops reached town 
at 5 P. M. after making twenty-two miles. 

Potter's Raid occupied twenty-one days, during which 
the troops marched some three hundred miles. About 
three thousand negroes came into Georgetown with the 



POTTER'S RAID. 309 

division, while the whole number released was estimated 
at six thousand. Our train was very large, for besides 
innumerable vehicles, five hundred horses and mules were 
secured, of which number the Fifty-fourth turned in one 
hundred and sixty. 

Having taken possession of the old camp, the regiment 
rested. By the 28th troops began to depart for other posts. 
A tragedy occurred in the Fifty-fourth, on the 30th, when 
Private Samuel J. Benton shot and killed Corp. Wm. Wil- 
son, of Company A, in a private quarrel. Benton was tried 
and sentenced to imprisonment, serving time until Decem- 
ber, 1865, when he was pardoned. 

Orders came for the Fifty-fourth to report at Charleston, 
when transportation could be furnished. Captain Bridge, 
with Companies A, F, and H, embarked on the steamer 
" Island City," May 4, and sailed, accompanied by Colonel 
Hallowell, in the morning. Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, 
with Companies D, E, G,and K, sailed on the same steamer, 
May 6th ; and the next day Major Pope, with Companies 
B, C, and I, followed on the " Loyalist." 



CHAPTER XVI. 



FINAL SERVICE. 



UPON the arrival of the several detachments of the 
Fifty-fourth at Charleston, Companies A, C, F, H, 
and K, comprising the right wing under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper, located camp on the Neck in an open field to the 
right of the plank road, and nearer the city than Mag- 
nolia Cemetery. Major Pope, with the left wing, relieved 
the Fifty-fifth Massachusetts at St. Andrew's Parish, across 
the Ashley River, opposite the city, where they occupied 
high ground not far from the camp made just before 
first entering Charleston. From the Ashley to Wappoo 
Cut was an intrenched line with several redoubts made 
by the Confederates. 

Colonel Hallowell was placed in charge of what was 
known as the "Defences of Charleston," comprising the 
intrenched line around the city, that at St. Andrew's 
Parish, and the James Island lines ; Mount Pleasant was 
soon included in his command. The troops under him 
were the Fifty-fourth, One Hundred and Seventh Ohio, and 
Twenty-first United States Colored Troops. His head- 
quarters were first at the Cary house, but on the 8th were 
removed to Nos. 6 and 8 Meeting Street, Charleston. 

From camp on the Neck Lieutenant Reed, with Company 
A, was sent on the 8th as train guard over the South Caro- 
lina Railroad to Summerville, returning the next day. 
The One Hundred and Seventh Ohio arrived on the 8th 



FINAL SEKVICE. 311 

and 9th, taking post at the intrenchments. The Twenty- 
first United States Colored Troops was stationed on James 
Island and Mount Pleasant. Orders being received for the 
right wing to join the left, on the 14th it marched from the 
Neck, crossed the river, and camped at St. Andrew's Par- 
ish, thus reuniting the regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hooper. He retained command until the 29th, when, hav- 
ing received leave of absence, he departed for the North, 
leaving Major Pope in charge of the regiment. 

In accordance with Department orders issued May 29, 
Colonel Hallowell, Colonel Gurney, One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh New York, and Major Willoughby, Twenty- 
first United States Colored Troops, were constituted a 
board for the examination of volunteer officers in the 
Northern District, with a view to their retention in the 
military service. All the officers of the Fifty-fourth ap- 
peared before this board. 

Captain Tucker with twenty-five men, on June 2, was 
sent on a " tin-clad " steamer to the Santee River. On 
the 7th the men welcomed back to the regiment eleven of 
their comrades who had been prisoners of war. Two 
others had previously reported. These men were paroled 
near Wilmington, N. C, on March 4. Colonel Ballowell's 
command was broken up June 5 ; the Fifty-fourth was or- 
dered to Charleston ; the One Hundred and Seventh Ohio 
and Twenty-first United States Colored Troops remaining 
brigaded under Colonel Hallowell until the 10th. Our 
regiment was ordered to relieve the Thirty-fifth United 
States Colored Troops, forming part of the garrison. On 
the 8th four companies crossed the Ashley in small boats, 
taking post at the Citadel. They were joined by five other 
companies on the 10th, Company I remaining at St. An- 



312 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

drew's Parish. Colonel Hallowell took command of his 
regiment on the 10th. 

Quartered in the Citadel, the Fifty-fourth entered upon 
the usual duties incident to guard and patrol service in the 
Upper District of the city The event of each morning 
was guard mounting on Citadel Square, which always at- 
tracted numbers of colored people, young and old, to wit- 
ness the evolutions and listen to the martial music. It 
was agreeable service for all. When off duty officers had 
the range of the city and its attractions. The men were al- 
lowed frequent passes outside the spacious Citadel grounds, 
making friends with the colored people, which in some cases 
resulted in a partnership for life. 

Charleston at this time was slowly recovering from the 
effects of war and the siege. There was a growing trade 
in merchantable articles. The churches were turned over 
to their several congregations. The negroes who flocked 
in from the country greatly increased the population. 
This soon resulted in a heavy death-rate among this class, 
which at one time reached one hundred per week. Whites 
and blacks were closely watching the political develop- 
ments, causing much friction. Dr. Mackey was the Col- 
lector of the Port, and Mr. Sawyer Inspector of Internal 
Revenue. Some arrests of prominent Secessionists were 
made, — notably that of George A. Trenholm, the Confed- 
erate Secretary of the Treasury. Prominent citizens were 
returning. Among them were Theodore D. Wagner, J. B. 
Campbell, James H. Taylor, William Gregg, Motte A. Prin- 
gle, and Judge William Pringle. General Hatch was oc- 
cupying the fine mansion of the latter gentleman, situated 
on King Street, as his headquarters. Some cotton was 
coming in, and more was expected as soon as the railroads 



FINAL SERVICE. 313 

were repaired. Vegetables and fruits were becoming 
abundant in the markets. Beef, mutton, and veal were 
ruling at thirty cents per pound. Shipments were made 
North from the large stores of rice in tbe city. From the 
paroled armies of the defunct Confederacy came large num- 
bers of soldiers in dilapidated garments and emaciated 
physical condition. They flocked to take the oath of alle- 
giance and receive the bounty of government. Such was 
their destitution that they were glad to share the rations 
of our colored soldiers in some instances. President John- 
son's Amnesty Proclamation, when received, was variously 
regarded, according to the status of the critic as a Seces- 
sionist Radical or Conservative. 

Major P E. Dye paid Companies A, B, and C of the 
Fifty-fourth on the 17th, and the remaining companies on 
the two succeeding days. This was only the second pay- 
ment of the enlisted men while in service. In Charleston 
the Masonic Lodge organized on Morris Island, of which 
First Sergeant Gray of Company C was the Master, met in 
the third story of a house just across from the Citadel. 
Sergeants Vogelsang, Alexander Johnson, and Hemming- 
way were among the members, who numbered some twenty- 
five or thirty. It is thought that the charter of this lodge 
was surrendered ultimately to Prince Hall Lodge of Boston, 
whence it came. 

Admiral Dahlgren departed for the North on the 17tb, 
after taking leave of his squadron in orders. On the 18th 
an affray occurred on the Battery between a guard of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York and some of 
the Thirty-fifth United States Colored Troops, when a 
few soldiers and civilians were wounded. A part of Jeffer- 
son Davis's and Beauregard's effects and correspondence 



314 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

brought into Jacksonville was turned over to Lieut. John 
W Pollock, Assistant Provost-Marshal at Charleston, on 
the 24th. It included three handsome uniforms presented 
to Beauregard by the ladies of Columbia, Augusta, and 
Selma. 

Independence Day was celebrated with great enthusiasm 
by the loyal citizens and soldiery. National salutes were 
fired from Sumter, Moultrie, Bee, Wagner, and Gregg, the 
harbor resounding with explosions, bringing to memory the 
days of siege. The troops paraded, the Declaration of In- 
dependence and the Emancipation Proclamation were read, 
and orators gave expression to patriotic sentiments doubly 
pointed by the great war which perfected the work of the 
fathers. 

Captain Howard, with Company I, reported to the regi- 
ment from St. Andrew's Parish about July 1, but was soon 
sent to McClellansville, where this company remained 
until just before muster-out. On July 11 orders were 
received for the discharge of the Fifty-fourth. They ema- 
nated from General Gillmore, who afterward, finding that 
his authority was questionable, telegraphed to Washington 
for instructions. Meanwhile Capt. Thomas J. Robinson, 
Fifty-fourth New York, mustering officer, furnished neces- 
sary instructions for preparing the rolls. Naturally this 
order gave great satisfaction. At one time it was thought 
that the colored regiments would be retained until the ex- 
piration of their term of service. 

Colonel Gurney's One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New 
York was mustered out on June 80, and the next day 
departed from Charleston. Brev. Brig.-Gen. William T. 
Bennett, Thirty-third United States Colored Troops, suc- 
ceeded to the command of the city. Lieutenant Whitney, 



FINAL SERVICE. 315 

with Company K, on July 31, was ordered to Fort John- 
son to dismount guns on James Island for transportation 
elsewhere. This work was prosecuted until the company 
was relieved on August 16. Orders were received from 
General Gillmore directing that the commanding officers of 
the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, Twenty-sixth, 
Thirty-second, and One Hundred and Second United States 
Colored Troops, about to be mustered out, should nominate 
such officers of their regiments as were desirous of ap- 
pointments in other colored organizations. No assurances 
were given of their receiving a higher grade than second 
lieutenancies. It is not known whether any nominations 
were made from the Fifty-fourth. 

During the interval of time between the arrival of the 
regiment and its muster-out, many changes of rank and 
duties occurred. Commissions were received for Quarter- 
master-Sergeant Vogelsang and First Sergeant Welch, of 
Company F, as second lieutenants, May 22. Applica- 
tions being made for their muster, they were returned " dis- 
approved," and the commissions for some reason destroyed. 
Colonel Hallowell, determined that the precedent estab- 
lished in the case of Lieutenant Swails should be followed, 
appealed to higher authority, sending for new commis- 
sions. These colored men were finally mustered as officers, 
and ultimately promoted to first lieutenancies. Commis- 
sions were also issued to First Sergeant George E. Stephens, 
of Company B, and First Sergeant Albert D. Thompson, of 
Company D, but they were not mustered under them. 

George Cranch, John H. Conant, and William McDer- 
mott, newly appointed, reported and ultimately became first 
lieutenants. Joshua B. Treadwell reported for duty as 
assistant-surgeon. Colonel Hallowell was brevetted briga- 



316 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

dier-general. Major Pope was promoted lieutenant-colonel ; 
and Captain Walton, major. Lieutenant Emerson became 
captain of Company E ; Lieutenant James, captain of Com- 
pany C ; Lieutenant Reed, captain of Company K ; and 
Lieutenant Newell, captain of Company B. Lieutenant 
Cousens, promoted first lieutenant, was afterward made 
captain of Company E. Lieutenant Joy, after taking the 
intermediate rank, became captain of Company F. Lieu- 
tenants Edmands, Swails, and Whitney were promoted first 
lieutenants. Assistant-Surgeon Radzinsky was made sur- 
geon One Hundred and Fourth United States Colored 
Troops ; and Lieutenants Leonard and Hallett, captains 
One Hundred and Third United States Colored Troops. 

Those who resigned, or were mustered out at the expira- 
tion of their personal terms of service, were Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hooper, Adjutant Duren, Quartermaster Ritchie, 
Captains Bridge, Jewett, and Emerson, and Lieutenants 
Spear, Rogers, Bridgham, and Jewett. Lieutenant Edmands 
acted as quartermaster until June 21, when Lieutenant 
Vogelsang was made regimental-quartermaster. Lieuten- 
ant Joy relieved Lieutenant Whitney as acting adjutant 
until Lieutenant Swails relieved him July 1. The latter 
was then succeeded by Lieutenant Conant. Sergeant 
Wilkins, of Company D, was appointed acting sergeant- 
major, and Thomas E. Platner, of Company A, principal 
musician. 

Preparatory to discharge the Fifty-fourth was relieved 
from garrison duty, and ordered to rendezvous at Mount 
Pleasant. Headquarters were located there on the 14th, 
and by the 17th the companies were all present. At this 
last camp the rolls and final papers were completed. 
Under the supervision of Capt. Thomas J. Robinson the 



FINAL SERVICE. 31T 

Fifty-fourth was discharged August 20. The roster of 
officers at the time was as follows : — 

Field and Staff, — Colonel and Brevet Brigadier-General, 
E. N. Hallowell ; Lieutenant-Colonel, George Pope ; Major, 
James M. Walton ; Surgeon, Charles E. Briggs ; Assistant 
Surgeon, Joshua B. Treadwell. 

Captains, — James W Grace (A), Thomas L. Appleton 
(G), Charles E. Tucker (H), Willard Howard (I), Charles 
G. Chipman (D), Garth W James (C), Lewis Reed (K), 
Robert R. Newell (B), Joseph E. Cousens (E), Charles P. 
Joy (F). 

First Lieutenants, — Benjamin B. Edmands, Stephen A. 
Swails, Peter Vogelsang (Regimental-Quartermaster), Frank 
M. Welch, George W Cranch, William L. Whitney, Jr., 
John H. Conant, William McDermott. 

Of the twenty-three officers, but eight were of those who 
left Massachusetts May 28, 1863, for the field. 

August 21, at night, Brevet Brigadier-General Hallo- 
well, with the right wing, embarked on the steamer " C. F. 
Thomas," sailed at 5 a. m. on the 22d, and reached Boston 
at noon of the 26th, where it disembarked at Gallop's 
Island. Lieutenant-Colonel Pope, with the left wing, left 
Charleston on the 23d upon the steamer " Ashland," com- 
pleting the voyage on the 28th. Captain Grace did not 
return North with the regiment, and fifty-nine enlisted men 
were left behind sick in hospital. At Gallop's Island, 
in Boston harbor, the Fifty-fourth remained until Septem- 
ber 2. There the stores pertaining to the quartermaster's 
department were turned over to the government officer, 
and the ordnance stores to Major C. P Kingsbury. About 
two thirds of the men exercised the privilege of purchasing 
their arms, as mementos of service in the war. On Sep- 



318 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

tember 1 final payment was made, accounts settled, and 
discharges given out. 

A telegram from Charleston of the departure of the 
regiment was sent to the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts. 
Upon its receipt the friends of the officers and men ar- 
ranged for their proper reception in Boston. The news- 
papers made announcement of the event, indicated the 
route, and requested the display of the national colors 
and that refreshments be served on the march. 

September 2, the Fifty-fourth at 9 A. m. landed at Com- 
mercial Wharf from the tugs " Uncle Sam," " William 
H. Stroud," and another. There it was received by the 
Fourteenth Unattached Company Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia (Shaw Guards, colored), Capt. Lewis Gaul; the 
Hallowell Union Association, A. M. Hewlett, marshal ; a 
delegation from the Rev. William Grimes's Twelfth Baptist 
Society ; and many citizens, accompanied by Gilmore's Band, 
— all under direction of J. J. Smith, chief marshal. The 
Boston Brigade Band was also provided for the Fifty- 
fourth. 

After the regiment had landed and passed the escort, 
the column moved from Commercial to State Street. This 
thoroughfare was thronged with people, who greeted the 
veterans with repeated cheers. Great enthusiasm was 
displayed ; and the passing of the colors was especially 
honored. As the Fifty-fourth moved through Washington, 
Franklin, Devonshire, Summer, and Winter streets, similar 
plaudits greeted it from every side. Entering Tremont 
Street from Winter, an incident of the occasion was the 
display in the window of Childs and Jenks's establish- 
ment of a portrait of Lieutenant Webster, deceased, of 
the Fifty-fourth, draped in mourning. In passing, appro- 



FINAL SEEVICE. 319 

priate music was played, and the regiment gave a march- 
ing salute in honor of the deceased comrade. 

From Tremont Street the column entered Park, thence 
to the State House, where from the steps Governor Andrew, 
accompanied by his staff and the Executive Council, re- 
viewed the veterans as they passed. Proceeding down 
Beacon Street through Joy, Cambridge, West Cedar, Mount 
Vernon, Walnut, and Beacon to the Common, everywhere 
along the route cheers went up from admirers, and friends 
rushed to shake hands with relatives or acquaintances 
among the officers and men. Everywhere along the jour- 
ney the public buildings, including the State House, and 
parks of the city floated the stars and stripes. Through 
the throng of citizens lining the curb, the Fifty-fourth 
marched, welcomed at every step, with the swing only 
acquired by long service in the field, and the bearing of 
seasoned soldiers. 

Arriving upon the Common, the regiment halted. In the 
presence of a very large assemblage, including Mayor Lin- 
coln, Colonel Kurtz, chief of police, Hon. Henry Wilson, 
and other gentlemen of prominence, the regiment was ex- 
ercised for a few moments in the manual of arms. Form- 
ing from line into a hollow square, Brevet Brigadier-General 
Hallowell called his officers around him, thanked them for 
the efficient and manly way they had performed their ser- 
vice, their uniform kindness to him, and tendered his best 
wishes for their success and happiness through life. He 
then addressed the enlisted men, thanking them for the 
brave manner in which they had supported him in many 
trying times throughout their service. He said whenever 
a " forlorn hope " had been called for, the Fifty-fourth had 
been ready and prompt to respond. They had protected 



320 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

their colors and brought them home again, — there was 
little left of them, but enough to show how bravely they 
had been defended. They had proved good soldiers in the 
field ; now he hoped they would become good citizens. 
When they left Massachusetts, it was the only State which 
recognized them as citizens. Now the whole country 
acknowledged their soldierly qualities. He hoped that by 
good behavior they would show their title to all the privi- 
leges of citizenship. 

Continuing, he reminded them that their blood had en- 
riched the soil of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida ; 
might the sweat of their brows now enrich the soil of 
Massachusetts. Might they show themselves to be men, 
without respect to color or former condition. He bade 
them good-by- He was glad to disband them, but he was 
sorry to part from them. Still, he knew they looked upon 
him as their friend, and felt sure that wherever he might 
go he would find friends among colored soldiers and col- 
ored men. In conclusion, he reminded them that having 
received large sums of money just paid to them, it should 
be kept. He hoped that all who had homes out of the city 
would return to them when disbanded. 

Upon the conclusion of this address repeated cheers were 
given for General Hallowell. Then the square was reduced, 
and some manoeuvres were executed by the regiment. It 
then marched to the Charles-street Mall, and there par- 
took of a collation spread upon tables, which had been pre- 
pared by William Tufts at the order of friends of the 
Fifty-fourth. Then the regiment was disbanded. 

Company C, recruited largely in New Bedford, was 
escorted to the cars by the Shaw Guards. At New Bed- 
ford, when the company arrived, a large number of citizens, 



FINAL SERVICE. 321 

a reception committee, and the Carney Guards (colored), 
with the New Bedford Band, were in waiting. "With the 
escort, the veterans, some twenty-two in number, passed 
through crowded streets to the City Hall. There a meeting 
was held in their honor, which was called to order by 
W H. Johnson, at which speeches were made by Henry 
F Harrison and James B. Congdon. Afterward a colla- 
tion was provided by the colored people for the company. 

Before the officers of the Fifty-fourth parted, an invita- 
tion was extended to them for the succeeding Monday 
evening, to attend a reception at the residence of John 
Ritchie, Esq., their late quartermaster, at Chester Park. 

The Boston " Evening Transcript" thus referred to the 
event of the day : — 

" The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, the pioneer 
State colored regiment of this country, recruited at a time 
when great prejudices existed against enlisting any but so- 
called white men in the army, when a colored soldiery was con- 
sidered in the light of an experiment almost certain to fail, 
this command — which now returns crowned with laurels, and 
after two hundred thousand of their brethren, from one end of 
the traitorous South to the other, have fought themselves into 
public esteem — had such a reception to-day as befitted an 
organization the history of which is admitted to form so con- 
spicuous a part of the annals of the country." 

In the words of Von Moltke, " War is an element in the 
order of the world ordained by God. In it the noblest 
virtues of mankind are developed, — courage and the ab- 
negation of self, faithfulness to duty and the spirit of sacri- 
fice : the soldier gives his life." With the loyal volunteers 
who defended the Union of States these virtues were not 
only dominant, but were joined with the nobler one of 

21 



322 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

patriotism, which nerved them to contend against national 
dissolution, brought on by Southern politicians to perpetu- 
ate their waning power, under the guise of a struggle for 
slavery and State rights. 

It has been written that " the regiment is the family " 
To the soldier his true commander is a father ; his 
superiors, elder brothers to be deferred to and obeyed ; 
the recruits, his younger kinsmen whom he cares for and 
supports by example. He cherishes and proudly recounts 
the traditions of glorious deeds and dangerous enterprises. 

The flag is the object of his sentimental devotion, 
which he has sworn to defend with his life. Every hole 
in the tattered silk or mark upon its staff tells of valor- 
ous strife in a just cause. Each legend inscribed upon its 
stripes is the brief story of regimental glory 

Such esprit chc corps in its fullest perfection has served 
to carry men joyfully to death in the effort to win the 
imperishable renown secured by famous regiments. It 
earned for the Fifty-seventh Demi-Brigade before Mantua, 
in Napoleon's first Italian campaign, the name of " The 
Terrible ; " for the Forty-second Royal Highlanders, whose 
black tartans shadowed many a battlefield, its undy- 
ing reputation ; and for the Zouaves of the Guard who 
led the assault upon the Malikoff, the plaudits of their 
countrymen. The gallant deeds of these foreign regi- 
ments were rivalled in our Civil War ; but, unlike them, 
our organizations were of brief existence, and are of 
the past. 

A recent writer upon our late war has said of the private 
soldier : — 

" He does not expect to see his own name on the titlepage 
of history, and is content with a proper recognition of the old 



FINAL SERVICE. 323 

command in which he fought ; but he is jealous of the record of 
his regiment, and demands credit for every shot it faced and 
every grave it filled." 

It is with a pride in the regiment which we trust others 
may deem pardonable, a painstaking endeavor to satisfy 
the natural expectations of the survivors who helped to ac- 
quire its honorable record and to preserve the traditions 
and recount the cheerful sacrifices of both the living and 
the dead, that this history has been written. 

During a period of field-service covering twenty-six 
months almost every kind of military duty fell to the lot 
of the Fifty-fourth. Not only did it, in common with 
other infantry organizations, encounter the foe on advanced 
posts, in assault, and battle-line, but its services under fire 
as engineers and artillerymen were required during the 
siege operations in which it bore part. 

Thrice was the regiment selected for desperate duty, — 
to lead the charge on Wagner, to advance the siege-works 
against the same stronghold when defeat confronted the 
troops, and to hold back the victorious enemy at Olustee 
until a new battle-line could be formed. Twice did it 
land upon hostile territory preceding all other regiments 
of the invading force, receiving the fire of the enemy or 
driving his light troops. The important task of guarding 
several hundred Confederate officers was also especially 
given to it. 

But these services were not rendered without serious 
losses. How great they were was not even known to the 
author until after the history, except these closing lines, 
was in print, as the Roster which follows was not com- 
pleted, and only from it could be gleaned the long list of 
those who died of wounds in hospital, home, and prison- 



324 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY 

pen. The mortality and casualty lists evidence the sacri- 
fices made by the Fifty -fourth in the line of duty With an 
aggregate enrolment of 1,354 officers and men, the regi- 
ment suffered a loss of 5 officers and 95 men known to 
have been killed or who died of their wounds. There were 
106 men reported missing, 19 of whom are known to have 
died in prison, and 30 who lived to be released, leaving 57 
missing in action. The casualty list is completed by the 
further loss of 20 officers and 274 men wounded, making 
a total loss of 500, which is 36.9 per cent of the enrol- 
ment. The death of 93 men out of an enrolment of 
1,286, from disease and accident alone, gives a percentage 
of 7.2 against 15.9, which is said to be the rate for the 
total of colored troops enrolled. This evidences superior 
material or care on the part of the Fifty-fourth. 

It has been shown how the regiment by its steadfast 
resolve, with the assistance of its friends, wrung justice 
and equal rights with white soldiers from the Govern- 
ment in the matter of pay and the muster of colored 
officers. 

In connection with other colored organizations, the Fifty- 
fourth contributed to the establishment of a fact bearing 
strongly upon the military resources of our countrv then 
and now. We have read in the opening chapter that the 
United States only called the blacks t ) bear arms when 
disaster covered the land with discouragement and volun- 
teering had ceased. It is also to he remembered that our 
enemy, having from the incipieney of the Rebellion em- 
ployed this class as laborers for warlike purposes, at the 
last resolved upon enrolling them in their armies. This 
plan, however, was still-born, and was the final and wildest 
dream of Davis, Lee, and the crumbling Confederacy But 



FINAL SERVICE. 325 

the courage and fidelity of the blacks, so unmistakably 
demonstrated during the Civil War, assures to us, in the 
event of future need, a class to recruit from now more 
available, intelligent, educated, and self-reliant, and more 
patriotic, devoted, and self-sacrificing, if such were possible, 
than thirty years ago. 



EOSTER 

OF THE 

FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 

Compiled by GEORGE F. McKAY, 
Capt. 55th Mass. Inf. Bvt. Major U. S. V. 

THIS Roster has been prepared from original records in the 
Department of the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, 
verified, so far as practicable, by reference to the records of 
the War Department, U. S. A. } and supplemented by private 
information obtained through the Association of Officers of the 
Regiment. 

Note : In the Roster of Commissioned Officers names are in 
order of rank, and information is arranged as follows : date 
and place of birth ; condition, married or single ; occupation ; 
place of entry into service. Service in this regiment with dates 
of commission and muster-in ; date and cause of termination of 
service ; casualties. Service in other regiments or staff duty, 
and last-known address. 

Of Enlisted Men, names are by companies alphabetically, 
and there is given, — age ; married or single ; occupation ; place 
and date of enlistment ; termination of service and cause ; 
casualties ; State bounty and last-known address. 

Of Unassigned Recruits, names are given alphabetically, 
with date of enlistment ; termination of service and State 
bounty. 

A large proportion of the enlisted men received only $50 of 
State bounty. By a later law, $325 cash was paid, or, at the 



328 



ROSTER OF THE 



option of the soldier, $50 in cash and $20 per month during 
service. 

Termination of service " 20 Aug G5 " signifies muster-out 
with the regiment at Boston at the end of its service. 

Where it has been found impossible to obtain an item of in- 
formation, its absence is indicated by a dash ( ). 

Where no rank is given, that of Private is understood. 

The name of the State is omitted after places in Massachu- 
setts, and after well-known cities, such as New York, Phila- 
delphia, etc. ; also after Fort Wagner. 







Abbreviat 


(ions. 




Actg 


Acting. 




Mus. 


Musician. 


Captd 


Captured. 




Must. 


Mustered-in. 


Comd 


In command of. 




Pris. 


Prisoner of War. 


Dis. 


Disability. 




Re-enld. 


Re enlisted. 


Dist . 


District. 




Ret. 


Returned to regt. 


Ex. 


Exchanged. 




Sin. 


Single. 


Ex. term. 


Expiration of service. 


Trsfd. 


Transferred. 


Gen. Hos. 


General Hospital. 




V.'S.C.T. 


U. S. Colored Troops. 


Mar. 


Married. 









COMMISSIONED OFFICEBS. 



Field and Staff. 



Shaw, Robert Gould; Colonel. 

10 Oct 37 Boston ; married ; student ; New York. 
Major 31 Meh 63, must. 11 Apl ; Col 17 Apl 63, must. 13 May. Killed 
18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other semce: — Co. F 7th N. Y. Nat. Guard. 19 Apl 61 ; 2d Lt 2d Mass. 
25 May 61 ; 1st Lt 8 Jly 62 ; Capt 10 Aug 62. A. D. C. to Gen. George 
H. Gordon. 
Hallowell, Edward Needles ; Colonel. 

3 Nov 36 Philadelphia ; single ; merchant ; Medford. 
Capt Co. B 6 Meh 63, must. 30 Mch ; Major 17 Apl 63, must. 13 May ; 
Lt. Col. 31 May 63, must. 31 Jly; Col. 18 Jly 63, must. 1 Sep; Bvt. 
Brig Gen. U. S. Vols. 27 Je 65. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Staff duty with Gen. John C.Fremont in Mo. 2nd Lt 
20th Mass. 11 Jan 62 ; 1st Lt 20 Nov 62; staff of Gen. N. J. T. Dana. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 329 

Commanded Post of Morris Id. S. C, the city of Jacksonville, Fla., 
Defences of Charleston ; 3rd Brig. 1st Div. 10th Army Corps; 2nd 
Brig. Coast Div. Dept. So. and a Brigade in Potter's Raid. 
Died 26 Jly 71 West Medford, Mass. 
Hallowell, Norwood Penrose ; Lieut. Col. 

13 Apl 39 Philadelphia ; single ; student ; Cambridge. 
Lt. Col. 17 Apl 63, must. 24 Apl. Discharged 30 May 63 for promotion. 
Other service .- — 1st Lt 20th Mass. 10 Jly 61 ; Capt 26 Nov 61. Colonel 
55th Mass 30 May 63. Resigned 2 Nov 63 account of wounds 
received at Antietam. 
West Medford, Mass. 
Hooper, Henry Northet ; Lieut. Col. 

16 Dec 34 Boston ; married ; Roxbury. 

Major 25 Aug 63, must. 12 Sep ; Lt. Col. 18 Jly 63, must. 5 Dec. Dis- 
charged 11 Jly 65 expiration of personal service. 
Other service : — 2d Lt 32nd Mass. 26 May 62 ; 1st Lt 14 Aug 62; Capt 
21 Apl 63. Staff of Gen. Charles Griffin. Apl 64 Comdg No. Dist. 
Morris Id. S. C. Comdg Defences Lighthouse Inlet. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Pope, George ; Lieut. Col. 

9 Jan 44 Boston ; single ; clerk ; Brookline. 

Capt Co. I. 11 May 63, must. 13 May; Maj. 3 Dec 64, must. 14 Dec. 
Lt. Col. 11 Jly 65, must. 27 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. F 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62, Corpl. Staffs of Gen. Tru- 
man Seymour and Cols. Wm Gurney and James Montgomery. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Afpleton, John Whittier Messer; Major. 
1 Apl 32 Boston ; married ; clerk ; Boston. 

2d Lt 7 Feb 63, must. 9 Feb; Capt Co. A 14 Apl 63, must. 21 Apl; 
Major 18 Jly 63, must. 26 Dee. Resigned 21 Nov 64 account of 
wounds. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Nov Dec 63 Actg. Asst. Inspector General 3d Brig. 10th 
Army Corps. Major 1st Battalion Mass Hy. Arty 18 Mch 65. Re- 
signed 5 Aug 65. 
Salt Sulphur Springs, W. Va. 
Walton, James Morris ; Major. 

12 Jly 38 Philadelphia ; single ; lawyer ; Philadelphia. 
1st Lt 19 Mch 63, must. 28 Mch ; Capt 7 Oct 63, must. 19 Nov ; Major 
11 Jly 65, must. 27 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Oct 64 Actg Provost Marshal ; Jan Feb 65 Actg A. D. C. 
No. Dist. Dept. So. ; Mch Apl 65 Provost Judge Savannah, Ga. ; May 
65 Actg Judge Advocate No. Dist. Dept. So. 
Died 25 May 74 Pittsfield, Mass. 
Duren, Charles Maltbt ; 1st Lieut, and Adjutant. 
21 Jan 42 Bangor, Me ; single ; clerk ; Cambridge. 
2d Lt 19 Jly 63, must. 7 Jan 64; 1st Lt 11 Mch 64, must. 30 Mch; 
Adjutant 18 Mch 65. Resigned 17 May 65 for disability. 



330 ROSTER OF THE 

Other service : — Co. C 24th Mass. 24 Oct 61, Sergt. Staff of Gen. E. N. 
Hallowell. 
Died 10 Mch 09 Bangor, Me. 
Ritchie, John ; 1st Lieut, and Quartermaster. 

4 Aug 36 Boston ; single; student; Boston. 

2d Lt 19 Feb 03, not must. Quartermaster 20 Feb 03, must. 20 Feb. 
Resigned 20 Je 65. 
Other service: — Staff duty as Brig. Quartermaster, various times. 
Boston, Mass. 
Vogelsang, Peter ; 1st Lieut, and Quartermaster. 

21 Aug 15 New York ; married ; clerk; Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Co. H 17 Apl 63, Sergt, Quartermaster Sergt. 2d Lt 28 Apl 05, must. 

3 Je ; 1st Lt 20 Je 65, must. 18 Jly ; Quartermaster 18 Jly 65. Dis- 
charged 20 Aug 05 ex. term. Wounded 10 Jly 03 James Id. S. C. 

Died 4 Apl 87 New York. 
Stone, Lincoln Ripley ; Major and Surgeon. 

5 Aug 32 Bridgeton, Me; single; physician; Salem. 

Surgeon 21 Apl 63, must. 16 May. Discharged 10 Dec 03 for pro- 
motion. 
Other service: — Asst. Surg. 2d Mass 24 May 61, Surgeon 7 Nov 62. Sur- 
geon U. S. Vols. 4 Dec 63, Brevet Col. U. S. Vols. 1 Oct 65. Dis- 
charged 15 Oct 65. 
Newton, Mass. 
Briggs, Charles Edward ; Major and Surgeon. 

6 Apl 33 Boston ; single ; physician ; Boston. 

Surgeon 24 Nov 63, must. 26 Apl 64. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Asst. Surg. 24 Mass. 13 Aug. 62. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Bridgham, Charles Burr; 1st Lieut, and Asst. Surg. 
1 May 41 Buckfield, Me; single; student; Buckfield, Me. 
Asst. Surg. 1 May 03, must. 6 May. Resigned 29 Feb 64. Re-apptd 

4 May 64, must. 5 Je. Resigned 16 Jly 64. 

Other service : — Hospital Steward 2d U. S. Sharpshooters Nov. 61. Sep 
63 Actg Chief Medical Officer 1st Div. Dept. So. 
Cohasset, Mass. 
Pease, Giles Moseley ; 1st Lieut, and Asst. Surg. 
3 May 39 Boston ; single; physician; Boston. 

Asst. Surg. 20 Jly 63, must. 3 Aug. Resigned 28 May 64 for dis- 
ability. 
Other service: — Actg. Asst. Surg. U. S. N. Nov. 61. 
Died 14 Dec 91 San Francisco, Cal. 
Radzinsky, Louis Daniel; 1st Lieut and Asst. Surg. 

12 Apl 35 Geneva, Switzerland ; physician ; 

Asst. Surg. 8 Aug 64, must. 10 Aug. Discharged 14 Je 65 for pro- 
motion. 
Other service:— Asst. Surg 36th N. Y. 4 Jly to 11 Dec 61. Actg Asst. 
Surg U. S. A. 18 Feb to 5 Jly 62 ; 9 Aug 62 to 8 Je 03 ; 21 Nov 63 to 
8 Aug 64. Surgeon 104th U. S. C. T. 14 Je 65. Discharged 5 Feb 66 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 331 

ex. term. Actg. Asst. Surg. 8th U. S. Inf. 1867 to 1869. Actg. Asst. 
Surg. U. S. A. 17 Oct to 22 Dec 68. 
Died 1 Jly 92 McKeesport, Pa. 
Treadwell, Joshua Brackett ; 1st Lieut, and Asst. Surg. 
17 Oct 40 New Market N. H; single ; physician; Boston. 
Asst. Surg. 14 Je 65, must. 1 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Asst Surg 45th Mass. 28 Oct 62 to 7 Jly 63. Surgeon 
5th Mass. Vol. Mil. 28 Jly 64 to 16 Nov 64. Surgeon 62d Mass. 28 
Feb 65 to 5 May 65. 
Died 6 May 85 Boston, Mass. 
Harrison, Samuel; Chaplain. 

15 Apl 18 Philadelphia ; married ; clergyman ; Pittsfield. 

Chaplain 8 Sep 63, must. 12 Nov. Resigned 14 Mch 64 for disability. 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

CAPTAINS. 

Hartwell, Alfred Stedjian ; Captain Co. D. 
11 Je 36 W. Dedham; single ; student; Natick. 

Capt 16 Mch 63, must. 30 Mch. Discharged 30 May 63 for promotion. 
Other service : — Corpl 3rd Mo. Reserves May 61 ; 1st Lt Co. F 44th Mass. 
12 Sep. 62. Lt. Col. 55th Mass 30 May 63 ; Colonel 3 Nov 63 ; 
Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. Vols. 30 Nov 64. Discharged 30 Apl 66. 
Honolulu, Hawaian Islds. 
Partridge, David Allen ; Captain Co. C. 

3 Apl 33 Milford ; married ; bootmaker ; Medway. 
1st Lt 6 Mch 63, must. 10 Mch ; Capt 14 Apl 63, must. 23 Apl. Re- 
signed 19 Jan 64 for disability. 
Other service : — 1st Lt 42nd Mass. 13 Sep 62. 
West Medway, Mass. 
Bridge, Watson Wilberforce ; Captain Co. F. 
27 Sep 36 Coleraine ; married ; clerk ; Wilbraham. 
2d Lt 19 Feb 63, must. 2 Mch ; Capt. Co. F 14 Apl 63, must 23 Apl. 
Discharged 20 Jly 65 expiration of personal service. 
Other service : — Co D 37 Mass 30 Aug 62 ; 1st Sergt. 
Died 6 Sep 84 New Haven, Conn. 
Russel, Cabot Jackson ; Captain Co. H. 

21 Jly 44 New York; single; student; Boston. 

1st Lt 23 Mch 63, must. 30 Mch; Capt 11 May 63, must. 13 May. 
Killed 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. F. 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62, Sergt. 
Simpkins, William Harris ; Captain Co. K. 
6 Aug 39 Boston ; single ; clerk ; W. Roxbury. 
Capt 11 May 63, must. 13 May. Killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. F 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62, Corpl, Sergt. 
Emilio, Luis Fenollosa ; Captain Co. E. 

22 Dec 44 Salem ; single ; student ; Salem. 



o32 ROSTER OF THE 

2d Lt 30 Mch 63, must. 30 Mch; 1st Lt 14 Apl 63, must. 23 Apl ; Capt 
22 May 63, must. 23 May. Discharged 27 Mch 65 expiration of 
personal service. 
Other service : — Co. F 23rd Mass. 19 Oct 61, Corpl, Sergt. Actg Judge 
Advocate 1st Div. 10th Army Corps and So. Dist. Dept. So. Actg 
Provost Marshal Coast Div. Dept. So. 
New York, N. Y. 
Jones, Edward Lloyd ; Captain Co. D. 

11 Jly 39 Templeton ; single; clerk; Boston. 

1st Lt 13 May 03, must. 16 May ; Capt 14 May 63, must. 25 May. 
Resigned 16 Dec 64 account of wounds. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. 
Wagner. 
Other service: — Co. F 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62, Sergt. 
Died 3 Jan 86 Templeton, Mass. 
(Mann), Samuel Willard; Captain Co. B. 

30 Oct 39 Landgrove, Vt ; single ; tradesman ; Boston. 
Capt 14 Apl 63, must. 25 May. Resigned 6 Oct 63. Wounded 18 Jly 
63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. D 20th Mass. 18 Jly 61, Sergt; 2d Lt 1 Oct 62. 
Natick. 
Smith, Orin E. ; Captain Co. G. 

1840; single; seaman; Webster. 

1st Lt 5 Mch 63, must. 23 Apl; Capt 31 May 63, must. 31 Aug. Re- 
signed 25 Jan 04 for disability. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. H 2d Mass. 25 May 61, 1st Sergt. 
Webster, Mass. 
Jewett, Richard Henry Lee; Captain Co. K. 

10 Jly 34 W. Greenwich, R. I; single ; engineer; Boston. 
2d Lt 5 Mch 63, must. 20 Apl ; 1st Lt 22 May 63, must. 30 May ; 
Capt 19 Jly 63, must. 6 Jan 64. Resigned 19 Je 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner and 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. 

Other service: — Co. E 2nd Mass. 30 Aug 62, Corpl. Staff of Cols. Jas. 
Montgomery, B. F. Tilghman, Wm Gurney and Gen's John P. Hatch 
and E. N. Hallowell. 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Grace, James William; Captain Co. A. 

30 Dec 33 Bath, Me ; single ; merchant ; New Bedford. 

2d Lt 10 Feb 63, must. 10 Feb ; 1st Lt 14 Apl 63, must. 26 May ; Capt 

19 Jly 63, must. 26 Jan 64. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 

Other service: — Sep 63 Actg Engineer Officer Dept. So. Mch 64 to May 
65 Actg Ordnance Officer, Morris Id. S. C. Apptd 2d Lt 3rd U. S. 
Arty, declined. 
Jacksonboro, S C. 
Homans, William Henry ; Captain Co. C. 

20 Oct 40 Augusta, Me ; single ; clerk ; Maiden. 

2d Lt 19 Feb 63 ; must. 26 Feb ; 1st Lt 14 Apl 63, must. 23 Apl ; Capt 

20 Jan 64, must. 11 Mch. Discharged 30 Mch 65 expiration of per- 
sonal service. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 333 

Other service: — Co. I 1st Mass. 24 Mar 61, Corpl. 
Died 19 Aug 93 Hyde Park, .Mass. 
Appleton, Thomas Larkin ; Captain Co. G. 
14 Oct 41 Boston ; single; salesman; Brighton. 

2nd Lt 19 Feb 63, must. 27 Feb; 1st Lt 24 May 63, must. 21 Aug; 
Capt 26 Jan 64, must. 30 Mch. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. 
term. 
Other service: — Co. C 13th Mass. 16 Jly 61. Staff of Gen's. Alex. Schim- 
melfennig, Edvvd. E. Potter, Rufus Saxton, E. P. Scammon, and 
Jno. P. Hatch. 
Chelsea, Mass. 
Tucker, Charles Edward; Captain Co. H. 

28 Feb 37, Gardner, Me; single; clerk; Boston. 

2d Lt 13 May 63, must. 13 May; 1st Lt 28 May 63, must. 21 Aug; 
Capt 3 Feb 64, must. 30 Mch. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. E 44 Mass , Corpl. Asst. Provost Marshal Charles- 
ton, S. C. summer 65. 
Fortuna, Humboldt Co Cal. 
Howard, Willard ; Captain Co. I. 

10 Jly 38 No Bridgewater ; single; salesman; Boston. 
2d Lt 13 May 63, must. 18 May; 1st Lt 31 May 63, must. 8 Oct ; Ad- 
jutant 1 Mch 64 ; Capt 3 Dec 64, must. 14 Dec. Discharged 20 Aug 
65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. D 44th Mass 12 Sep 62. Nov 63 to Mch 64 Actg 
Regtl. Adjutant. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Chipman, Charles Gustavus; Captain Co. D. 
28 Jan 41 Salem ; single ; clerk ; Salem. 

2d Lt 31 May 63 ; must. 24 Oct ; 1st Lt 20 Jan 64, must. 11 Mch ; 
Capt 16 Dec 64, must. 12 Mch 65. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Wounded 30 Nov 04 Honey Hill, S. C. 
Other service: — Co. A 5th Mass. Vol. Mil. 1 May 61 to 31 Jly 61 ; Co. B 
24th Mass. 5 Sep 61 ; 1st Sergt. Staff of Gen's. E. N. Hallowell 
and W. T. Bennett. 
Died 25 Jan 87 Green Bay, Wis. 
Emerson, Edward Bulkeley ; Captain Co. E. 

17 Feb 46 Gt. Barrington ; single ; student ; Pittsfield. 
2d Lt 3 Je 63, must. 10 Jly ; 1st Lt 10 Jly 63 must. 6 Jan 64 ; Capt 30 
Mch 65; must. 8 May. Discharged 14 Jly 65 expiration of personal 
service. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 
Other service: — Co K 34th Mass. 31 Jly 62, Corpl, Sergt. Apl to Aug 
64 Actg Ordnance Officer, Beaufort, S. C. 
Died 16 Feb 89 St Paul, Minn. 
James, Garth Wilkinson; Captain Co. C. 

21 Jly 45 New York ; single ; student ; Concord. 

1st Lt and Adjutant 23 Mch 63. must 21 Apl. Resigned 30 Jan 64 
account of wounds. 1st Lt 3 Dec 64 must. 14 Dec; Capt 30 Mch 



334 ROSTER OF THE 

65, must. 12 May. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. terra. Wounded 18 
Jly 03 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. F 44th Mass 12 Sep 62, Corpl, Sergt. Staff of Gen's. 
Q. A. Gilmore and E. N. Hallowell. 
Died 15 Nov 83 Milwaukee, Wis. 
Reed, Lewis ; Captain Co. K. 

2G Oct 42 E. Abington; single; stitcher; Abington. 
2d Lt 9 Jly 63, must. 26 Nov ; 1st Lt 4 Feb 64, must. 26 Mch; Capt 19 
Je 65, must. 17 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. G 12th Mass. 8 Jly 61, Corpl, Sergt. Provost Judge 
at Charleston S. C. summer 1805. 
Rockland, Mass. 
Newell, Robert Ralston-; Captain Co. B. 

22 Dec 43 Cambridge ; single; student; Cambridge. 
2nd Lt 12 Dec 63, must 5 Jan 64 ; 1st Lt 4 Feb 64, must. 30 Mch ; 
Capt 11 Jly 65, must. 27 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Staff of Gen. E. N. Hallowell. 
Died 23 Feb 83 Cambridge, Mass. 
Cousens, Joseph Emmons ; Captain Co. E. 

4 Nov 23 Lyman, Me ; single ; carpenter ; Newton. 
2d Lt 4 Feb 04, must. 12 May ; 1st Lt 22 Feb 65, must. 8 May ; Capt 
17 Jly 65 must. 12 Aug. Discharged 20 Aug 05 ex. term. 
Other service: — Co K 32nd Mass. 13 Aug 62 ; Sergt; re-enld 27 Feb 64. 
Newton Centre, Mass. 
Jot, Charles Frederick ; Captain Co. F. 
8 Je 45 Roxbury ; single; clerk; Brighton. 

2d Lt 30 Sep 64, must. 30 Dec ; 1st Lt 30 Mch 65, must. 8 May ; Capt 
17 Jly 65, must. 12 Aug. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service: — Co. E 41th Mass. 12 Sep 62 ; Co. F 2nd Mass. Hy. Arty 
31 Aug 63, Sergt. Feb to May 65 Actg Assistant Adjutant General, 
2nd Brig. Coast Div. Dept. So. 
Chelsea, Mass. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Wulff, Erick ; 1st Lieut. 

1837 Sweden ; single; soldier; Boston. 

2d Lt 26 Feb 63, must. 28 Feb ; 1st Lt 6 Mch 63, must. 16 Mch. 
Discharged 17 Mch 64 for promotion. 
Other service: — Co. I 20th Mass. 13 Aug to 15 Oct 62. Je 63 to Mch 64 
Staff of Gen. R. A. Pierce. Capt 5th Mass. Cav. 17 Mch 64. Re- 
signed 4 Jly 64. 
Higginson, Francis Lee ; 1st Lieut. 

11 Oct 41 Boston ; Boston. 

2d Lt 28 Feb 63, must. 23 Apl ; 1st Lt 14 Apl 63, must. 23 Apl ; Capt 
19 Jly 63, not must. Discharged 2 Feb 64 for promotion. 
Other service: — Capt. 5th Mass. Cav. 13 Jan 64. Discharged 31 Oct 65 
ex. term. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 835 

Tilden, Joseph ; 1st Lieut. 

19 Dec 38 Lowell ; single ; merchant ; Boston. 

2d Lt 1 Apl 03, not must. ; 1st Lt 13 May 63, must. 13 May. Dis- 
charged 27 May 63 for promotion. 
Other service: — Co. I 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62, Sergt. Capt 55th Mass. 27 
May 63 must. 27 May. Resigned 31 May 63. 
Died 9 Jly 85 at Honolulu, H. I. 
Wild, Walter Henry ; 1st Lieut. 

19 Je 36 Brookline ; single ; clerk ; Brookline. 

1st Lt 11 Apl 63, must. 15 May : Discharged 14 Aug 63 for promotion. 
Other service: — Corpl, Tompkins' Ind. Light Battery R. I. 17 Apl 61 to 
6 Aug 61. Co. M 3d R. I. Hy. Arty 15 Mch 62. Staff of Gen. E. A. 
Wild, Capt 36th U. S. C. T. 14 Aug 63. Ordnance Officer Arty 
Brig. 25th Army Corps. Discharged 14 Aug 66 expiration of per- 
sonal service. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Littlefield, Hexhy Wabren ; 1st Lieut. 
30 Oct 42 Quincy ; single ; clerk ; Milton. 

2d Lt 11 May 63, must. 25 May ; 1st Lt 7 Oct 63, must. 19 Nov. Re- 
signed 9 Feb 65 for disability. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. 
Other service : — Co. D 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62. Sep 63 Actg Regtl Adjutant 
Philadelphia Pa. 
Tomlinson, Ezekiel Gaulbert ; 1st Lieut. 

3 Aug 41, Radnor, Pa ; clerk ; single ; 

2d Lt 11 Aug 63, must. 15 Sep ; 1st Lt 19 Jly 63, must. 6 Jan 64. Re- 
signed 3 May 64 for disability. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. 
Other service : — Co. I 29th Pa. 9 Jly 61, 1st Sergt, Sergt. Major. 
Died 5 Dec 85. 
Reid, David ; 1st Lieut. 

1829; married; book-keeper; Boston. 

2d Lt 17 Apl 63, must. 23 Apl ; 1st Lt 19 Jly 63, must. 1 Mch 64. 
Killed 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 
Other service : — Co. F 11th Mass 9 Sep 61, Commissary Sergt. Mch and 
Oct 64 Actg Regtl. Quartermaster. 
Leonard, Andrew Watson ; 1st Lieut. 

19 Mch 43 Boston ; single ; clerk ; Charlestown. 

2d Lt 18 Aug 63, must. 19 Nov ; 1st Lt 31 Jan 64, must 5 Mch. Dis- 
charged 16 May 65 for promotion. 
Other service : — Co. D 13th Mass. 16 Jly 61. Apl 64 Detached with Boat 
Infy. Morris Id. S. C. Capt 103d U. S. C. T. 9 May 65 Discharged 
16 Apl 66 ex. term. 
Died 4 Jan 80 Independence, la. 
Knowles, Alfred H. ; 1st Lieut. 

28 Jan 42 Orleans; single: plumber; Orleans. 

2d Lt 7 Oct 63, must. 7 Dec ; 1st Lt 4 Feb 64, must. 30 Mch. Resigned 
21 Feb 65. Wounded 9 Dec 64 Deveaux Neck, S. C. 
Other service: — Co. F 24th Mass. 7 Oct 61, Sergt. 
Arlington, Mass. 



336 ROSTER OF THE 

Bridgiiam, Thomas Sydenham; 1st Lieut. 

25 Nov 37 Buckfield, Me; lawyer; Buckfield, Me. 

2d Lt l'J Jly 03, must. 12 Feb 04; 1st Lt 4 May 04, must. 15 Je. Re- 
signed 16 Aug 65 for disability 
Other service : — Co. A. 30th Maine. Apl, May 65 Actg Regtl. Quarter- 
master. 
Buckfield, Me. 
Jewett, Charles jr. ; 1st Lieut. 

2 Apl 31 E. Greenwich R. I. ; single ; farmer; Millbury. 

2nd Lt 15 Aug 03, must. 17 Mch 04 ; 1st Lt 3 Dec 04, must. 12 Mch 65. 
Resigned 17 Je 05. 
Other service: — Volunteer in suppressing Sioux Indian outbreak Ft. 
Ridgeley, Minn. 62. Jan to Mch 65 Actg Regtl. Quartermaster. 
Died 1 Jan 00 Grand View, Tenn. 
Stevens, Edward Lewis; 1st Lieut. 

30 Sep 42 Boston ; single; clerk; Brighton. 

2d Lt 31 Jan 64, must. 3 Apl ; 1st Lt 16 Dec 64, must. 19 Mch 65. 
Killed 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. 
Other service:— Co. E 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62 to 18 Je 03. Aug Sep 64 
Actg Regtl. Adjutant. 
Edmands, Benjamin Bruce ; 1st Lieut. 

3 Je 25 Cliarlestown ; married ; potter ; Brookline. 

2d Lt 20 Jan 64, must. 19 May; 1st Lt 30 Mch 65, must. 13 May. 
Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. B 36th Mass. 16 Aug 02, Corpl. Jly 05 Actg Regtl 
quartermaster. 
Providence, R. I. 
Swaii.s, Stephen Atkins; 1st Lieut. 

23 Feb 32 Columbia, Pa; married ; boatman ; Elmira, N. Y. 
Co. F 23 Apl 63, 1st Sergt ; 2d Lt 11 Mch 61, must. 17 Jan 
65; 1st Lt 28 Apl 65, must. 3 Je. Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. 
term. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. and 11 Apl 65 near 
Camden, S. C. 
Washington D. C. 
Cranch, George William 1st Lieut. 

11 Mch 47 Rome, Italy ; single ; student ; 

2nd Lt 10 Feb 65, must. 13 May ; 1st Lt 19 Je 65, must. 22 Jly. Dis- 
charged 20 Aug 05 ex. term. 
Died 17 Sep 67 Fishkill, N. Y. 
Welch, Frank Mark ; 1st Lieut. 

22 Oct 41 Philadelphia; single; barber; W Meriden, Conn. 
Co. F 12 May 03, Sergt. 1st Sergt. 2d Lt 28 Apl 05, must. 3 Je ; 1st Lt 
20 Je 05 must. 22 Jly. Discharged 20 Aug 05 ex. term. Wounded 
18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service: — 2d Lt. 14th U. S. Hy. Arty. 29 Sep 65. 
Washington, D. C. 
Whitney, William Lambert, jr.; 1st Lieut. 

1 Feb 44 Cambridge ; single; student; Cambridge. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 337 

2d Lt 3 Dec 64, must. 22 Jan 65 ; 1st Lt 28 Apl 65, must. 26 Jly. Dis- 
charged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. E 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62 to 18 Je 63. Apl May 65 Actg 
Regtl. Adjutant. 
Conant, John Hobart ; 1st. Lieut. 

13 Jly 42 Nashua, N. H ; single ; conductor ; Brighton. 
2d Lt 1 May 65 must. 1 Jly; 1st Lt 11 Jly 65, must. 27 Jly. Dis- 
charged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. A 44th Mass. 12 Sep 62 ; Corpl ; re-enld 29th Co. 
Mass. Hy Arty 19 Sep 64 ; 1st Sergt. 
Died 16 Je 08 Cambridge, Mass. 
McDermott, William; 1st Lieut. 

1843 Fairfield, Vt. single; farmer; Cambridge. 

2d Lt 1 Apl 65, must. 17 Jly 65 ; 1st Lt 17 Jly 65, must. 12 Aug. 
Discharged 20 Aug 65 ex. term. 
Other service : — Co. E 12th Vt. 30 Aug 62. Co. H 59th Mass. 21 Apl 64, 
trsfd 57th Mass. 
Died 24 Dec 77 Port Henry, N. Y. 



SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Wilder, John ; 2nd Lieut. 

1844: Cambridge. 

2d Lt 9 Feb 63, must. 10 Feb. Discharged 23 Je 63 for promotion. 
Other service : — Capt 2nd U. S. C. T. 23 Je 63, Lt. Col. 30 Jly 64. 
Discharged 5 Jan 66 ex. term. 
Bassett, Almon H. 2nd Lieut. 

Fittsfield. 

2d Lt 14 Feb 63, must. 14 Feb 63. Resigned and commission can- 
celled. . 

Dexter, Benjamin Franklin 2nd Lieut 

1843; married; printer; Cambridge. 

2d Lt 2 Mch 63, must. 12 Mch. Resigned 5 Jan 64. 
Other service : — Co. C 3rd Mass. Vol. Mil. 23 Apl 61 to 22 Jly 61 ; Corpl ; 
11th Mass. 16 Aug 62. 2d Lt 61st Mass. 3 Apl 65. Discharged 4 
Je 65 ex. term. 
Died 29 Apl 87 Boston, Mass. 
Pratt, Jambs Albert; 2nd Lieut. 

6 Nov 38 Lowell ; married ; carpenter ; W Roxbury. 
2d Lt 5 Mch 63, must. 20 Apl ; 1st Lt 15 Aug 63, not must. Discharged 
3 Feb 64 for promotion. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 
Other service : — Co. A 1st Mass. 23 May 61, Corpl, Sergt. Capt 56th. 
Mass. 25 Jan 64. Resigned 16 May 64 for disability. 
Died Oct 91 East Boston, Mass. 
Nutt, William; 2nd Lieut. 

5 Aug 36 Topsham, Vt; single; shoemaker; Natick. 
2d Lt 5 Mch 63 ; must. 23 Apl ; 1st Lt 22 May 63, not must. Discharged 
23 May 63 for promotion. 

22 



338 ROSTER OF THB 

Other service : — Co. I 2nd Mass. 25 May 61, Corpl, 1st Sergt. Capt 55th. 
Mass. 23 May 63; Major 23 Nov 64 ; Lt. Col. 2-3 Je 05 ; Brevet Col. 
U. S. Vols 13 Mch 65. Discharged 20 Aug 05 ex. terra. 
Natick, Mass. 
Johnstmn, Alexander; 2nd Lieut. 
1S44 . single; student; Buckland. 
2d Lt 28 .May 03, must. 2« May. Resigned 4 Nov 63. 
Other service : — Co. G 2d Mass. Cav. 9 Apl 63. 
Spear, Daniel G. ; 2nd Lieut. 

lblO; single; sailmaker ; Boston. 

2d Lt 19 Jly 63, must. 13 Mch 64. Resigned 3 Je 65. 
Other service : — Co. H 24th Mass. 10 Oct 61, Corpl, Sergt ; re-enld 4 
Jan 04. 

Died at Boston, Mass. 

Rogers, Frederick Eugene ; 2nd Lieut. 
16 Sep 45 Chelsea ; single ; clerk ; Chelsea. 

2d Lt 4 Feb 64, must. 3 May. Resigned 12 Je 65. Wounded 7 Apl 05 
near Kingstree, S. C. 
Other service: — Co. D. 13th Mass. 24 Mch 62; re-enld. 4 Jan 64. 
Waco, Tex. 
Hali.ett, Charles Olmsted; 2nd Lieut. 

21 Nov 42 Boston ; single ; clerk ; Brookline. 

2d Lt 4 Feb 64, must. 12 May ; 1st Lt 10 Feb 65, not must. Dis- 
charged 16 May 65 for promotion. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey 
Hill, S. C. 
Other service: — Co. F. 2nd Mass. 25 May 61; re-enld 30 Dec 63, Sergt. 
Capt 103d U. S. C. T. 9 May 65. Discharged 16 Apl 66 ex. term. 
Oakland, Cal. 
Webster, Frederick Hedge ; 2nd Lieut. 
2 Aug 43 Boston ; single; clerk; Boston. 

2d Lt 4 May 64, must. 16 Jly. Died of disease 25 Jan 65 Gen. Hos. 
Beaufort, S. C. 

The following officers were commissioned in the regiment, 
but were not mustered : — 

Bowditch, Henry P as Major 27 Jly 63 declined. 

Lynch, James, as Chaplain 27 Oct 64, commission cancelled. 

Greeley, Adolphus W as 2nd Lieut. 28 Feb 63, commission cancelled. 

Smith, Charles F. as 2nd Lieut. 9 Jly 63, commission cancelled. 

Hall, F. A. as 2nd Lieut 1 Aug 63 commission cancelled. 

Adams, Z. Boylston, as 2nd Lieut. 15 Aug 63 declined. 

Hocking, Alfred as 2nd Lieut 4 May 64 declined. 

Patten, Thomas H. as 2nd Lieut. 22 Feb 05, commission cancelled. 

Haskins, William G. as 2nd Lieut. 1 Apl 65 commission cancelled. 

Thompson, Albert D. as 2nd Lieut 20 Je 65, 1st Lieut. 17 Jly 65 not 
mustered, see Co. D. 

Stephens, George E. as 2nd Lieut. 11 Jly 65, 1st Lieut. 17 Jly 65 not 
mustered see Co. B. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 339 

ENLISTED MEN. 
Non-commissioned Staff. 

Becker, Theodore J. Hos. Stew. 32, mar. ; physician ; Fitchburg, Mass. 23 

Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. Died 69 or 70 Charleston, S. C. 
Douglass, Lewis H. Sergt. Major. 22, sin.; printer, Rochester N. Y. 25 Mch 

63, Co. F; Sergt. Major 23 Ap 63; 10 May 64; dis. 850. Washington, D. C. 
Lee, Arthur B. ; Commissary Sergt. 29, mar.; harness maker; Boston. 13 Feb 

63 Co. A; Commissary Sergt 23 Apl 63. 20 Aug 65. $50. Milton, Wis. 
Plainer, Thomas Edward; Principal Musician. 17, sin.; laborer; Hudson, N. Y. 

10 Mch 63 Co. A. Prin. Mus. 12 Je 65. 20 Aug 65. $50. Rochester, N. Y. 
Vogelsang, Peter Quartermaster Sergt. 46, mar.; clerk; Brooklyn, N. Y. 

17 Apl 63 Sergt Co. H, Quartermaster Sergt 1 Dec 63. See Record as Commis- 
sioned Officer. 
Wilson, John H. Sergt. Major. 23, mar.; painter; Cincinnati, O. 14 Apl 63 

Co. G, Sergt 10 May 63, Sergt Major 9 Apl 64. 20 Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 

Ft Wagner. $50. Toledo, Ohio. 

Company A. 

Adams, Jacob 39, wid. ; laborer; Lenox. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Lenox. 
Addison, David 25, sin.; laborer; Sheffield. 15 Feb. 63; deserted 14 Apl 63 

Readville. 

Aikens, William H. 26, mar.; laborer; Boston. 13 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Portsmouth, N. H. 
Albert, Henry 42, mar.; farmer; Boston. 3 Mch 63; Killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. $50. 
Allen, James 26, wid.; brakeman; Lafayette, Ind. 12 May 63; died pris. 20 

Dec 64 Florence, S. C. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Bancroft, John H. 26, sin.; shoemaker; Stoughton, 4 Mch 63; died of wounds 

29 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Barton, Thomas 27, mar.; seaman; Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 5 Mch. 63; 

deserted 23 Apl 63 Readville. 

Benton, Andrew 1st Sergt. 28, mar.; waiter. 10 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. Catskill, N. Y. 
Benton, Anthony 19, sin.; laborer; Hudson, N. Y. 5 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Benton, Samuel J. 18, sin.; waiter; New York. HMch 63; 4 Dec 65 Boston. 
Sentenced by General Court Martial to be hanged for murder of Corpl W. 
Wilson; commuted to 10 years imprisonment; remitted by order War Dept. 

Berry, Samuel 23, sin. ; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 21 Feby 63; 15 Jly 64, Morris 
Id, S. C. dis. $50. Dead. 

Biddle, Eli G. 17, sin.; painter; Boston. 14 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 
18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. New Haven, Conn. 

Bird, Levi 37, mar. ; blacksmith; Pittsfield. 23 Apl. 63; died 10 Jly 65 Charles- 
ton, S. C. of disease. $50. 



S40 ROSTER OF THE 

Bounds, Robert 20, mar.; farmer; Hudson, N. Y. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Brown, John 18, sin.; laborer; Worcester. 21 Feb 63; 21 Aug 65 Boston, $50. 
Bundy, George L. Sergt. 23, sin.; barber; Worcester. 22 Feb 03; 21 Dec 63 

Portsmouth Grove, K. I.; (lis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Warner. .$50. 
Burghakdt, Henry F. 21, sin.; mason; Hu. Lee. 18 Feby 63; killed 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Cooper, Watson 18, sin.; servant; Medfield. 21 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Cross, Martin B. Sergt. 31, mar.; barber; Catskill, X. Y. 10 Mcb 63; 20 

Aug. 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Crozier, liUGENE 21, sin.; laborer; Bristol, Vt. 14 Aug 114 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Crozier, Nelson 25, Lincoln, Vt. 18 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Cutler, George R. 22, mar.; hostler; Boston. 6 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. §50. 

Boston, Mass. 
Lemmings, Owen 21, Vermont. 21 Dec 63; 19 Sep 65 New 

York. . 

Dixson, Henry A. 21, mar.; mason; Boston. 1 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $403.33. 
Dugan, George W- 44, wid.; farmer; Concord. 20 Feb 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Duncan, Justin M. Corpl. 19, sin.; laborer; Chester. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Duncan, Lorenzo S. 21, mar; farmer; Hinsdale. 15 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Hartford, Conn. 
Ellis, George J. F. 19, sin.; hostler; Providence, R. I. 10 Mch 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Fletcher, Francis H. Sergt. 22, sin.; clerk; Salem. 13 Feb. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Died at Salem. 
Ford, Joseph 21, sin.; hostler; Boston. 27 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. $50. 
Foster, Mosks 19, sin.; farmer; PittsfieM. 26 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Freeland, Milo J. 22, mar. ; laborer; Sheffield. 16 Feb 63; 20 Aug 05. .$50. 
Gardner, Ralph B. Corpl. 23, sin. ; laborer; Gt. Barrington. 18 Feb 63; 27 

Jly 65 Gen. Hos. Annapolis, Md. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 13 Apl 65 

Wilmington, N". C. $50. 
Garrison, Silas 20, sin.; painter; Chatham, Can. 28 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $ 50. 
Gibson, Maktin 18, sin. ; waiter; Taunton. 10 Oct 63 ; 12 Sep 65 Boston. .$50. 

G. A. R. Tost 50, Chicago. 
Glazier, Abraham 18, sin.; farmer; Catskill, X. Y. 4 Mch 63; died 3 Jan 65 

RegtI. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. of disease. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Gover, Franklin 19, sin.; farmer; Gt. Barrington 18 Feb 63; 20 Sep 65. 

$50. PittsfieM. 
Green, Joseph Henry 16, sin.; laborer; Boston 23 Feb. 63 ; 20 Aug 6". $50. 
Grev, Solomon 21, sin.; laborer; Woodstock, Can. 28 Mch 63; deserted 14 

Apl 63. Rcadville. 

Groomer, Edward 19, sin.; seaman; Hudson, N. Y 5 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hall, Fltas 26, mar.; laborer; Boston. 11 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. .$50. 
Halsted, James W. Corpl. 18, sin.; farmer; F'arrington, Conn. 4 Mch 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 341 

Hamilton, Frank 40, mar.; farmer; Hinsdale. 14 Dec 63; died 16 Aug 64 

Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Consumption. $325. 
Hamilton, Frank, 2d 22, mar.; farmer; Hinsdale. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Pittsfield. 
Hamilton, Thomas 30, sin.; seaman; Buffalo, N. Y. 26 Men 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Harris, Charles E. 23, sin. ; laborer; New York. 15 May 63; 16 Je 65 Charles- 
ton, S. C; dis. $50. Selma, Ala. 
Harris, John H. 38, mar. ; farmer; Abington. 28 Feb 63; 29 Aug 65 New York. 

$50. 
Harrison, William H. 23, sin.; laborer; Paris, Me. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Hannibal, Mo. 
Hill, Alexander 32, mar.; laborer; Hudson, N. Y. 10 Mch 63; 18 Jly 65 

Charleston, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Hill, William F. 18, sin.; farmer; Sherborne. 10 Mch 63; died pris. 20 Feb 65 

Florence, S. C. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Hines, Edward 20, mar. ; farmer; Norfolk, Conn. 4 Mch 63; killed 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Hollenbeck, John J. 23, mar.; laborer; Jersey City, N. J. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Jackson, Abraham A. 24, mar.; farmer; Gt. Barrington. 15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 

65. 

Jackson, Elmer H. 19, sin.; laborer; Troy, N. Y. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Jackson, James H. 18, sin.; waiter; Gt. Barrington. 3 Mch 63; wounded and 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. S50. 
Jackson, Sanpord 33, sin.; teamster; Amherst. 4 Mch 63; died of wounds 13 

Sep 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. 

$50. 
Jackson, Thomas 21, Lenox. 5 Mch 63; died 31 Mch 65 

Insane Hos. Washington, D. C. Epilepsy. 

Jackson, William N. 21, sin.; farmer; Hudson, N. Y. 10 Mch 63; died If! 

Oct 63 Morris Id. S. C. Consumption. $50. 
Jarvis, George 18, sin. ; laborer; Sheffield. 9 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Jarvis, George W. 24, mar.; hair dresser; Greenfield. 23 Oct. 63; 21 Sep 65 

Boston. $325. 
Johnson, Nathaniel H. 24, mar. ; carpenter ; Sheffield. 16 Feb. 63; 20 Aug 6E. 

$50. 
Johnson, Norman 22, sin.; farmer; Sheffield. 26 Feb 63; rejected. Drafted 

15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 64 Morris Id, S. C. ; dis. Westfield. 

Johnson, Peter B. 29, mar.; turner; Springfield. 4 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft Wagner. $50. 
Jones, Henry E. 19, sin.; farmer; Lanesborough. 30 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Jones, William Henry 44, mar.; store keeper; Boston. 10 Feb 64; 22 Sep 64 

Morris Id. S. C. ; dis. $50. 
Kane, Charles 28, sin.; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 28 Mch 63; died of wound 15 

Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Kelsey, Joseph 22, mar.; laborer; Peru. 17 Dec. 63; died 4 May 65 BegtI. 

Hos. Georgetown, S. C. of disease. $50. 
Lamb, Marshall 19, sin.; laborer; Newbury, S. C. 7 May 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft Wacner. $50. 



342 ROSTER OF THE 

Lenox, Charles W Sergt. 38, sin.; barber; Watertown. 28 Feb 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Watertown. 
Lewis, Doik.lass 18, sin.; hostler; Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 27 Feb 63; 

15 Mav 64 Morris Id. S. C; dis. $50. 
Livingstone, Franklin R. l'j, sin.; boatman; Hudson, N. Y. 5 Mch 63; 13 

May 64 Beaufort, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 .lly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Lushay, George 21, sin.; teamster; New York. 9 Mch 63 ; deserted 16 Apl 63 

Readville. 

Martin, James M. 43, mar.; cook; Cambridge. 11 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
McCloud, James 21, sin.; seaman; St. Thomas, W. I. 23 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Merritt, William 21, mar.; boatman; Hudson, N. Y. 5 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Miller, William 27, mar.; farmer; Cambridge. 14 Feb 63; 17 Aug 63 Morris 

Id. S. C; dis. $50. 
Nettle, John H. 27, mar.; blacksmith; Boston. 27 Feb 63; died of wound 8 

Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Noe, Charles Corpl. 26, mar. ; teamster; Springfield. 4 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Oliver, William H. 20, sin.; pedler; Springfield. 4 Mch 63; deserted 25 Apl 

63. Readville. 

Pell, George M. 30, mar.; farmer; No. Lee. 15 Jly 64; died 6 Aug 64 Morris 

Id. S. C. Typhoid Fever. 

Perkins, Washington 35, mar.; laborer; Boston. 20 Feb. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Boston. 
Perow, Joseph 29, mar.; butcher; Burlington, N. J. 26 Mch 63; 16 Je 65. 

Charleston, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Peters, George G. 19, sin.; farmer; Lenox. 27 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Pierce, Harrison 21, sin.; laborer; Monson. 3 Mch 63; killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. $50. 
Pierce, Solomon 42, mar. ; farmer; Monson. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 8325. 
Pierce, Warren 19, sin.; farmer; Monson. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug (15. $325. 
Piper, Charles H. 23, mar.; farmer; Stockbridge. 15 Jly 64; 20 Aug 65. 



Porter, William 23, sin.; weaver; New Bedford. 10 Oct 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Porter, William D. 25, mar.; musician; New York. 7 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. New York. 
Potter. Franklin 26, mar.; teamster; New York. 15 Mch 65; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Price, Cornelius 25, sin.; farmer; Underhill, Vt. 7 Aug 63; killed 2d Jly 64 

James Island S. C. 

Pruyn, Peter II. 2G, mar. ; boatman; Lenox. 5 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. £50. 
Ringgold, George W. Corpl. 20, sin. ; barber; Pittsfield. 28 Feb 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Robinson, Lewis 21, sin.; farmer; Columbia, Pa. 26 Mch 65; 13 Sep 65 

Boston. $50. York, Pa. 
Robinson Thomas P. 21, sin.; farmer; Staten Id. N. Y. 7 Mav 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded Jly 63 $50. 

Rollings, Robert 35, mar., farmer; Andover. 28 Nov 63; 15 Sep 65 Boston. 

$325. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 343 

Roy, Lindsley 22, sin.; waterman; Boston. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. S325. 
Saunders, Enoch 38, mar.; laborer; Cambridge. 19 Feb 63; 9 Oct 65 New- 
York. $50. 
Sharts, James E. 24, mar.; farmer; No. Lee. 18 Feb 63; 3 Je 65 St. Andrews 

Parish, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Sharts, William H. 23, sin.; laborer; No. Lee. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Siscoe, John H. Corpl. 20, sin.; farmer; Catskill, N. Y. 10 Men 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Siscoe, Richard 19, sin.; farmer; Catskill, N. Y. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Smith, Burrill, jr. 1st Sergt. 18, sin.; laborer; Boston. 12 Feb 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Boston. 
Smith, John 26, mar.; laborer; Somerset Co. Md. 7 May 63; 29 May — Gen. 

Hos. Beaufort, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Smith, Samuel 30, sin.; laborer; Boston. 13 Feb 63; died 5 Jny 65 Morris Id. 

S. C of disease. $50. 
Spencer, Aaron Corpl 20, sin.; fanner; No. Lee. 18 Feb 63; died of wound 

6 Sep 63 Morris Id. S. C. S50. 
Spriggs, Isaiah 19, sin.; laborer; Chelsea. 20 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Stevens, William A. 19, sin.; farmer; Gt. Barrington. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Sutherland, John 30, sin.; farmer; Stockport, N. Y. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Tabs, America C. 37, sin.; laborer; Boston. 13 Feb 63; 26 Oct 63 Morris Id. 

S. C; dis. $50. 
Taylor, Robert L. Sergt 20, sin. ; seaman ; Boston. 4 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Taylor, William Thomas 18, sin.; farmer; Tyringharn 18 Dec 63; 8 Je 65 

Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C; dis. $325. 
Thomas, Jacob H. 26, sin.; farmer; Gt. Barrington. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Thompson, Charles P. 21, mar.; farmer; Gt. Barrington. 26 Feb 63; 4 Oct 65 

New York. $50. 
Townsend, Ralsey R. 35, mar. ; teamster ; Springfield, 3 Mch 63 ; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner, $50. 
Tucker, Henry J. 34, mar. ; butcher; Sheffield. 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Tucker, Jeremiah 19, sin.; farmer; Boston. 28 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. S50. 
Van Allen, Charles 29, mar.; farmer; Lenox. 27 Feb 63; killed 5 Sep 63 in 

trenches before Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Van Alstyne, Charles 22, mar.; laborer; Hudson, N Y 5 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Van Blake, John 21, sin.; laborer; Pittsfield. 6 Mch 63; died 21 Dec 63 

Morris Id. S. C. Consumption. $50. 
Vernonhaus, Alexander 29, sin.; seaman; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Vosburgh, John E. 24. sin.; blacksmith; Lenox. 4 Mch 63; died 26 Nov 63 

Morris Id. S. C. Consumption. $50. 
Wallis, Alanson 21, sin.; farmer; Monson. 4 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Wallis, James 23, sin. ; farmer; Monson. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Waterman, George F. 27, mar.; farmer; Lenox. 27Feby63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. 

Watson, Cornelius 31, mar.; preacher; Newburgh, N. Y. 7 Mav 63; killed 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 



344 ROSTER OF THE 

Whipple, William Henry 21, sin.; waiter; Seituate. 5 May 63; 24 Feb C4 
Portsmouth Grove, K. I- ; dis. AVounded 18 Jly ii3 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Whitiokd, Charles 20, mar.; farmer; Hudson, X. Y. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 
65. 600. 

Williams, Alexander 33, mar.; coachman; New York. 7 May 63; 8 Je 65 
Beaufort S. C; dis. $50. Lee. 

Williams, Amos. 25, sin.; farmer; Tyringham. 15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Dillon, Oil. 

Wilson, Eli Corpl. 28, sin.; farmer; Springfield. 4 Mch 63; 28 Sep 65 
Boston. £50. 

Wilson, George 32, mar. ; laborer; Hudson, X. Y. 4 Mch 63; 24 Dec G3 Ports- 
mouth Grove, R. I. ; dis. Wounded 18 July 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Wilson, William Corpl. 29, sin.; laborer; Indianapolis, Ind. 12 May 63; 
killed 30 Apl 05 in camp Georgetown, S. C. by S. J. Benton Co A. $50. 

Wilson, William II. 22, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 26 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$50. 

Woods, Thomas Corpl. 38, mar.; teamster; New York. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$50. 



Company B. 

Allison, George 22 sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. S. C; supposed killed. $50. 
Anderson, Elijah 30, mar.; stevedore; Philadelphia. 27 Feby 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Anderson, Solomon E. 34, mar.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; died 

pris. Jan 65 Florence, S. C. Captd. 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Armstrong, George A. Corpl. 22, mar.; barber; Philadelphia 3 Mch 63; de- 
serted 10 May 63 Readville. 

Bailey, David 22, sin.; laborer; Philadelphia. 25 Feb. 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner, S. C. ; supposed killed. $50. 
Ballard, Jacob 29, mar.; farmer; Philadelphia. 12 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Barcus, Ezekiel L. 36, mar. ; brickmaker; Philadelphia. 11 Mch 63. ; died 10 

Dec 63 Morris Id. S. C. dysentery. $50. 
Blake, Lemuel 21, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. Captd. 

16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. ; ret. 7 Je 65. $50. 
Bond, Benjamin M. 38, mar.; cook; Boston. 5 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Bosley. Joseph E. 30, mar. ; laborer; Worcester. 11 July 63; 20 Aug. 65. — — — 
Bradley, Daniel 20, mar.; brickmaker; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Bradley, Jeremiah 34, mar.; farmer; So. Adams. 8 Dec 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$325. 
Branson, Alexander 21, sin.; barber; Philadelphia. 18 Feby 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Branson. Samuel 21, sin.; shoemaker; Philadelphia, 18 Feb 63; 20 Aug. 

65. $50. 
Brooks, John Henry 36, mar.; waterman; Philadelphia. 21 Feb 63; missing 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; supposed killed. $50. 
Brown. George 20, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 3 Mch 63, 20 Aug 65. 
Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 345 

Brown, Henry 19, sin.; farmer; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Brown, Jesse H. 23, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded and pris. 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. ; ret. 

8 Je 65. $50. W Chester Pa. 
Brown, Morris 22, sin.; wagoner; W. Chester, Pa. 3 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner; supposed killed. $50. 
Buck, Henry George 22, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Champlin, David H. Corpl 28, mar. ; laborer; Hingham. 25 Aug 63; 20 Aug 

65. ■ 

Clark, Isaac Jefferson 23, mar.; farmer; Philadelphia. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Clow John 37, mar.; laborer; Stockbridge. 8 Dec 63.; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

accidentally by himself 2 Jly 64 James Id. S. C. $325. 
Cole, James" 19, sin.; farmer; Oxford, Pa. 14 Mch 63; 20 Aug. 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Lincoln, Pa. 
Cole, Josiah 19, sin.; farmer; Chester Co. Pa. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug. 65. $50. 

Coatesville, Pa. 
Cooper, Thomas F. 26, mar.; laborer; W. Chester, Pa. 4 Mch 63; died of 

wound 1 Mch 64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner 

and 20 Feb 04 Olustee, Fla. §50. 
Counsel, George 26, mar. ; laborer; W Chester, Pa. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Pris. 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C; ret. 7 Je 65. 

$50. 
Croslear. Edward A. 26, mar.; laborer; Sheffield. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Sheffield. 
Ceozier Oscar James Mus. 20, sin.; hostler; Philadelphia. 21 Feb 65; 20 

Aug. 65. $50. 
Davis, Jeremiah Corpl 33, sin. ; farmer; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; 25 Aug 65 

New York. $50. 
Day, Robert M. 20, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; 20 Mch 65 Davids 

Id. X. Y. ; dis. Wounded 16 Jly 64 Morris Id. S. C. $50. 
Dickson, Anderson. 19, sin.; farmer; Muscatine, la. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Dixon, John W 22, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 4 Mch 63; 1 Sep 65 New 

York. $50. 
Douglass, John 23, sin.; farmer; Unionville, Pa. 11 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Draper, Charles 18, sin.; drummer; Philadelphia. 23 Feb 63; deserted 15 

Apl 64 Jacksonville, Fla. $50. 
Elletts, James. 27, mar.; laborer; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mch 63; died pris. 

Charleston, S. C. ; captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Elletts, Samuel 18, sin. ; farmer ; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Farmer, George Corpl 39, mar.; farmer; Unionville, Pa. 11 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Ferris, John R. 27, mar.; laborer; Gt. Barrington. 28 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Gallas, Joseph 27, sin.; stevedore; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Garner, George H. 28, mar.; barber; Marlboro. 14 Jly 63; 30 Aug 65 New 

York. 



■Q1Q ROSTER OF THE 

Gibbs, George 23, sin.; laborer; Philadelphia. 18 Feb G3; 29 Doc Go Boston. 

S5U. 
Glasgow. Abraham Corpl. 2G, sin.; farmer; Unionville, Pa. 11 Mch G3; 20 

Ann Co. Wounded 28 Sep 63 in trenches before It. Wagner and 20 Feb 64 

Olustee, Fla. S50. 
Glasgow. London 22. sin.; farmer; Unionville, Pa. 11 Men 03; missing 18 

Jly 03 Ft. Wagner; supposed killed. SoO. 
Grant, Gkohi.k 20, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 3MehG3; 24 Je 65 Annapolis, 

Md.' Captd 18 Jly 03 Ft. Wagner ; ex. 4 Mull Go GoUUboro, N. C SoO. 
Green Alfred 2G, mar.; farmer; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mch 03; 20 Aug 

G5. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Mch Go Goldsboro, X. C; ret. 9 Jly 05. 

SoO. Hollidaysburg, Pa. 
Hall, Aaron C. 33, mar.; laborer; Exeter, N. H. 20 Sep 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Hall, George Henry 20, mar.; farmer; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 03; 22 Feb 64 

Beaufort, S. C; dis. Wounded G3 SoO. 

Hall, James Henry Corpl 38, sin.; barber; Philadelphia. 27 Feb. 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Hall, William D. 29, sin.; yeoman; Exeter, N. H. 13 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Southbridge. 

Hammond, Alexander Corpl. 23, mar. ; farmer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; 

20 Aug 65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. S50. 
Hardy, Charles Corpl 20, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 18 Feb 03; died pris. 

18 Mch 65 . Captd 18 Jly G3 Ft. Wagner. £50. 

Harris, John C. 20, sin.; farmer; Sheffield. 12 Dec 03, 20 Aug 05. $325. 
Harrison, William Henry 36, mar.; farmer; Philadelphia. 9 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. S50. 
Hazard, Austin 32, Woodstock, Vt. 24 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 



Hazard, Solomon 22, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 63 . $50. 

Hercules, Lewis 21, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; died 24 Apl. 64 

Jacksonville, Fla. Pneumonia. S50. 
Hight, James 21, sin.; teamster; Philadelphia. 18 Feb 63 ; deserted 14 Nov 63 

from furlough. $50. 
Hill, William 19, mar.; teamster; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 03; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 63 . $50. 

Hoose, Edward 21, sin. ; farmer; Dalton. 4 Dec 63; 20 Aug. 05. £325. 
Howard, James 19, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded accidentally by himself 20 Feb 04 Olustee, Fla. S50. 
Hurdle, Robert Harrison. 20, sin.; farmer; Falmouth. 9 Oct 63; died 20 

May 64 Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Pneumonia. 850. 
Jackson, Charles 18, sin.; laborer; Monterey. 17 Dec 63; 20 Aug 05. £325. 
Jackson, Samuel D. 32, sin. ; farmer; Pittslield. 14 Dec 63 ; 30 Je 05. Charles- 
ton S. C; dis. £325. 
Jay, George 19, sin. ; farmer; Oxford, Pa. 11 Mch G4; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Jay, Wesley 26, sin.; farmer; Oxford, Pa. 14 Mch 63; 2(1 Aug 05. Wounded 

18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills S. C. £50. 
Jay, William 22, sin. ; farmer ; Oxford, Pa. 14 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. accidentally by himself and 18 Apl 65 Bovkins Mills, 

S. C. £50. 
Johnson, Augustus 21, sin. ; farmer; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 03; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 347 

Johnson, Clayton. 18, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. §50. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Johnsun, George W. 21, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. G. A. R. Post 255, New York. 
Johnson, Moses. 28, mar. ; laborer; Philadelphia. 4 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Jones, William 45, mar.; laborer; Sheffield. 18 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. £325. 

Sheffield. 
Langley, London S. 24, Rutland, Vt. 7 Dec 63; Trsfd 33d U. S. 

C. T. 23 Apl 64. Dead. 

Lee, Alfred, 20, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 9 Mch 63; 13 Sep. 65 Boston. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Long, Henry 35, mar.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. §325. 
Lyons, James Corpl. 34, mar. ; farmer , Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. S50. 
Mero, Andrew H. 27, Rutland, Vt. 9 Dec 63; 29 Sep 65 Boston. 



Mero, Edward H. 19, Woodstock, Vt. 30 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65- 



Mero, Sylvester. 19; Woodstock, Vt. 5 Jan 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Rutland, Vt. 

Merriman, George F. Sergt. 22, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 4 Mch 63; 

died of wound 1 Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 16 Jlv 63 James 

Id. S. C. $50. 
Miller, John 25, sin.; barber; Philadelphia. 21 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
More, Edward 36, mar.; laborer; Sheffield. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Sheffield, Mass. 
Morris, George Corpl 22, mar. ; seaman ; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded and pris. 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla.; Ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro. N C; 

ret. 7 Je 65. $50. 
Neal, Samuel 24, mar. ; farmer; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Newport, Erastus 32, mar.; farmer; Monson. 7 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Nicholas, Lemuel A. 24, mar.; shoemaker; Philadelphia. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Died New York. 

Parker, Jeremiah 21, mar.; farmer; W. Chester Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. S50. 
Parker, John 23, sin.; teamster; Philadelphia. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Peer, John W. 21, sin.; barber; Philadelphia. 18 Feb 63; died 6 Aug 63 

Morris id. S. C. Dysentery. $50. 
Potter, Charles W. 28, mar.; barber; Hinsdale. 15 Jly 64; 20 Aug 65. 



Preston, Charles Henry 22, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 
Aug 65. $50. 

Reed, John W. 22, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; deserted 8 May 63 
Readville. 

Richardson, Andrew 23, mar.; stevedore; Philadelphia. 27 Feb 63; 20 Aug 
65. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 

Rigby, William 21, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 11 Mch 63; 24 Je 65 An- 
napolis, Md. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. 
$50. W- Chester, Pa. 

Ringold, James W. 18, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 27 Feb 63; 30 Je 65 
Charleston, S. C. dis. Wounded 28 Sep 63 Ft. Chatfield, Morris Id. S. C. $50. 



348 ROSTER OF THE 

Ross, James 28, fin. ; laborer; Boston. 11 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Scott, George H. 18, Rutland, Vt. 11 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 



Shirley, John L. 23, mar.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Men 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$5(1. W. Chester, Pa. 
Simmons, Robert John 1st Sergt. '2ij, sin. ; clerk; Bermuda. 12 Mch 63; died 

pris. Aug 63 Charleston, S. C. Wounded and pris. 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Smith, Edward H. 21, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 05. 

$50. 
Smith, James 20, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Philadelphia. 
Smith, Lewis Corpl. 19, sin. ; laborer; Philadelphia. 4 Mch 63; drowned 11 Dec 

64 Folly Id. S. C. $50. 
Sxowdon, John A. 20, sin.; laborer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner; supposed killed. $50. 
Spriggs, Enos 21, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug (15. 

$50. 
States, Daniel, 18, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 27 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded and pris. 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. ; 

ret. 7 Je 65. $50. Philadelphia. 
Stephens, George E. 1st Sergt. 31, mar.; cabinet maker; Boston. 30 Apl 

63; 20 Aug 65. Comd 2d Lt 11 Jly 65; 1st Lt 17 Jly 65, not mustered. $50. 

Died 24 Apl 88 Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Story, Charles A. Sergt. 20, sin.; farmer; Hadley. 18 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Stoky, William A 26, sin. ; barber; Hadley. 2 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Streets, George Washington 19, sin. ; laborer; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 11 Mi h 

03 ; died of wound 22 Jly 03 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. $50. 
Sufsiiay, Samuel Mus. 17, sin.; drummer; Philadelphia. 18 Feb 63; killed 

15 Jly 64 in camp Morris Id. S. C. by shell. $50. 
Swan, Charles 33, mar. ; laborer; Monterey. 17 Dec 63 ; 31 Aug 65 New York. 

$325. 
Swan, Henry 45, mar.; laborer; Monterey, 18 Dec 63; 16 Jly 65 Gen. Hos. 

Beaufort, S. C; dis. $325. 
Tanner John 26, mar.; mechanic; Southbridge. 14 Jly 63; killed 15 Jly 64 in 

camp Morris Id. S. C. by shell. 

Thomas, John 22, sin. ; laborer; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Valentine, Samuel Sergt. 21, mar.; shoemaker; Boston. 3 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Boston. 
Vanalstyne, William D. 23, sin.; farmer; Plainfield. 7 Dec 63; died 10 Sep. 

64 pris. Andersonville Ga. Captd 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $325. 
Vanleer, George R. 21, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; deserted 10 

May 63 Readville. 

Walls, Albert 29, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner; supposed killed. $50. 
Washington, Edward Sergt. 26, mar. ; laborer; Philadelphia. 27 Feb 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 63 . $50. 

Washington, George A. 42, mar.; seaman; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Washington, Stephen 27, mar.; laborer; W. Chester, Pa. 4 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 349 

Washington, William Henry 21, sin.; laborer; W. Chester, Pa. 3 Mch 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Wells, Augustus 20, sin.; laborer; Philadelphia. 18 Feb 63; Aug 20, 64; 

Morris Id, S. C; dis. 

Wentworth, Charles B. 45, Woodstock, Vt. 19 Dec 63 ; 13 

Jly 65 Charleston, S. C; dis. 

White, Isaac 27, sin. ; teamster; Philadelphia. 21 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Williams, Charles 20,mar.; brickmaker; Philadelphia. 14 Mch 63; died pris. 

Jan 65 Florence, S. C Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Williams, Curtis. 18, sin.; servant; Xewberne, N. C. 27 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

8465.99. 
Williams, John 19, sin.; seaman; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 63; 12 Sep 65 Boston. 

S50. 
Williams, John Q. 21, mar.; farmer; Stockbridge. 8 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Williams, Valorous W 43, mar.; laborer; Stockbridge. 15 Dec 63; 13 Jly 

65 Charleston, S. C; dis. S325. 
Willis, Jeremiah 21, mar.; farmer; Philadelphia. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

S50. 
Wilson, Samuel R. 21, sin.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 9 Mch 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Winston, Joseph 21, sin.; farmer; Philadelphia. 3 Mch 63; 30 Aug 65 New 

York. $50. 
Woods, Robert 23, mar. ; farmer; Philadelphia. 21 Feb 53 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Wright, John Mus. 19, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 



Company C. 

Allson, Charles. 36, mar.; farmer; Rehoboth. 16 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Anderson, John H. 32, mar.; barber; Chelsea. 4 May 63; 26 Apl 64 David's 

Id. N. Y. dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Waener. $50. 
Baker, George. 30, mar.; laborer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 64; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Dead. 
Barton, Lot Lee 27, sin.; farmer; Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 14Feby63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Benton, Nelson R. 28, mar.; laborer; Catskill, N. Y. 9 Mch 63; 30 Je 64 

Black Id. S.C.; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Catskill, N. Y. 

Blackburn, John 20, sin. ; laborer; New Bedford. 31 Aug 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Blackburn, John W 18, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 14 Feb 63; 28 May 63 

Readville; dis. $50. 
Brewster, Henry T. 21, sin.; shoemaker; Boston. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Buchanan, James H., Corp. 22. mar.; laborer; New Bedford. 10 Feby 63; 

killed 20 Feb. 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Byard, Robert 26, sin. ; laborer; St Albans, Vt. 28 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Campbell, Joseph R. 23, mar.; caulker; New Bedford. 11 Mch 63; missing 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Carney, William H. Sergt. 22, sin.; seaman; New Bedford. 17 Feb 63; 30 

Je 64 Morris Id. S. C. ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. New 

Bedford. 



350 ROSTER OF THE 

Cass, Isaiah 24, sin.; laborer; Woodford, Kv. 12 May 63 ; 8 Jc 65 Beaufort, 

S.'c.; dis. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. $50. 
Clark, Lewis. 19, sin.; laborer; Lebanon, (."). 12 May 63; killed 16 Apl 65 near 

Camden, S. C. $50. 
Cootney, Rudolphis. 18, sin. ; farmer; Green Co., O. 12 May 63; died 28 

Sep 63 Rcgtl Hos. Morris Id., S. C, consumption. $50. 
Cornish, John 36, mar.; laborer; Springfield. 24 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Denver, Colo. 
Craio. Noah. 28, sin. ; seaman; New Bedford. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug. 65. $50. 
Davis, Enoch 27, mar. ; laborer; E. Troy, N.Y. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. §50. 
Delay an, George Corpl. 41, mar.; laborer; New Bedford. 22 Feb 63: 23 

May 64 Davids Id. N. Y.; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Dead. 
Demoby, Fr.ANCis 35, mar.; waiter; New Bedford. 21 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 12 Feb 65 while scouting near Salkehatchic, S. C. $50. 
Depp, Stephen 33, sin.; farmer; Lebanon, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Urbanna. O. 
Dexter, Thomas 20, sin.; laborer; Plymouth. 17 Jly 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Richmond, Ya. 
Downing, James 26, sin.; barber; New Bedford, 28 Feb 63; 28 May 63 Read- 

ville; dis. $50. 
Easton, James H. 20, sin.; laborer.; Newport, R. I. 24 Mch 63; died 1 Aug 65 

Post Hos. Charleston, S. C. Remittent Fever. $50. 
Edwards, John 30, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Ennis, Stephen 25, mar.; musician. ; Montrose, Pa. 27 Mch 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. 
Evins, Joseph 22, sin. ; plasterer; Green Co., O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Finnhmore, Charles A. 27, mar. ; farmer; Amherst. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 04 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Fleetwood, Lewis A. 21, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 21 Feb 63; 8 Je 64 

New York; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Fletcher, David S., Corpl. 20, "sin.; hostler; New Bedford. 20 Feb 63; 20 

A us; 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Fletcher, Merrick 43, 9 Mch 63; 28 May 63 Read- 
vine; dis. . 

Foster, Richard M. Corpl. 26, mar.; laborer; Troy, N. Y. 10 Feb 63; killed 

30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Franklin, Kli 32, mar.; laborer; Pittsfield. 18 Mch 63; died of wounds 31 Jly 

63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Freeman, Cyris 36, mar. ; laborer; Springfield" 24 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Furlong, Wesley Sergt. 24, sin.; steward; New Bedford. 16 Feb 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Boston. 
Gladden, Henry Corpl. 21, sin.; farmer; Greenwich, N. Y. 14 Feb. 63; 20 

Aug. 65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Gooding, James II. Corpl. 26, mar.; seaman; New Bedford. 14 Feb 63; died 

pris. 19 Jly 64 Anderx>nville, Ga. Wounded and pris. 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. 

$50. 
Gray, William II. W 1st Sergt. 38, mar.; seaman; New Bedford. 14 Feb. 63; 

20 Aug. 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Dead. 
Green, John W 19, sin.; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Boston. 
Green, Lewis C. 22, mar.; laborer; Philadelphia. 21 Mch 63; killed 20 Feb 

64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 



FIFTY-FOUETH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 351 

Green, Peter 21, sin. ; laborer ; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 
Greene, Charles E. Corpl. 23, sin.; laborer; Providence, R. I. 20 Feb 63; 
died 10 Apl 61 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Consumption. Wounded 63 

. $50. 

Gunn, Benjamin J. 30, mar.; farmer; Columbia Co. N. Y. 5 May 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Gunn, Titus M. 22, sin.; farmer; Columbia Co. N. Y. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hall, Joseph Lee. 19, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 14 Feb 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Halsey, Ira E. 25, mar. ; laborer , Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 14 Feb 63 ; 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Harder, Peter" H. 22, sin.; laborer; Columbia Co. N. Y. 9 Mch 63; 16 Je 65 

Charleston S. C; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 04 Honey Hill, S. C. §50. 
Harrison, Charles H. 19, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 14 Feb. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Harrison, John H. 21, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 14 Feb. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hasbrook, James Corpl. 18, sin.; laborer; Catskill, N. Y. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. Dead. 
Henson, Cornelius 22, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 28 Feb 63 ; 8 Jly 65 Bos- 
ton. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. $50. 
Henson, John 20, sin.; laborer; Coatesville, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug Go. $50. 
Hicks, Henry J. 23, mar.; shoemaker; Cambridge. 9 July 63; 20 Aug 65. 

. Maplewood. 

Jackson, Charles, Corpl. 23, sin.; farmer; Ghent, N. Y. 9 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Jackson, Francis J. 18, sin. ; laborer; Gt Barrington. 24 Mch 63; died 10 Apl 

64 Gt Barrington. Phthisic. $50. 
Jackson, James L. 18, sin.; laborer; Columbia, N. Y. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Jackson, John H. 22, sin. ; laborer; Troy, N. Y. 24 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Jackson, Levi II. 20, sin.; waiter; Gt. Barrington. 18 Mch 63 ; died of wounds 

12 May 65 Post Hos. Charleston, S. C. Wounded 16 Apl 65 near Camden, S. C. 

$50. 
Jackson, Mathias 18, sin.; laborer; Dutchess Co., N. Y. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. San Pueblo, Colo. 
Jackson, Samuel 20, sin.; hostler; Hudson, N. Y. 14 Feb 63; 30 Je 64 Black 

Id. S. C; dis. $50. 
Jefferson, Benjamin F. 21, sin.; hostler; So. Bend. O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Jennings, William 44. 10 Mch 63 ; 28 May 63 Eead- 

ville; dis. 

Jennings, William H. H. 22, sin.; farmer; Amherst. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Johnson. Alexander H. Mus. 16, sin.; seaman; New Bedford. 2 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Worcester. 
Johnson, Frederick Sergt. 25, sin.; hair-dresser; Boston. 11 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Johnson, Henry 22, mar.; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 14 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



»;■■> ROSTER OF THE 

Johnson, Isaac. 22, sin.; farmer; So. Heading. 14 Jly 63; 20 Aug G5. 

Wounded 18 A pi. 05 Boykins Mills, S. C. 

Johnson, Samuel -21, mar.; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Meh 60; missing Jly 18 

G3 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Johnson, William 29, mar.; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 05. 

got). Ithaca, X. Y. 
Jones, Joseph 19, sin.; farmer; Coatesville, Pa. 21 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. S50. 
Kelly, William D. Corpl. 19, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 10 Apl 03; 20 Aug 

65. S50. Leavenworth, Kan. 
Lawrence, Robert 28, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 23 Feb 03, 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Lee, George H. Sergt. 21, sin. ; hostler; New Bedford. 20 Feb 63; 20 Aug 05. 

S50. Wellesley. 
Leigiiton, Samuel 41, mar.; laborer; New Bedford. 19 Feb G3; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Lewis, George F. 28, mar.; laborer; Cambridgeport. 9 Meh 05; 21 Dec 63 

Portsmouth Grove, R. I.; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 03 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Lott, John 18, ; barber; . 12 May 63; died of wounds 30 Mch 64. 

Gen. Hos. Davids Id- N. Y. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Magill, Benjamin. 30, sin.; farmer; Grove, Pa. 16 Jly 03; died 15 Oct 64 

Regtl. Flos. Morris Id. S. C. of phthisic. . 

Marshall, Henry B. 45, mar.; barber; Brooklyn, N. Y. 16 Mch 63; 16 Jly 65 

Beaufort S. C; dis. Trsfd from Co. D. $50." 
Middleton, Samuel 23, mar.; farmer; Catskill, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Mitchell, Edward 20, sin.; seaman; New York. 17 Jly 63; 5 Jly 65 Charles- 
ton, S. C; dis. . 

Monroe, George C. 20, sin.; laborer; Littleton. 18 Mch G3; 18 Jly 65 Beau- 
fort, S. C. ; dis. $50. 
Monroe, Henry A. Mus. 18, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 25 Feb 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. New York. 
Murphy, Francis II. 18, sin.; teamster; Hudson, N. Y. 19 Meh 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Naylor, Benjamin 18, sin.; mechanic; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Montrose, Pa. 
Nelson, Daniel 20, sin.; mechanic; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; died 30 Jly 65 

Post Hos. Charleston S. C. Small pox. $50. 
Nelson, Richard 44, — ; 3 Mch 03; 28 May 63 Read- 

ville; dis. 

Pennington, William F. 18, sin. ; farmer; Coatesville, Pa. 28 Meh 63; 20 

Aug 05. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. ( '. $50. 
Phelps, F.mery 18, sin.; shoemaker; New Bedford. 25 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Worcester. 
Phelps, William J. 18, sin. ; laborer; St. Albans, Vt. 25 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. St. Albans, Vt. 
Price, George 30, mar. ; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Prince, Charles. 21, ; St. Albans, Vt. 1 Jan 04 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Bristol, Vt. 

Prince. Daniel 21, St. Albans, Vt. 14 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Burlington, Vt. 

Prince, Isaac 18, St. Albans, Vt. 14 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 353 

Remsley, Gkoege 19, sin. ; laborer; Green Co. O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Toledo, 0. 
Rensellaer, Charles M. 21, sin.; blacksmith; Easthampton. 16 Nov 63; died 

pris. 8 Je 64 Andersonville, Ga. Captd. 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. S325. 
Rogers, Edward 26, Burlington, Vt. 21 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Schuyler, Arthur T. 18, sin.; laborer; Lawrence. 4 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Scott, William 21, sin.; coachman; Newark, N.J. 14 Feb 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Norwich, Conn. 
Smith, Charles A. 19, sin.; laborer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Oneida, N. Y. 
Smith, John 18, sin. ; farmer; Coatesville, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Stevens, Robert 27, mar.; farmer; New Bedford. 20 Feb 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Taylor, Alexander 27, mar.; farmer; Amherst. 18 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Thomas, Isaac 22, mar.; seaman; Baltimore, Md. 17 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Thompson, James 38, mar. ; farmer; Amherst. 10 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Thompson, Jeremiah 19, sin.; farmer; Urbanna, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Urbanna, O. 

Till, Samuel C. 18, sin.; broom maker; Hadley. 11 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Torrence, Abeam P. 43, mar.; laborer; New Bedford. 18 Feb 63; missing 18- 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Turner, Treadwell 21, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 15 Feb 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Van Alstine, William 19, sin.; farmer; E. Troy, N. Y. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Van Schaik, Solomon 28, mar.; cook; Troy, N. Y. 24 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Washington, Charles 18, sin.; farmer; Baltimore. 10 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Watson, Henry Corpl. 18, sin. ; laborer; Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 9 Mch 

63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Weeden, Cornelius A. Corpl. 21, sin.; porter; Cambridge. 10 Jly 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Hyde Park. 
Williams, Charles E. 19, sin. ; laborer; Chatham Four Corners, N. Y. 9 Mch 

63; deserted 31 Mch 63 Readville. 

Williams, Daniel 21, sin.; farmer; Boston. 4 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Williams, George W 34, New Bedford. 9 Mch 63 ; 28 May 63 

Readville; dis. 

Williams, Warton A. Sergt. 24, mar.; teamster; New Bedford. 24 Feb 63; 

20 Aug 65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Worcester. 
Wilson, Joseph T. 27, mar.; seaman; New Bedford. 18 Dec 63; 8 May 64 

Boston ; dis. Wounded 20 Feb 04 Olustee, Fla. $325. Norfolk, Va. 
Wright, John 39, mar.; laborer; New Bedford. 28 Feb 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Young, Hamilton. Corpl. 29, mar.; farmer; Montrose, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Montrose, Pa. 
Young, Nathan L. 21, mar.; barber; New Bedford. 17 Mch 63; died of wounds 

19 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

23 



354 ROSTER OF THE 



Company D. 



Anderson, John 19, sin.; fanner; Lancaster, Pa. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Anderson, John \V 32, mar. ; shoemaker; Chester, Pa. 19 Mch 03; 20 Aug 05. 

$50. 
Anthony, Francis. 25 Rutland, Vt. 21 Dec 03; 2ti Aug 65. 



Aktis, Klias 39, mar. ; farmer; Shelby Co., O. 12 May G3; deserted 27 Feb 04 

Geii. Hos. lieaulbrt S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 03 Ft. Wagner. »50. 
Barks, William T. Corpl. 23, sin.; moulder; Montrose, l'a. 21 Mch 03; 20 

Aug 65. §50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Benson, John jr. 30, brickmaker; 19 Mch G3; deserted 22 Apl 63 

Readville. . 

Berry, Elijah 1!), sin.; laborer; Lancaster, Pa. 19 Mch 03; deserted 20 May 

63 Readville. $50. 
Berry, Josi;rn Smith 22, sin.; laborer; Franklin Co, Pa 29 Aiil 63; 29 May 

65 St. Andrews Parish S. C. dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. §50. 
Boss, Caleb J. 19, seaman; Boston. 18 Feb 65; Je 65 Georgetown S. C. 

dis. #325. 
Briggs, Chauncey 20, mar.; farmer; Castleton, Vt. 20 July 63 ; died 25 Mch 

65 Charleston S. C. of disease. 

Briggs, Royal A. 18, ■ Rutland Vt. 25 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Burns, John 21, — laborer ; Bath Co. Ky. 15 Feby 65; 20 Aug 65. $122.66. 

Burrell, Sylvester 19, sin.; laborer; Lancaster Co, Pa. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

05. $50. 
Bush, Henry 26, sin.; seaman; Baltimore. 30 Nov 63; died 23 Feb 65 Morris 

Id. S. 0. of accidental burns. $325. 
Butler, Joseph 25, sin. ; farmer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Lynn 
Butler, Richard 24, sin.; farmer; Franklin Co, Pa. 25 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Butler, William 22, sin.; farmer; Boston. 10 Oct. G3 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Wounded 30 Nov 61 Honey Hill, S. C. Princeton, Ind 

Cannon, Henry 41, seaman; 28 Nov. 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Cebolt, William 27, sin.; farmer; New Bedford. 9 Oct 63; 29 May 65 St 

Andrews Parish, So. C. ; dis. $50. 
Cezar, Garnet G. Sergt. 18, sin.; seaman; Buffalo, N. Y. 17 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 05. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Los Angeles, Cal. 
Chaney, Cato 34, sin.; farmer; Mercer Co. O. 12 May 63; 13 Mav 04 Davids 

Id, N. Y; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50.' 
Clark, Andrew 30, mar. ; farmer; Chester Co, Pa. 19 Mch 63; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Coburn, George E. 41, laborer; Boston. 13 Mch 65; 20 Aug65. $105.99. 

Cogswell, George E. 18, sin; farmer; Laconia, N. II. 19 Mch 63; died pris. 

17 Je 64 Charleston, S. C. $50. 
Craft, Samuel. 20, sin.; boatman; Naponock, N. Y. 29 Mch 03; deserted 20 

May 03 Readville. $50. 
Cragg. Robert 22, sin. ; farmer; Mercer Co, O. 12 May 03; 20 Aug G5. $50. 
Davis, James 18, sin. ; porter; Columbia, Pa. 19 Mch 03; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 355 

Davis, John E. 28, mar. ; cook; Niagara, N. Y. 18 Mch 63 ; Trsfd 55th Mass. 

$50. 
Davis, Thomas 23, sin.; farmer; Oswego, N. Y. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Delaney, Toussaint L'O. 18, sin. ; laborer; Chatham, Can. 27 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Dover, John H. Sergt. 18, sin.; waiter; Buffalo, N. Y. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Dustin, Moses N. 33, mar.; farmer; Canterbury, Vt. 19 Aug 63 ; 25 Aug 64 

Morris Id. S>. C. ; dis. Peuacook, X. H. 

Edgerly, William 20, sin.; farmer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch 63; killed 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Ellis, Charles L. 30, mar.; barber; Hyannis. 15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Evans, Albert 28, mar.; machinist; Springfield, O. 17 Mch 63; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Firman, John 21, sin.; shoemaker; Philadelphia. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Fisher George 25, mar.; farmer; Cumberland Co. Pa. 25 Mch 63; 30 Je 64 

Morris Id. S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Gardiner, Ira W. 26, sin. ; cook; Penn Yan. N. Y 17 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Gilman, Martin 23, mar.; farmer; Chambersburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 27 July 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Green, Alexander F. 41, sin.; barber; Philadelphia. 11 Dec 63; died 19 Mch 

64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Chr. Diarrhoea. $325. 

Green, Amos B. 23, sin.; seaman; Sheeban, Pa. 17 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Green, Franklin, 17, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Mch 63.; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Green, James W. 21, sin. ; seaman ; Sheeban, Pa. 17 Dec 63 ; died 30 Apl 64 

Beaufort, S. C — Chr. Diarrhcea. $325. 
Green, John A. 18, sin.; farmer; Brooklyn, N. Y. 16 Mch 63; 30 Je 64 Morris 

Id. S. C; dis. Wounded — Aug 63 in trenches before Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Griffin, Samuel. Corpl. 22, mar.; brickmaker, Philadelphia. 19 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Hall, John 34, mar.; seaman; Lenox. 14 Mch 63; died 2 Jly 64 James Id. S. C. 

Sunstroke 

Hall, William 26, sin.; engineer; Lima, O. 12 Mav63; deserted 20 May 64. 

$50. 
Hallowell, Joseph F. 32, sin.; cook; Marshall Co., Mo. 16 Mch 63; 29 May 

65 St. Andrews Parish, S. C ; dis. $50. 

Hankerson, Charles. 23, sin.; farmer; Burlington, N. J. 26 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Hamilton, Paul 19, sin.; farmer; Pittsfield. 21 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Trsfd from Co A. Pittsfield. 
Harris, John 18, sin. ; laborer ; Candor, Pa. 16 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Harrison, John F. 18, sin.; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 19 Mch 63; deserted 20 

May 63 Readville. 

Haskell, James F. 21, sin.; farmer; Warner, N. H. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65 

$50. 
Hawkins, Isaac S. 29, mar.; sailor; Medina, N. Y. 12 Dec 63; 20 Je 65 

Annapolis, Md. Captd 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla; ex 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. 
Hazard, Henry 19, sin. ; laborer; Shirley. 7 Dec 63; 7 Je 65 Gen. Hos. New 

York; dis. $411.33 



356 ROSTER OF THE 

Hazard, Horace, O. 28, sin.; barber; Townsend. 17 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Hazard Oliver K. 35, sin.; laborer; Townsend. 22 Dec 03; 20 Aug 05. $325. 

Wounded 20 Feb 04 Olustee, Fla. 
Hazard, Theodore 20, mar.; yeoman; Boylston. 13 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Sterling. 

Henderson, John 23, mar.; cook; Boston. 9 Dec 63; 1 Apl 65 Beaufort, S. C; 

dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $325. 
Hogan, Benjamin 25, sin.; farmer; Mercer Co. O. 12 May 63; killed 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. 550. 
Hopkins, Feter 20, sin.; waiter; Philadelpbia. 21 Mch 63; 1 Jly 64 Morris Id. 

S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. £50. 

Hunter, James 38 2 Dee 64; 20 Aug 05. 

Hunter, Samuel 36, mar.; laborer; Fairhaven, Vt. 20 Jly 63; 20 May 65 St. 

Andrews Parish, S. C; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. — 

Jackson, James H. Sergt. 19, sin.; blacksmith; Adrian, Mich. 8 Apl 63; 

Trsfd. 55th Mass. 27 May 63. S50. 
Jackson, William 32 Rutland, Vt. 19 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Jeffrey, Nathan C. 18, sin.; laborer; Rochester, N. Y. 18 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Johnson, John Henry 16, sin.; farmer; Lanesville, Ya. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Johnson, Ralph 25, sin.; laborer; Carroll Co. Md. 16 Mch 63; died 19 Sep 63 

Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Jones, Alexander Corpl. 23, sin.; waiter; Pittsburgh, Pa. 16 Mch 63; died 

7 Jly 64 Beaufort, S. C. of disease. $50. 
Jones, Robert Mus. 20, sin. ; laborer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch 63; died 10 

May 65 Beaufort S. C. of disease. $50. 
Jordan, Wiley 29, sin.; engineer; Mercer Co., O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

§50. 
Kane, Robert Corpl. 21, sin.; laborer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch 03; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Kennard, William H. 20, sin.; farmer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 21 Mch 63; 29 

May 65 St. Andrews Parish, S. C. ; dis. $50. 
Knox, Thomas E. 21, sin.; barber; Hollidaysburg, Pa. 21 Mch 63; 29 May 65 

St. Andrews Parish, S. C; dis. $50. 
Langley, John N. 25, mar.; laborer; Rutland, Vt. 22 Jly 63; 20 Je 64 

dis. Wounded accidentally by himself F'eb 64. . 

Lee, Harrison. 21, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 19 Aug 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Little, William 18, sin.; butcher; Chambersburg, Pa. 25 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Lloyd, Thomas 20, sin.; farmer; Chester Co. Pa. 19 Mch 65; killed 18 Jly 03 

Ft Wagner. $50. 
Lloyd, William 25, sin.; seaman; Boston. 18 Meh 63; killed 18 Jly 63 Ft 

Wagner. $50. 
Lucas, George 28, mar. ; seaman; Buffalo, N. Y. 27 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 550. 
Lukes, Edwin 28, sin.; shoemaker; Steuben Co. N. Y. 18 Mch 63; deserted 20 

May 63 Rtadville. 

Macpherson, John 23, sin. ; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 357 

Meads, Andrew 21, sin.; laborer; Chambersburg, Pa. 16 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Mills, James H. 23, sin.; laborer; Bradford, N. Y. 17 Mch 63; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50 

Mooee, George 21, farmer; Springfield. 17 Feb 65; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Moore, John W. 22, mar.; gunsmith; Dundas, Can. 16 Mch 63; 30 Je 64 

Morris Id. S. C ; dis. $50. 
Morris, Moses Corpl. 27, mar.; porter; Lancaster, Pa. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Nelson, James 24 sin.; cook; Chatham, Can. 17 Mch 63; died 15 Mch 65 

Charleston, S. C. of disease. $50. 
Nesbitt, William W. Corp. 20, sin.; barber; Altoona, Pa. 17 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Altoona, Pa. 
Newton, Stephen 18, sin.; waiter; New Haven, Conn. 18 Apl 63; killed 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Oliver, James Corpl. 25, mar.; waiter; Salem Co. N. J. 19 Mch 63; 21 Sep 

65 Boston. $50. Newark, N. J. 
O'Neal John B. 24, mar.; cook; Buffalo, N. Y. 17 Mch 63; deserted 25 Apl 

65 Georgetown, S. C. $50. 
Parker, Henry 22, mar.; laborer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch 63; died 5 Oct 

63 Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Passidy, William 27, mar.; farmer; Camden Co. N. J. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Pinckney, Alexander Sergt. 28, sin.; pedler; Chatham, Can. 27 Mch 63; 

20 Aug. 65. $50. Toledo, O. 

Piner, Philip 22, seaman; 25 Nov 64; trsfd 55th Mass. 

Pinn, Walter Samuel Corpl. 19, sin.; clerk; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Plowden, John Corpl 22, sin.; laborer; Chambersburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; 29 

May 65 St. Andrews Parish, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Porter, Charles C. 34, mar; farmer; New Haven, Conn. 28 Mch 63; trsfd. 

55th Mass. 27 May 63. $50. New Haven, Conn. 
Prator, Anson 28, mar.; farmer; Lucas Co. O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Toledo, O. 
Prosser, George T. 21, sin.; laborer; Columbia, Pa. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C; ret. 7 Je 65. 

$50. 
Beed, Charles 21, mar.; farmer; Barre. 1 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Reed, Joseph W 23, sin.; farmer; Plvmouth, N. H. 3 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Renkins, Alexander W. Corpl. 21, sin.; seaman; Buffalo, N. Y. 19 Mch 63; 

7 Je65 ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 30 Nov 64 Honey 

Hill, S. C. $50. 
Bice, Joseph J. 22, mar.; farmer; Camden, N. J. 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Biggs, Thomas Peter 19, mar.; upholsterer; Georgetown, Can. 27 Mch 63; 

killed 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Bobinson, John 19, sailor; Halifax, N. S. 14 Feb 65; 20 Aug 65 

$173.33 
Robinson, Samuel Corpl. 21, sin ; clerk; Rochester, N. Y. 18 Mch 63; trsfd. 

55th Mass. 27 May 63. $50. 



358 ROSTER OF THE 

Ryan, Warren 19, sin.; farmer; Frederick Co. lid. 19 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Saunders, John 22, sin.; laborer; Chatham, Can. 27 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
So itt, George 24, sin. ; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 25 Meh 63 ; died 7 Je 63 Beau- 
fort, S. C. of disease. 850. 
Seaman, Richard 19, sin.; laborer; Brooklyn, N. Y. 19 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

5>50. 
Sessor, Oscar Corpl. 24, sin.; seaman; Portsmouth, N. H. 17 Meh 63; trsfd 

55th Mass. 27 May 63. $50. 
Smith, Augustus 18, sin.; farmer; Orange Co, N. Y. 18 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

S50. 
Smith, James H. 19, sin. ; seaman; Toronto, Can. 18 Meh 63; killed 22 Feb 65 

Charleston S. C. while resisting Provost Guard. $50. 
Sparrow, Nathaniel Corpl. 34, mar.; carpenter; Boston. 27 Meh 63; Nov 

64 ; dis. $50. 

Sprague, Nathan 23, Rochester, N. Y. 3 Sep 64; 20 Aug 65, 



Stewart, Charles W 18, Fairhaven, Vt. 11 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. 

Stewart, Hezekiah 19, sin.; farmer; Shelby Co. O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Stotts, John H. Corpl. 26, mar.; laborer; Lancaster Co., Pa. 19 Meh 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Thomas, William 28, mar.; hostler; Boston. 12 Sep 63; killed 20 Feb 64 

Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Thomas, William H. 22, sin.; porter; Baltimore, Md. 19 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Thompson, Albert D. 1st Sergt. 18, sin.; bank porter; Buffalo, N. Y. 17 

Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. Comd 2d Lt. 20 Je 65; 1st Lt. 17 Jly 65; not mustered. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Turner, John J. 20, sin.; laborer; Columbia, Pa. 19 Meh 63; 29 May 65 St 

Andrews Parish S. C. ; dis. $50. Wounded Jly 63 

Turner, Solomon 22, sin.; farmer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 19 Mch63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Van Alstyne, Henry 23 14 Meh 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 



Vroman, Samuel 26, mar.; blacksmith; Schoharie, N. Y. 27 Meh 63; 22 Sep 

64 Morris Id. S. C. ; dis. $50. New Haven, Conn. 
Walters, John Mus. 16, sin.; waiter; Philadelphia. 16 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Warrick, James 22, sin.; boatman; Boston. 10 Oct 63; 24 Jly 64 Morris Id, 

S. C; dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Weever, Samuel 30, mar.; farmer; Lenox. 14 Meh 63; 24 Dec 63 Portsmouth 

Grove, R. I; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Pittsfield. 
Weir, James S. 18, sin.; foreman; Rochester, N. Y. 20 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Died about 1879. 
West, Lewis 22, mar.; waiter; Lancaster Co. Ta. 19 Meh 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Wilkins, James H. Sergt. 21. sin.; painter; New Haven, Conn. 28 Meh 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. New Haven, Cum. 
Willis, Franklin Corpl. 33, sin.; farmer; Chatham, Can. 27 Meh 63; killed 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 359 

Wilmoke, Elias 19, sin.; laborer; Jamaica, N. Y. 16 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 
Wounded Jl y 63 §50 

Wilson, Webster 24, 19 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Woodin, George 21, sin; laborer; Laurel, Del. 5 Dec 03; 23 Aug 05. §325. 

Wyxcoop John E. 23, sin.; hostler; Philadelphia. 1 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$325. 

Young, John W 23, mar. ; laborer; Columbia, Pa. 27 Mch 63; 10 Jly 65 Beau- 
fort S. C. ; dis. $50. Circleville, O. 



Company E. 

Addison, George X. 26, mar.; barber; Elmira, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; died 26 Aug 

63 Regtl. Hns. Morris Id. S. C. Pneumonia. $50. 
Anderson, Willi am 24, sin. ; steward; Xenia, O. 30Apl63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. 550. 
Annick, John H. 20, sin.; waiter; Toronto, Can. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Arnum, Charles H. 21, sin. ; teamster; Littleton, 4 Nov. 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

No. Adams. 
Ballou, Owen Corpl. 23, mar.; farmer; Harrisburg, Pa. 30 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Barrett, Isaac 19, sin.; laborer; Urbanna, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Battis, John 25, sin.; seaman; Boston. 17 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Bell, Charles H. Corpl. 20, sin.; laborer; Albany, N. Y. 23 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. S50. 
Bell; Henry 22, sin.; laborer; Binghampton, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Union, N. Y. 
Bell, Samuel. Corpl. 26, sin.; hostler; New York. 22 Oct 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Bond, Frederick L. Corpl. 22, sin.; laborer; Binghampton, N. Y. 29 Mch 

63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Binghampton, N. Y. 
Bond, William H. 19, 29 Mch 63; deserted 18 Apl 63 

Readville. 

Brace, Peter 18, St. Albans, Vt. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. St. Albans, Vt. 

Briggs, William M. 21, sin.; waiter; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch 03; died of 

wounds 21 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Broadwater, William 23, sin.; seaman; Havre de Grace, Md. 25 July 63; 

20 Aug 65. 

Brown, Abraham 30, sin. ; seaman; Toronto, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; killed 11 Jly 63 

James Id. S. C. accidentally by himself. $50. 
Brown, Charles. 23, sin.; farmer; Sunberry, Pa. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Brown, Charles 2nd 23, mar.; farmer. Boston. 29 Sep 63 ; 7 Mch 66 Boston. 



Brown, Joseph 35, sin.; hostler; Cazenovia, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Cazenovia, N. Y. 
Brown, Nathan 23, sin.; cook; Bryan, O. 4 Apl 63; deserted 18 Apl 63 

Readville. 



360 ROSTER OF THE 

Brown, Thomas A. 44, mar.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63; 23 Sep 65 

Boston. £325. 
Brown, William 19, sin.; seaman; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl. 63; died 11 Dec 64 

Folly Id. S. C. Fever. *50. 
Burch, William A. 25, mar.; waiter; New York. 2!l Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $00. 

Cincinnati, O. 
Butler, George 23, mar., laborer, Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Butler, Morris 19, sin.; laborer; Mt. Holly, N. Y 21 Apl 63; died pris. 12 

Feb 65 Florence, S. C. Captd 18 Jly 63 Morris Id. S. (J. $50. 
Calaman, Joseph. 20, sin.; laborer; Trenton, X. J. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 05. 

$50. 
Carter, Jacob 26, sin.; barber; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. "Wagner. $50. 
Charles, George T. 24, sin.; barber; Richmond, hid. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Clayton, Samuel 18, sin.; laborer; Mt. Holly, X. Y. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Cleveland, Abkam 21, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 31 Oct 65 

Boston. $50. 
Covington, Evans 30, mar. ; barber; Newburyport. 14 Aug 63; died 25 Sep 64 

Insane Asylum, Washington, D. C. 

Crawford, Joshua 35, mar.; laborer; Peekskill, N. Y. 3 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Creamer, Charles L. 18, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, X. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Davis, Edward 20, sin.; moulder; Harrisburg, Pa. 30 Apr. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Dean, Anthony A. 33, mar.; cook; Cleveland, O. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Decker, John 23, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Deforest, Andrew Sergt. 19, sin.; waiter; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 

$50. 
Disbkow, Theodore 30, 29 Mch 63; died 15 Apl. 63 

Readville. Lung Fever. 

Esau, Albert E. 23, sin.; seaman ; Warren. 22 Oct 63: 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Evekson, William H. 19, sin.; laborer; Albany, X. Y. 29 Mch. 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Fisher, Benjamin 19, sin.; waiter; Newberne, N. C. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. b 

Francis, William A. 30, mar.; waiter; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 15 Sep 

65 New York. $50. Albany, X. Y 
Furman, James A. 22, sin.; barber; Boston. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Washington, N. J. 
Gayton, Walter 18, 29 Mch 63; deserted 18 Apl 63 

Readville. 

Gibson, Joshua 21, sin.; seaman; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65 $50. 

Chicago. 
(Joosberry, John 25, sin.; seaman; St. Catharines, Can. 16 Jly 63; 20 Aug 

65. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 361 

Gray, Jesse 30, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 30 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Grinton, William H. 21, sin.; butcher; Chicago, 111. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Grover, William 18, sin.; farmer; Hartford, Conn. 3 Apl 63; died pris. Feb 

65 Florence, S. C. Captd 12 Nov 63 No. Edisto, S. C. $50. 
Hall, James A. Sergt. 21, sin.; chairniaker; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63 ; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Halmers, Benjamin 28, sin.; waiter; Albany, N. Y. 29 Men. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Harris, Alfred 28, sin. ; seaman ; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63 ; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft Wagner. $50. 
Hart, Christopher C. 23, sin.; waiter; Springfield, O. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Helman, Preston Corpl. 30, sin.; carpenter; Leoni, Mich. 29 Mch 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Charleston, S. C. 
Henry, Alexander 25, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hersey, Samuel E. 23, sin.; laborer; Churchville, N. Y. 29 Mch 63 ; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Hilton, LeRoy Corpl. 28, sin. ; farmer ; Pittsburgh, Pa. 4 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Hurley, Nathaniel 19, sin.; laborer; Rochester, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; died pris. 

Feb 65 Florence, S. C. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Hutchings, James A. 22, sin.; waiter; Trenton, N. J. 29 Mch 63; 23 Sep 65 

New York. $50. Trenton, N. J. 
Jackson, George 30, mar.; laborer; Northampton. 3 Apl 63; 29 Jly 64 Ft. 

Green, Folly Id. S. C. Wounded 18 July 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Jackson, George F. 20, sin.; laborer; Binghampton, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Union, N. Y. 
Jackson, Moses 24, sin.; barber; Gait. Can. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Johnson, George A. 1st Sergt. 20, sin.; harness-maker ; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 

63; 20 Aug 65. $50. Died Mch 79. 
Johnson, John E 20, sin.; barber; Harrisburg, Pa. 14 Apl 63; deserted Ma}' 

65 Charleston, S. C. $50. James Id. S. C. 
Johnson, Thomas 20, sin.; seaman; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

James Id. S. C. 
Jones, James R. Sergt. 33, mar.; barber; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Reported died 1885. 
Kelley, James A. 23, sin.; barber; St Josephs, Mich. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. Youngstown, O. 
Kelsey, Louis J. 19, sin. ; turner; Detroit, Mich. 4 Ap 63; 30 Aug 65 Beau- 
fort, S. C ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
King, John L 21, sin.; farmer; Farmington, Conn 3 Apl 63 ; deserted 15 May 

64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Leader, John 20, sin.; boatman; Reading, Pa. 1 Apl 63; deserted 31 Mch 65 

Savannah, Ga. $50. 

Lee, Philip, 21, sin. ; yeoman ; Worcester. 11 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Lopeman, Charles H. 19, sin.; boatman; Reading, Pa. 1 Apl 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Lowe, John Sergt. 26, sin. ; barber ; Detroit, Mich. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 



3G2 ROSTER OF THE 

Lhwry, Joseph 21, sin.; farmer; Urbanna, 0. 12 May C3; 20 A u lc 05 §50. 

McQiokn, Charles 19, 4 A J > 1 63; Rejected 

Meeks, Joseph W. 20, sin.; shoemaker; Spi'ingtield, O. 12 May 03, 2U Aug 65. 

S50. 
Mills, Edward 22, sin. ; waiter; New York. 29 Mch 03; 3 Je 64 Boston; dis. 

Wounded 18 Jly 03 Ft. Wanner. $50. 
Mitchell Hamilton 25, mar., hostler; Boston. 4 Sep. 63; 20 Aug 65. §50. 
Mookiiol'se, Stephen Warren 21, mar. ; laborer; Boston, 7 Sep 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Dead. 
Morgan, Edgar T. 19, sin.; laborer; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch G3; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Morgan, Joseph. 21, sin.; boatman; Reading, Pa. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Kewby, .Tames R. 19, sin.; seaman ; New London, Conn. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Owens, Charles A. 24, sin.; cook; New Orleans, La. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Parker, George 21, sin. ; painter; Cleveland, O. 4 Apl 63; died 8 Feb 64 

Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Diarrhoea $50. 
Parker, John H. 21, sin.; laborer; Bridgeville, Del. 1 Apl 63; died 7 Feb 64 

Gen. Hos. Hilton Head, S. C. Fever. $50. 
Peters, William 27, mar.; porter; Pittsfield. 14 Jly 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Pittsfleld. 
Princeton, William 33, sin.; farmer; Cleveland, O. 4 Apl 04; died 22 Apl 

65 Wright's Bluff, S. C. Small-pox. $50. 
Proctor, Joseph J. Corpl. 25, mar.; carpenter; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $00. 
Reader, George J. 36, mar.; farmer; Granby, Conn. 3 Apl 63; died 21 Apl 

63 Readville. Lung fever. 

Reason, Charles K. 23, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; died of 

wounds 27 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S.C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. 

$50. 
Richardson, Joseph T. 18, sin. ; mason ; Cleveland, O. 4 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Robinson, George 20, sin.; laborer; Plymouth. 1 Sep 63; 19 Sep. 65. $50. 
Robinson, Peter 28, sin.; laborer; New York. 29 Meh 03; 20 Aug 05. $50. 
Robinson, William 21, 29 Meh 63; died 23 Apl 63 Read- 
ville. Lung fever. 

Robinson, William H. 21, sin.; laborer; Lynn. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 05. $50. 
Russ, Jordan 28, mar. ; blacksmith; Detroit. Mich. 4 Apl 63; 29 May 65 Beau- 
fort, S. C. ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 03 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Sawyer, Isaac 21, sin.; hostler;' Brattleboro, Vt. 3 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Charleston, S. C. 
Smith, Robert 36, mar.; brickmnker; Springfield, O. 12 May 63; 31 Aug 65 

New York. Wounded accidentally 7 Jly 64 James Id. S. C. $50. Spring- 
field, O. 
Spain, William 22, sin.; farmer; Urbanna, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Urbanna, O. 
Steward, Henry Sergt. 23, sin.; farmer; Adrian, Mich. 4 Apl 63; died 27 

Sep. 63 Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Clir. Diarrhoea. $50. 
Stewart, Edward Corpl. 24, mar. ; fireman ; Pittsburgh, Pa. 5 May 63 ; died 

18 Feb 65 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Fever. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 363 

Stewart, Henry F. 19, sin. ; barber; Horseheads, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 30 Nov. 61 Honey Hill S. C. $50. 
Sulsey, Joseph Sergt. 21, sin.; dentist; Mt. Holly, N. Y. 1 Apl 63; 16 Je 65. 

; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. New Haven, Conn. 

Terry, Marion 30, sin.; farmer; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. $50. 
Thomas Jeremiah Corpl. 18, sin.; waiter; London, Can. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Thomas, John H. 37, mar.; barber; Boston. 12 May 63; 16 Aug 64 Morris Id. 

S. C ; dis. $50. 
Thompson, Alexander 25, mar. ; laborer; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Thompson, George 42, mar.; laborer; Heading, Pa. 1 Apl 63; 23 Jly 64 Ft. 

Green, Folly Id. S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Reported 

dead. 
Thompson, George A. 23, sin.; barber; Montrose, Pa. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. .?50. 
Thompson, William 18, sin.; laborer; Thomas, O. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Titus, John H. 20, sin. ; laborer; Albany, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Voorhees, Isaac 22, sin.; teamster; Philadelphia. 29 Mch 63; died 24 Nov 63 

Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Washington, George 29, mar.; seaman; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; died 3 

Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Watson, William 21, sin.; laborer; Dublin, Md. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. S50. 
Webster, Edward 24, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

§50. 
Weeks, John 19, sin.; cook; Chatham, Can. 4 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 63 Ft 

Wagner. S50. 
Wells, William 30, mar. ; laborer ; Monterey. 30 Nov 63 ; died 29 May 64 

Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C, consumption. $50. 
White, Addison 41, sin.; saltmaker; Mechanicsburg, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Mechanicsburg, O. 
Whiten, Charles 26, sin.; laborer; Syracuse, N. Y. 27 Mch 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. S50. " 
Williams, Joseph 21, sin.; farmer; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Willis, Charles J 24, sin.; machinist; Syracuse, N. Y. 29 Mch 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Wood, Charles Corpl. 19, sin.; chairmaker; Detroit, Mich. 4 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Yates, John W. 19, sin. ; hostler; Reading, Pa. 1 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



Company F. 

Adgarson, James M. 22, sin.; farmer; Milton. 10 Oct 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Milton. 
Archer, Sylvester 20, mar.; farmer; Binghampton, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 27 Oct 

65 Boston. $50. 
Armstrong, Wesley R. 39, mar. ; blacksmith ; Horseheads, N. Y. 8 Apl 63 ; 

20 Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft.Wagner. $50. 
A sberry, Joseph 22, sin. ; farmer; Oberlin, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Bell, Charles 19, sin.; servant; Boston. 9 Sept. 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. Boston. 



364 ROSTER OF THE 

Bennett, Horace B. Sergt 25, mar.; farmer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl G3 ; 8 .Te 
Co, dis. Wounded 18 Apl 05 Bnykins Mills, 8. C. 850. Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Bond, John H 19, sin.; farmer; Binghampton, X. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$00. Reported dead. 

Bowser, Charles 18, sin.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$50. 

Boykr, Frank 19, sin.; farmer; Elrnira, N. Y. 8 Apl G3; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Dead. 

Brown, James. 33, mar.; laborer; Bardstown, Ky. 12 May 63; 1 Je 64 

dis. $50. 

Brown, James E. 26, sin.; laborer; Oberlin, O. 12 May 63; 30 Sep 65 Bos- 
ton. $50. G. A. R. Post 50. Chicago. 

Brown, John 25, sin.; seaman; Fort Erie, Can. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Brown, John A. 18, sin. ; farmer; Steubenville, O. 8 Apl 63; died 1 Sep 63 
Morris Id. S. C. $50. 

Brown, William R. Corpl. 26, mar.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; died 
25 Mch 65 Gen. Hos. Charleston S. C. Typhoid Fever. $50. 

Canady, Barker 23, mar.; farmer, E. Stoughton. 17 Jly 64; 20 Aug 65. 



Carroll, William 22, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 8 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Carter, Levi 38, mar.; laborer; Elmira, 1ST. Y. 8 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Cole, Philip Corpl. 19, sin.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Cleveland, O. 
Cole, William 27, sin.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl. 63; 10 Je 63 Boston; 

dis. $50. 
Coorer. Peter S. 27, sin.; brickmaker; Medford. 19 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Cornish, Alford. Corpl. 18, sin.; painter; Binghampton, N. Y. 8 Apl. 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Croger, George A. Corpl. 29, sin.; laborer; Elmira 1ST. Y 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Crossler, Chauncy 33, mar.; farmer; Norfolk, Conn. 8 Apl. 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Captd 18 Apl 65 near Camden, S. C; escaped and ret. 2 Jly 65. $50. 
Cunningham, Charles. 19, sin.; farmer, Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Cunningham, Ferdinand 19, sin. ; farmer; Mt. Holly, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Rochester, X. Y. 
Dadford, Thomas II. W 34, sin.; barber; Harrisburg, Pa. 4 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Davis, Frank 18, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl. 64; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Catharine, N. Y. 
Davis, William 35, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; died 29 May 63 

Post Hos. Readville. $50. 
Davis, William A. 38, St. Albans, Vt. 15 Dec 63; 8 Je 65 

; dis. Burlington, Vt. 

Derrick, Benjamin 36, mar.; farmer; Cooperstown, X. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Afton, N. Y. 
Dorsey, George W- 24, sin.; laborer; Adrian, Mich. 8 Apl 63 ; died 21 Oct 

63 Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. $50. 

Douglass, Charles R. 19, sin.; printer; Rochester, X. Y. 18 Apl 63; 19 Mch 

64 for promotion 1st Sergt. 5th Mass. Cav. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 365 

Ebbits, William H. H. 22, sin; yeoman; Worcester. 14 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Worcester. 

Ellis, Jefferson Corpl. 19, sin.; boatman; Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; 

20 Aug 65. Captd 18 Jly 63 Morris Id. S. C; ex 4 Men 65 Goldsboro, N. C; 

ret. 6 Je 65. $50. 
Foot, Abram 22, sin.; farmer; Spencer, X. Y. 8 Apl 63; died 1 Sep 64 Morris 

Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Freeman, Isaiah Sergt. 24, mar.; laborer; Freehold, X. J. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Freeman, Theophilus D. 40, mar.; barber; So. Brookfield. 3 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. Worcester. 
Freeman, William T. 25, sin.; farmer; Lower Chanceford, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Gaines, John W 20, sin.; laborer; Homestead, N. J. 8 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Garrison, Alexander 25, sin. ; farmer; New York. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Gibson, William 29, sin.; yeoman; Paxton. 13 Jly 63 ; 22 Sep 65 Boston. 

Worcester. 

Goodman, Richard D. 20, sin. ; farmer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Athens, Pa. 
Gray, John 22, sin.; farmer; Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; captd 18 Jly 

63 Morris Id. S. C; supposed died. $50. 
Greeley, Howard 18, Corinth, Vt. 2 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Bradford, Vt. 

Harding, David Corpl. 22, sin.; brickmaker; Detroit, Mich. 8 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills S. C. $50. 
Hayes, George 20, sin.; carpenter; Wilmington, N. C. 8 Apl 63; 7 Sep 65. 

Wounded 12 Feb 65 Morris Id. S. C. premature explosion. $50. 
Hazzard, Adrastus 18, sin ; farmer; Groton. 9 Apl 63 ; died 7 Jly 65 Gen. 

Hos. Beaufort, S. C. $50. 
Hemmenway, A. F. 1st. Sergt. 28, mar.; barber; Worcester. 7 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Worcester. 
Henry, William 19, sin. hostler, Ft. Erie, Can. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Higgins, Thomas 22, mar.; waiter; New Brunswick, N. J. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Holmes, George 31, mar.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y 8 Apl 63; died of wounds 

14 Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wonnded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Jackson, Simon A. 22, sin.; coaster; Haddam, Conn. 12 May 63; died 19 Aug 

63 Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. £50. 
James, Henry 23, sin.; laborer; Foxborough. 18 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Cambridge. 
Johnson, Alexander 34, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Johnson B. S. 21, sin.; blacksmith; Adrian, Mich. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Johnson, Charles H. Corpl. 19, mar.; shoemaker; Warren. 23 Feb 63; died 

of wounds 18 Sep 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wag- 
ner. $50. 
Johnson, James P 21, sin.: barber; Owego, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; killed 18 Apl 

65 Boykins Mills, S. C. $50. 
Jones, Willis 35, sin.; laborer- Detroit, Mich. 11 Aug 63; 30 Aug 65 New 

York. 



366 ROSTER OF THE 

Kelley, Daniel A. 19, sin.; farmer; Poughkeepsie, N. T. 4 Apl 63; killed 18 

Jly 03 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Kelley, James Edward 19, sin.; farmer; Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; 

deserted Men 65 Charleston, S. C. $50. 
Kenney, Samuel. Corpl. 39, mar.; blacksmith; Motticksville, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 

20 Au-t. 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. S50. 
Lasgley, XewellC. 36, Ferrisburg, Vt. 26 Dec 63; 30 Aug 65 

New York. . Williston, Vt. 

Lee, William R. 38, mar.; weaver; Elmira, X. Y. 12 May 63; died of wounds 

4 Oct 63 IIos. Str "Cosmopolitan." Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. §50. 
Lowe, Francis 20, sin.; cook; Cleveland, O. 8 Apl 63. ; killed J8 July 63 Ft 

Wagner. §50. 
Lyons, John 19, sin.; laborer; Chicago, 111. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

1 Apl 64 on picket at Jacksonville, Fla. $50. 
Manuel, William L. G. 17, sin.; barber; Lowell, 9 Apl 63; died 28 Oct 63 

(iiii. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. $50. 
McClellan, William H. 21, sin.; cook; Detroit, Mich. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Detroit. Mich. 
Miller, Andrew 39, mar.; blacksmith; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 20 Apl 65. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. $50. 
Miller, John A. 18, sin.; laborer; Goshen, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 05. $50. 
Mitchell, William 22, sin.; farmer; Oberlin, O. 8 Apl 63; wounded and 

pris. 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla.; supposed dead. $50. 
Moles, Samuel 23, sin.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Moor.E. William 24, sin.; farmer; Edgartown. 9 Oct 63; 20 Augt. 65. $50. 
Monhrde, George W 33, sin.; laborer; Elmira N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 30 Sep 65 

Boston. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro. N. C. S50. 
Nelson, James 28, sin.; farmer; Warbeck, Pa. 8 Apl 63; died 27 Dec 63 on 

board Hos. Str " Cosmopolitan." $50. 
Norman, Henry Sergt. 20, sin.; farmer; Concordville, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Owen. Clark 19, sin.; farmer; Mansfield, Kan. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Cleveland, O. 
Patterson, Henry J. Sergt. 20, sin.; mason; Oberlin, O. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Cleveland, O. 
Peal, Henry T. 25, sin.; shoemaker; Oberlin, O. 8 Apl 63; died 24 Jly 64 

Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Dysentery. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Pertili.er, Richard 19, sin.; farmer; Owego, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; died 4 Apl 

64 Hos. Jacksonville, Fla. Wounded 63 . $50. 

Peters, Joseph F. 26, sin.; farmer; Laconia, N. H. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Wounded 63 . $50. 

Petteuson, Charles T. 26, sin.; barber; Boston. 13 Nov 63; 20 Augt. 65. 

$325. 
Postley, James 19, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 12 Oct 65. 

Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C $50. 
Potter, Charles A. 18, sin. ; laborer; Pittsfield. 8 Apl 63; 23 Sep 65 Charles- 
ton, S. C, dis, Wounded 9 Jly 65 in street fight Charleston, S. C. $50. 

Pittsfield. 
Powell, James H. Corpl. 20, sin.; farmer; Buffalo, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

05. $50. 
Price, John P. 38, mar.; barber; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 367 

Rector, Napoleon B. 28, sin.; porter; Sandusky, O. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Urbauua, 0. 
Rice, Thomas 28, mar.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee Fla. $50. 
Ridgeway, Oliver B. 36, mar.; wagoner; Oberlin, O. 8 Apl 63; died 11 Jan 

65 Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Robinson, Milton 21, sin. ; laborer; Indianapolis, Ind. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Robinson, Richard 25, mar.; barber; Worcester. 7 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Roper, David R. 22, sin.; farmer; Indianapolis, Ind. 32 May 63; killed 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Sheldon, Thomas 23, sin.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Silvia, Samuel 22, sin.; seaman; Gardsborough, N. S. 19 Aug 63; 8 Sep 65 

New York. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. 

Smith, George 24, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Smith, Robert 21, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, William P 24, sin.; farmer; New Haven, Conn. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Snowden, Charles Sergt. 19, mar.; barber; Lewiston, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Snowden, Philip 18, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Reported dead. 
Stackhouse, John 30, mar.; laborer ; Lynn. 23 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Steward, Charles. 23, seaman; 8 Apl 63; deserted 25 Apl. 63 

Readville, 

Stilles, Joseph Corpl. 25, mar.; laborer; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Swails, Stephen A. 1st Sergt. 30, mar. ; boatman ; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 

16 Jan 65 for promotion. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla, and 11 Apl 65 near 

Camden, S. C. $50. See Record as Commissioned Officer. 
Thomas, Andrew 18, sin.; boatman ; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. 
Thomas, George W. 19, sin.; seaman; Buffalo, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Captd 18 Jly 63 Morris Id. S. C ; ex. 4 Mch 65 Gold«boro, N. C; ret. 8 May 

65. $50. 
Thomas, John 31, sin. ; farmer ; Philadelphia. 8 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Thomas, Samuel 32, mar.; engineer; Binghampton X. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

5?50. Binghampton, N. Y. 
Thompson, Abraham 36, sin. ; farmer ; Albanv, N. Y. 24 Nov 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Westfield. 
Thompson, Benjamin 24, sin.; blacksmith; Jackson, Mich. 12 May 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. No. Lansinsc, Mich. 

Thompson, James 30, sin. ; laborer; Monson. 15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Tucker, John 21, sin. ; cook; Racine, Wis. 8 Apl 63; deserted 21 Jly 65 

Charleston, S. C. $50. 
Washington, David 23, sin.; butcher; Buffalo, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 22 Mch 66 

Boston. $50. 
Washington, Peter 21, sin.; coachman; Middletown, Pa. 8 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 



368 ROSTER OF THE 

Watson, William H. 27, mar.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

?50. 
Welch, Frank M. 1st Sergt. 21, sin.; barber; W Meriden, Conn. 12 May 

63; 3 Je 65 for promotion. Wounded IS Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. See Kecord 

as Commissioned Officer. 
White, John 19, sin.; shoemaker; Brantford, Can. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Williams, Edward 28, mar.; laborer; Oberlin, O. 12 May 63; killed 18 July 

63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Williams, Eugene T. 20, sin.; shoemaker; Oxford. 28 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

£325. Oxford. 
Williams, Jacob 35, sin.; farmer; White Plains, N. Y. 7 Apl 63; 13 Sep 65 

Boston. $50. 
Wilson, Isaiah 21, sin.; laborer ; Oberlin, O. 8 Apl 63 ; 28 Aug 65 Boston. $50. 
AYilson, James H. 19, sin.; laborer; Owego, N. Y. 8 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 65 premature explosion. $50. 
Young, William 39, sin. ; yeoman ; Spencer. 14 Jly 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 



Company Gr. 



Allen, John W. Corpl. 23, mar.; laborer; Logan Co. O. 12 May 63.; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Anderson, James 33, mar.; laborer; Chester Co Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Anderson, John 18, sin.; baker; Carlisle, Pa. 18 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Anderson, Lewis 30, sin.; farmer; Kentucky. 14 Apl 63, died of wounds 7 

Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Wounded"l8 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Atkins, Charles G. 21, mar. ; boatman; Mt. Morris, N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Barker, John L. Sergt. 28, sin.; farmer; Oberlin, O. 14 Apl 63; 7 Je65 ; 

dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner, 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. and 30 Nov 64 

Honey Hill, S. C. $50. Norwalk, O. 
Batson, John 20, sin.; farmer; Peachbottom, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Cambridge, Md. 
Battles, Robert Henry 38, mar.; hostler; Dedham. 28 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Body, Charles 28, mar.; farmer; Lancaster Co. Pa. 12 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Bouldon. John A. Corpl. 27, sin. ; saddler ; Cleveland, O. 14 Apl 63; 3 Je 65 

; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Cleveland, O. 

Brown, Fielding C. 1st Sergt. 23, sin.; barber; Lebanon, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Findlay, O. 
Cain, William 18, sin. ; farmer; Xenia, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Carter, Henry J. Sergt. 29, mar.; stonecutter; Lenox. 11 Apl 63; 29 May 

05 ; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. ('. $50. Dead. 

Clark, Charles 1st 18, sin.; teamster; So Framingham. 11 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 21 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Clark, Thomas 27, mar.; cook; Frankfort, Ky. 9 Apl 03 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 369 

Cleveland, James 18, sin.; farmer; Cincinnati, O- 14 A pi, 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Cincinnati, 0. 
Coleman, James 20, sin.; farmer; Adrian, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 13 May 64 Davids 

Id, N. Y , dis. Wounded 18 JI y 63 Ft. "Wagner. $50. Dead. 
Coleman, John 19, mar.; fanner; Adrian, Mick. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Conaway, Shedkick Sergt. 19, sin.; waiter; Cleveland, 0. 14 Apl 63; 20 

Augt. 65. $50, Cleveland, O. 
Cook, William 22, mar; brickmaker; Huntingdon, Pa. 9 Apl 63; missing 21 

Feb 64. Left sick at Barber's Fork, Fla. $50. 
Cooper, George 23, s;n. ; farmer; Windsor, Can. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Cummings, Aaron. 22, mar.; farmer; York Co. Pa. 12 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Cunningham, William A. 20, sin.; boatman; Montgomery, N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 

20 Aug 65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Curry, Josephus 20, sin.; farmer; Washington, Pa. 12 May 63; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Dandridge, James 26, sin.; waiter; Winchester, Va. 8 Jly 64.; 20 Aug 65. 



David, Anthony 26, sin.; cook; Jackson, La. 14 Apl 63; died of wounds 25 
Mch 64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 

Day, Solomon 26, sin.; cook; Washtenaw, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Demus, Charles M. 18, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$325. 

Duncan, Samuel 22, sin.; seaman; Franklin Co, O. 20 Apl 63; 3 Je 65 St An- 
drews Parish, S. C. ; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 

Ellender, George 33, sin.; forgeman ; York Co, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 
Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 

Ellis, Henry 18, sin.; laborer; Cincinnati, O. 9 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Cincinnati, O. 

Ellis, William Corpl. 24, sin.; farmer; Cincinnati, O. 14 Apl 63; died of 
wounds 10 Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. W r agner. 
$50. 

Evans, George 22, mar.; laborer; Xenia, O. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Evans, Richard 34, sin.; laborer; Xenia, O. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. Wounded' 
18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Fowlis, William 20, sin.; laborer; Champaign, O. 14 Apl 63; died 11 Oct 63 
Regtl. His. of disease. $50. 

Franklin, Stephen 40, mar.; blacksmith; Dayton, O. 14 Apl 63; 12 Jly 65 
Worcester; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 

Garrison, William 25, sin.; laborer; Chambersburg, Pa. 12 May 63; 21 
May 64 Morris Id S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Goodwin, John 25, sin. ; farmer; Fredericktown, Md. 20 Apl. 63; died 3 Sep 
63 Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 

Grimes, Romeo 34, mar.; laborer; Newberne, N C. 17 Aug 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Grimmidge, Benjamin 18, mar.; farmer; Canada. 9 Apl 63; died of wounds 

15 Nov 63. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Haines, William 19, mar., boatman, Schuylkill, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. Atlantic City, N. J. 

24 



370 ROSTER OF THE 

Hamilton, Alfred 18; single; farmer; Yates Co. X. Y. 9 Apl 63; 20 Augt 

05. ij.jO. 
Harding, Cornelius 41; mar.; barber; Utica N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Harris, Hill 26, mar.; farmer; Jackson, La. 9 Apl 63; 30 Sep 65 Boston. 

Wounded and pris. 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. ; relea*ed 25 Apl 65. $50. 

Connersville, Ind. 

Hart, George 21, Rutland, Vt. 5 Dec 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Hawton, Ciiauncy Corpl. 20, mar., boatman, Newton N. J. 9 Apl 63; 20 

Augt 65. S50. 
Hazzard, James 30, "Woodstock, Vt. 29 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65- 

Woodstock, Vt. 

Hedgepath, John Corpl. 23, sin.; farmer; Clinton Co, O. 12 Slav 63; 20 

Augt 65. Wounded — Jly 63 . $50. 

Hoke, Bromily 18, sin.; farmer; Montgomery Co, N. Y. 14 Apl 63; 16 Je 

65 Charleston S. C; dis. $50. 
Holmes, Joseph K. 21, sin.; farmer; Cincinnati, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Howard, Leander L. 20, sin.; harness maker; Oakland, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner and 20 Feby 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 

Cincinnati, O. 
Jackson, Henry P. 32, Rutland, Vt. 1 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Jackson, Horace 29, sin.; caulker; Glens Falls, N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 3 Je 65 St. 

Andrews Parish S. C. dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Glens 

Falls, N. Y. 
Johnson, Edward 33, sin.; laborer; Evansville, Ind. 25 Jly 63; 16 Jly 65 

Beaufort, S. C; dis. Wounded and pris. 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Johnson, Thomas A 2nd. Sergt. 39, sin.; farmer; Detroit, Mich. 9Apl63;20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Johnson, Wheeler 26 Rockingham, Vt. 16 Dee 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Jones, William 17, sin.; farmer; Mt. Pleasant, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 
$50. 

King, Amos 43, mar.; farmer; Fulton Co. N. Y. 18 Apl 63 ; 16 Je 65 Charles- 
ton, S. 0.; dis. $50. 

King, Henry 37, mar.; bricklayer; Boston. 9 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

King, Oliver W 24, sin.; laborer; Delaware, Md. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Knox, Norman 20, mar.; boatman; Utica, N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 25 Aug 65 New 
York. $50. 

Lawrence, Thomas 18, sin. ; farmer ; Xenia, O. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Xenia, O. 

Lee, Benjamin F. 19, sin.; shoemaker; So. Scituate. 10 Dec 63; 15 Sep 65 
New York. $325. 

Lee, Joseph 21, sin.; farmer; Brownville, Pa. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Lloyd, Charles 20, mar.; hostler; Utica, N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Martin, William 19, mar.; seaman; West Indies. 16 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Miller, John 38, mar.; seaman; Allegheny City Pa. 12 May 63; killed 20 

Feby 64 Olustee, Fla. Wounded — Jly 63 . $50. 

Miller, Theodore 19, sin.; teamster, Montgomery Co. N. Y. 9 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 371 

Milliman, Jeremiah Corpl. 23, mar.; farmer; Saratoga Co. N. Y. 9 Apl 63 

20 Augt 65. $50. 
Morgan, John 1st Sergt. 24, mar. ; barber; Cincinnati, 0. 14 Apl 63; 6 Apl 

64 ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Myers, William 22, sin.; waiter; Washington, D. C. 14 Apl 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Nichols, Harrison 26, sin. ; farmer ; Oberlin, O. 14 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft Wagner $50. 
Niles, William H. 21, sin.; seaman; Kingston, R. I. 12 Dec 63; died 5 Mch 

64 of disease. $325. 
Oaky, John 24, mar.; laborer; Columbia, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug- 65. 

$50. 
Paeritt, William 20, sin.; glassmaker; Sharon, Conn. 14 Jly 63; died 14 

Jan 64 Morris Id. S. C. of disease. 

Patten, Benjamin 23, sin.; farmer; Cincinnati, O. 14 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65 

$50. 
Patterson, Alexander 28, mar.; barber; Boston. 2 Dec 63; 16 Je 65 Charles- 
ton, S. C; dis. $325. 
Payne, Nelson 23, mar.; farmer; Adrian, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65 

$50. 
Peters, Amasa A. 21 Bristol, Vt. 5 Nov. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Porter, Marshall 18, Pownall, Vt. 4 Jan 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Price, David 26, sin.; farmer; Saratoga Co. N. Y, 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Prince, Jason 24, sin.; farmer; Scituate. 25 Aug 63; 8 Je 65 Beaufort, 

S. C; dis. 

Raymour, William 19, sin. ; laborer; Shippensburg, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Reynolds, George 20, sin. ; teamster; Corning, N. Y. 14 Apl 63; 3 Je 65 St. 

Andrews Parish, S. C; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 

Binghampton, N. Y. 
Robinson, Charles 18, sin.; hostler ; Philadelphia. 9 Apl 63; deserted 25 Mch 

65 Savannah, Ga. $50. 
Robinson, William 23, sin.; farmer; Detroit, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Robinson, William 2nd 19, mar. ; boatman ; Sandy Hill, N. Y. 9 Apl 63 ; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Ross, Daniel 19, sin.; farmer; Adrian, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Rutledge, William 34, sin.; laborer; Oberlin, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Scisco, Stephen H. 22, sin.; farmer; Mendon. 1§ Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Seaman, Alfred B. 25, mar.; laborer; Parksburg, Pa. 12 Apl 63; 28 Sep 

65. $50. 
Shorter, John 16, mar. ; farmer; Amboy, Mich. 9 Apl 63; 3 Je 65 St. An- 
drews Parish, S. C; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50 
Simpson, Henry 21, sin.; barber; Columbus, O. 9 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Simpson, Louis L. 22, mar.; shoemaker; Hingham. 25 Nov 63; 25 May 65 

Worcester. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $325. 
Sims, John Corpl. 36, mar. ; engineer; Boston. 9 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



372 ROSTER OF THE 

Smith, Isaac 1st 19, sin.; farmer, Mt. Pleasant, O. 14 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, Isaac 2d. 30, sin., cook; Cincinnati, O. 14 Apl 03; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, Samuel Corpl. 20, sin.; carpenter, Pettes Co, Mo. 14 Apt 63, 25 Aug 

65 New York. $50. 
Soward, John 30, mar.; cook; Cleveland, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 Aug tiD. 

$50. 
Stanton, Charles 21, sin.; boatman; Glenn? Falls, N. Y 14 Apl 63, died 

pris. Feb 05 Florence, S. C. Wounded and c;iptd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Stevens, John 23, sin.; farmer; Pontiac, Mich. 9 Apl 03 , missing 18 Jly 63 

Ft Wagner, S. C $50. 
Stewart, George H. 35, mar. ; seaman; Watertown, N. Y. 9 Apl 03, 7 Oct 65 

Gen. Flos. Alexandria, Va. Captd 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. ; ex. 4 Mch 65 

Goldsboro, N. C. 
Storms, George F. 23, Rutland, Vt. 16 Dec 63, 20 Aug 05. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Talbot, Jacob 18, sin. ; farmer: W Bridgewater. 16 Dec 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Tillman, Martin 22, mar.; laborer; Pittsburg, Pa. 12 Mav 03, 12 Jlv G5. 

, dis. $50. 

Titus, James H. Corpl. 23, mar. ; teamster; Trenton, X. J. 12 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. Dead. 
Tripp, Abraham 22, sin.; farmer, Littleton. 14 Nov 63; 3 Je 65 St. Andrews 

Parish, S. C; dis- $325. 
Tyler, William H. 23, sin. ; laborer; Henry Co, Ky. 9 Apl 63, missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Underwood, William 25, mar., druggist; Mason Co. Kv. 14 Apl 63; miss- 
ing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Van Allen, David H. Corpl. 33, mar., laborer, Gt Barrington. 18 Dec 63; 

20 Aug 65. $325. 
Walker, James. 25, mar.; barber; Cincinnati, O. 16 Dec 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Wall, Albert G. 20, sin.; tailor; Oberlin, O 12 Mav 63; 22 May 64 Morris 

Id. S. C; dis. $50. Washington D. C. 

Wall, John Sergt. 20, sin.; student; Oberlin, O. 14 Apl 63; 20 Au- 65. .*50. 
Oberlin, O 

Ward, Augustus 19, sin.; seaman; Jackson, Miss. 9 Apl 63: 2 Je 65 Cleveland 

O. $51). G A. K. Post 50, Chicago. 
Washington, William 18, sin.; farmer, Washington, D. C. 15 Dec 63 , 20 

Aug 65. $454.66. 
Webber, Sylvester 21, sin.; farmer, Ripley, O. 12 May 63, deserted 7 Jlv 

65 Charleston, S. C. $50. 
Whetbukne, Charles 22, sin.; cooper; Boston. 28 Jly 63 , 20 Aug 65. 

Williams, Charles A. 2nd 21, mar.; farmer; Mt. TIealtliv, O. 14 Apl 63; 

1 Jly 64 Morns Id. S. C. ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner $50. 
Williams, James II. 1st. 19, sin., teamster, Glenns Falls, 'n. V. 9 Anl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. ' 

Williams, John W. 24, Brattleboro, Vt. 5 Dec 03; 20 Aug 65. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 373 

Winnie, Samuel Sergt. 27, sin.; hostler; Fulton Co. N. Y. 9Apl63,20Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Wise, William 21, sin.; cook; Auburn, N. Y. 9 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Younger, Thomas, 1st 19, sin.; butcher; Chatham, Can. 9 Apl 63, 20 Aug 

65. $50. 



Company H. 



Alexander, George 18, sin.; farmer; Syracuse, N Y. 21 Apl 63; 29 Je 65 

New York; dis. Wounded Jly 63 and 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 

$50. 
Anderson, Washington 25 sin.; farmer; Chicago- 21 Apl 63, deserted 6 

Feby 64 Hilton Head. S. C. $50. 
Barquet, Joseph H. Sergt. 40, mar. ; mason; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Reported dead 
Batem an, Charles I. 18, sin. ; farmer, Northampton. 26 Oct. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Broady, George 28, mar.; laborer, Battle Creek, Mich. 13 Ma}- 63.; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill. $50. Day, 

Mich. 
Brooks, James J. 23, sin.; farmer; Bellows Falls, Vt. 22 July 63, 20 Aug. 65. 



Brooks, William H. 28, mar.; laborer; Rutland, Vt. 5 Augt 63; 16 Je 65 

Charleston, S. C. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. Westminster, 

Vt. 
Brown, David 35, mar.; laborer; Reading, Pa. 15 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Brown, George 16, sin.; porter, Chicago. 21 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 
30 Nov 64 Honey Hill S. C. $50. 

Burdoo, Silas. 37 Woodstock, Vt. 19 Dec 63.; 1 Sep 65 New 

York. 

Burkett, Elisha 35, sin. ; farmer; Newport, Ind. 21 Apl 63; killed 16 Jly 63 

James Id. S. C. $50. 
Burns, John 34, mar.; laborer; Bowling Green, Mo. 26 Apl 63; died 25 Oct 63 

"Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Butler, George 29, mar.; hostler; Peekskill, N. Y. 3 Dec 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$325. 
Caldwell, James. 19, sin.; blacksmith; Battle Creek, Mich. 17 Apl 63, 8 
May 65 Boston. Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S C; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, 
N.C. $50. 
Caldwell, Reuben 22, sin.; laborer; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Clark, Geo H. 40, mar.; laborer; Sandwich. 9 Dec 63, 20 Aug. 65. $325. 

Sandwich. 
Clark, John W. H. 27, mar.; laborer; Boston. 26 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Clifford, George Corpl. 26, sin.; brickmaker; Martinsburg, Va. 21 Apl. 

63; 20 Aug 65. $50. Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Coker, George W 18. sin.; laborer; Brownsville, Mich. 26 Apl 63, deserted 
30 Sep 64 Hilton Head S. C. $50. 



374 ROSTER OF THE 

Collins, John H. W 1st Sergt. 22, mar. ; painter; Chicago. 21 Apl. 63; 20 

Aug. 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Davis, John 19, sin.; laborer, Galesburg, III. 2G Apl. 63 ; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Davis, John H. Corpl. 22, sin.; waiter; Chicago. 29 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Dennis, Henry Corpl. 27, sin.; laborer, Ithaca, N. Y. 29 Apl. 63.; drowned 

in action 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Dickinson, John W 30, sin.; laborer ; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. 

Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. ; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. §50. 
Doksey, William 35, sin.; steward, Cleveland, O. 29 Apl. 64; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Ethekidge, Andrew J. 18, sin. ; laborer; Kishwaukee, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. §50. 
Freeman, Coyden 23, sin.; laborer, Burlington, Vt. 11 Aug 63, 20 Aug 65. 



Freeman, Leander 20, sin.; laborer; Burlington, Vt. 11 Aug 63; 8 Je 65 

Beaufort, S. C. ; dis. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C 

Burlington, Vt. 
Freeman, Thomas D. Corpl. 29, sin., laborer; Boston. 21 Apl 63; 8 Je 65 

Beaufort, S. C. , dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. §50. 
Freeman, Warren F. 18, sin.; farmer; So Scituate. 10 Dec 63, 20 Aug 65. 

§325. 
Freeman, William II. 22, sin.; farmer, So. Scituate. 10 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Galloway, Silas Corpl. 26, sin.; laborer, Carlisle, Pa. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Gamrell, Charles S. 25, sin.; painter, Springfield, O. 12 May 63; killed 16 

Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Garnet, Hiram 20, sin.; laborer; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Gillespie, Peter 20, sin.; laborer , Chicago. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Gofe, Charles H. 22, sin.; carpenter; Springfield, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Gomes, Richard 17, sin.; laborer; Battle Creek, Mich. 17 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

§50. Cedar Rapids, la. 
Green, John 31, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. $50. 
Green, John S. 25, sin.; laborer ; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hales, Henry 24, sin.; laborer; Chicago. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug. 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Harris, Fleming 18, mar. ; laborer; Chicago. 26 Apl 63; 20 Augt G5. $50. 
Harrison, William Henry 1st 35, mar.; teamster. Chicago 26 Apl 63; 

died pris. 26 Jan 65 Florence S. C. Typhoid Fever. Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. 

S. C. $50. 
Harrison, William Henry 2nd 22, sin.; teamster; Battle Creek, Mich. 17 

Apl 63; killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. §50. 
Haves, Nathan E. 44 Rutland, Vt. 10 Dec 63; 16 Je 65 

Charleston S C; dis. Rutland, Vt. 

Henderson, William 22, mar.; laborer; Woodstock, Can. 21 Apl 63; 29 Je 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 375 



65 Worcester; dis. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C and 30 Nov 64 Honey 
Hill, S. C. $50. 
Hill, Charles Meiun 18, sin., farmer ; Plymouth. 10 Oct 63; died 12 Oct 64 

Insane Asylum, "Washington, D. 0. Apoplexy. $50. 
Homes, Philip 20, sin.; hostler; Chanibersburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65 

$50. 

Howard, Robert 18, sin. ; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 2° Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hubbard, George 23, sin. ; laborer; Galesburg, 111. 26 4.^. 63; 20 Augt 65. 

$50. 
Hunter, Alexander 28, sin.; laborer; Cleveland, O. 29 Apl 63; 30 Je 64 

Morris Id, S. C ; dis, Wounded 17 Aug 63 in trenches before Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Jameson, James 24, sin.; barber; Ithaca, N. Y. 29 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 
Jeffries, Walter A. Sergt. 38, mar. ; laborer; Cincinnati, O. 29 Apl 63; 20 

Aug. 65. Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. 4 Men 65 Goldsboro, N. C 

$50. 
Jennings, Francis N. 20, mar.; farmer; Hadlev. 23 Nov. 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Johnson, Charles F. 20, sin.; farmer; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Johnson, John 22, sin.; teamster; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 29 Je 65 Gen. Hos. 

Worcester; dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Johnson, John 2nd. 23, sin.; laborer; Philadelphia. 15 Apl 63; 22 Je 65 

Gen. Hos. Worcester; dis. Wounded accidentally in camp 8 Jly 63 and 30 

Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C $50. 
Johnson, John H. 23, upholsterer; Worcester. 20 Jly 63; 17 Je 64 

Black Id. S. C. accidentally shot by guard. $50. 
Johnson, Joseph C. 31, sin.; farmer; Chicago. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. and 7 Apl. 65 Epps Bridge, S. C. $50. 
Jones, William 32, sin. , laborer; Indianapolis, Ind. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
King, Henry 27, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 65; killed 16 Jly 63 

James Id. S. C. $50. 
Kirk, Henry 22, sin.; laborer; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; 27 Jly 65 Annapo- 
lis, Md. Wounded and captd 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; ex. 4 Men 65 Golds- 
boro, N. C. $50. 
Lane, James 22, sin.; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 17 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Lane, Milton 31, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. Carlisle, Pa. 
Leatherman, John 24, sin.; seaman; Ypsilanti, Mich. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded and captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. 4 Men 65 Goldsboro, 

N. C. $50. 
Lee, Manuel 22. sin. ; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 21 Apl. 63, 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Died about 1870 Charleston, S. C. 
Lewis, Augustus 20, sin.; laborer; Shippensburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; killed 18 

July 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Little, Thomas 26, sin.; farmer; Windsor, Vt. 25 Jly 63; 29 May 65 Beau- 
fort S. C; dis. 

Milner, Martin 33, mar. ; farmer; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 16 Je 65 Charleston 

S. C; dis. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 



376 ROSTER OF THE 

Moore, Miles Muse. 16, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 29 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Mouse, "William II. 23, sin.; laborer; Chicago 27 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Mu.NuuE, James Sergt. 27, sin.; laborer; Kalamazoo, Mich. 17 Apl 63; 3 Je 

65 Charleston S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. Dav, 

Mich. 
Pegkam, Edward. 25, sin.; laborer; Cleveland, O. 29 Apl 63, died 13 Apl 

65 Wrights Bluff. S. C. Dysentery. $50. 
Perry, William 20, sin.; laborer; Elmira, N. Y. 29 Apl 63; died 20 Dec 63 

Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Apoplexy. $50. 
Phillips, Jeremiah. 28, sin.; laborer; Marshall, Mich. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Lafayette, Ind. 
Pleasant, William H. Sergt. 18, sin.; laborer; Cleveland, O 29 Apl 63; 

20 Aug. 65. $50. 
Price, James F. 31, sin.; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Prince, Daniel 19, sin.; laborer; Easton, Pa. 21 Apl. 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. 
Prince, Henry 24, mar; farmer; Charlotte, Vt. 14 Aug 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Hinesburgh, Vt. 

Prince, Isaac 21, sin.; farmer; Charlotte, Vt. 14 Aug 63; 16 Jly 65. Gen. 

Hos. Beaufort S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. 

Colchester, Vt. 
Proctor, Joseph 24, sin.; cook; Chambersburg, Pa. 21 Apl 63; 23 Je 65 

Annapolis, Md. Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. 4 Men 65 Goldsboro, 

N. C. $50. 
Pryce, James H. 19, sin.; laborer; Wilmington, N. C. 7 Dec 63; 17 Mch 65 

; dis. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $325. 

Ramee, Newman 18, sin.; laborer; Newport, Ind. 29 Apl 63; died 8 Dec 63 

Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Chr. Diarrhoea. $50. 
Reynolds, Samuel 16, sin, ; laborer; Littleton. 7 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Ridgeley, Richard 26, mar.; laborer; Detroit, Mich. 17 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Reported dead. 
Riley, James 17, sin. ; farmer ; Chicago 21 Apl 63 , 20 Aug 65. Wounded 16 

Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50 
Roundtree, Tyrel 28, sin. ; farmer; New Bedford 9 Oct 63; 14 Apl 65 Gen. 

Hos. New York; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Russell, James T. 35, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Schenck, Anthony 26, sin.; laborer; Buffalo, N. Y. 29 Apl 63; drowned in 

action 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Scott, Alfred Freeman 20, sin.; farmer; Falmouth. 9 Oct 63, died 29 Feb 

64 Beaufort, S. C. Pneumonia. $50 
Scott, Charles 24, sin.; laborer; Ann Arbor, Mich. 17 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 1 Mav 65 Gen. Hos. Charleston, S. C. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Bovkins 

Mills, S. C. $50. 
Scott, George Corpl. 18, sin.; farmer; Dorchester. 10 Oct 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Day, Mich. 
Scott, Thomas 28, mar; confectioner; Boston. 3 Sep 63, 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Shaffer, John Corpl. 22, sin., laborer; Newport, la. 13 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 877 

Smith, Edward H. 18, sin.; cabinet maker; Lockhaven, Pa. 29 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Smith, Enob 30, sin.; laborer; Eastern, Pa. 21 Apl 63; died pris. 20 Feb 65 

Florence, S. C. Captd 16 Jly 63 James Id, S. C. $50. 
Smith, Henry 18, sin.; laborer; Chicago, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, Robert 23, sin.; laborer; Cleveland, O. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Stewart, Henderson 26, sin.; farmer; Fall River. 9 Oct 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Stewart, Jefferson B. 18, sin.; laborer; Brownsville, Mich. 26 Apl 63; 14 

Apl 65 Gen. Hos. New York; dis. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 

$50. 
Terry, Johnson L. Corpl. 22, mar.; barber; Reading, Pa. 19 Dec 63, 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Timms, William H. H. 23, sin. ; barber; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Titus, William R. 19, sin.; laborer; Erie, Pa. 21 Apl 63; died 9 Jly 63 

Readville, of disease. $50. 
Townsend, Charles 24, sin.; laborer; Detroit, Mich. 17 Apl 63; 16 Je 

65 Charleston S. C. ; dis. $50. 
Vanderpool, George 18, sin. ; laborer; Cocksackie, N. Y. 17 Apl 63; killed 

4 Sep. 63 in trenches before Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Van Valkenberg, Richard 18, sin. ; laborer; Cocksackie, N. Y. 17 Apl 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. Cleveland, O. 
Vorce, James W. 21, sin.; laborer; Cleveland, O. 29 Apl 63; deserted 27 May 

63 Readville. $50 
Walker, David 22, sin.; blacksmith; Battle Creek, Mich. 17 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. So. Bend, Ind. 
Wallace, Frederick 20, sin.; barber; Cincinnati, O. 21 Apl 63; 7 Je 65 St 

Andrews Parish, S. C. Wounded and captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. ; ex. 

4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. $50. 
Watts, Isaac J. Mus'n. 18, sin.; laborer; New Bedford. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Way, Charles T. 21, mar.; laborer; Stockbridge. 12 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Stockbridge. 
Welcome, Clay 19, sin. ; laborer ; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Hannibal, Mo. 
Wells, Samuel Corpl. 23, sin. ; laborer ; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 35. 

Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C $50. 
West, Peter 39, sin.; cook; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 16 Je 65 Charleston, S. C; 

dis'. $50. 
White, Joseph H. 20, sin.; hostler; Galesburg, III. 26 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 7 Apl 65 Epps Bridge, S. C. $50. Died about 1881 Charleston, 

S. C. 
Willard, Luther F. 20, sin.; laborer; New Haven, Conn. 15 Dec 63; died 

30 Je 64 Regtl. Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Diarrhoea. $325. 
Williams, Ap.mistead Corpl. 36, sin.; laborer; Detroit, Mich. 21 Apl 63; 

died pris. 21 Jly 64 Charleston. S. C. Typhoid Fever. Captd 16 Jly 63 James 

Id. S. C. $50. 
Williams, George 25, sin.; barber; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 



378 ROSTER OF THE 

Williams, Isaac, 22, mar.; farmer; Windsor, Vt. 10 Aug 63; 20 Aug G5. 



Williams, James O. 35, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 1 5 Apl G3 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded and captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C; ex. -1 Mch 05 Uoldsboro, N. C. 

S50. 
Williams, John 20, sin.; laborer; Chicago. 21 Apl 63; 30 Je 04 Morris Id, 

S. C; dis. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Williams, Preston 23, sin. ; laborer; Galesburg, 111. 26 Apl 63; drowned 6 

Mch 64 Jacksonville, Fla. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. S50. 
Wilson, Joseph D. Sergt. 25, sin.; farmer, Chicago, 111. 21 Apl G3; killed 

16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Winslow, Henry T. 18, sin.; shoemaker; So. Scituate. 11 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. 8325. 
Winslow, Richard S. 33, mar.; shoemaker; So Scituate. 10 Dec 63; 1 Sep. 

65 New York. Wounded accidentally 10 Apl 65 Sumter, S. C. $325. 
Wood, Henry 18, sin.; laborer; Albany, N. Y. 21 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Worthinoton, Henry W. 18, sin., laborer; Defiance, O. 12 May 63; died 

pris. 12 Jan 65 Florence, S. C. Wounded and captd 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. 

•$50. 
Wright, William 22, sin.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 15 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 

Company I. 

Asbury, Thomas. 25, mar.; cook; Dayton, O. 23 Apl 63; 19 Sep 65 Boston. 

$50. 
Ashport, Lemuel A. 18, sin.; farmer; So. Bridgewater. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Atlee, Abner 25, sin.; farmer; Morristown, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Augustus, Charles Corpl. 30, mar ; blacksmith , Ypsilanti, Mich. 23 Apl 63, 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Barnes, William 20, sin., laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Mercersburg, Pa. 
Bass, John 20, sin.; laborer; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; 22 Aug 63 Morris Id. 

S. C; dis. $50. 
Beatty, Jones. 20, sin.- laborer; Lanesville, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Bell, Nathaniel 23, mar.; laborer; Carlisle, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Bell, William 21, sin.; bnckmaker; Carlisle, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 850. 
Betenbough, Andrew H. 23, mar.; carpenter; Hamilton, O. 13 May 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Newberry, S. C. 
Betts, Thomas. 19, sin.; waiter; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. 550. 
Beverly. Thomas 21, sin. ; laborer, Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; died 18 May 63 

Readville of smallpox. 

Bowman, Thomas Sergt. 27, sin.; trader; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Reported dead. 
Bradford, John 21, sin.; laborer, Harrisburg, Pa. 26 Apl. 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Brady, Randolph Corpl. 24, mar. ; shoemaker; Hamilton, O. 28 Apl 63; 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 379 
Brittanio, Lorenzo. 34, sin. ; seaman; New Bedford. 28 Aug. 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Brown, John H. 19, sin.; farmer; Kalamazoo, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Brummzig, George. 20, sin. ; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

•850. Sioux City, la. 
Burgess, Thomas E. 22, sin. ; carpenter; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Butler, David 29, mar.; tanner; Welsh Run, Pa. 29 Apl. 63; 13 Sep 65 

Boston. $50. Carlisle, Pa. 
Cakson, George. 21, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65 

$50. 
Charleton, Henry C. 21, sin.; boatman; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 23 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Christy, Jacob 19, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Christy, Joseph. 16, sin.; woodcutter; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Christy, Samuel 23, sin., laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

§50. Mercersburg, Pa. 
Christy, William 21, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; missing 20 

Feb 64 Olustee, Fla; supposed died pris. $50. 
Coleman, Samuel 37, mar.; laborer; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

650. 
Cousins, William 18, sin.; farmer; Niles, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Cowen, George 22, sin.; barber; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; 2 May 64 Morns Id. 

S. C, dis. $50. G. A. R. Post 50, Chicago. 
Cuff, Thomas. 21, sin.; quarryman; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

850 
Davenport, James 33, sin. ; laborer; Brookline. 22 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Dogan, Francis. 21, sin.; servant; Springfield. 7 Nov. 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

Boston. 
Dorsey, Thomas 23, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 26 Apl 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Douglass, Charles H. 23, sin. ; laborer; Toronto, Can. 23 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Endicott, Henry C. 19, sin.; waiter; Plymouth. 10 Oct 63; 30 May 65 St. 

Andrews Parish, S. C, dis. $50. 
Fisher, Albanus S. Sergt. 32, mar.; laborer; Norristown, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Norristown, Pa. 
Fowler, William 25, sin.; cook; Battle Creek, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 10 May 64 

Boston; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Freeman, James E. 22, sin. ; farmer; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Gaines, Xoah 34, mar.; laborer; Haddonfield, N. Y. 26 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Green, Benjamin 21, mar.; engineer; Oberlin, O. 23 Apl 63; 18 Aug 64 

Black Id. S C; dis. $50. 
Green, George W. 18, sin.; laborer; Pittsfield. 17 Dec 63; 13 Sep 65 Boston, 

$325. 



380 ROSTER OF THE 

Hall, Amos Sergt. 24, mar.; farmer; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; died 16 Sept. 64 
Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. of disease. $00. 

Hamilton, Napoleon '24, sin.; fanner; Ypsilanti, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 
65. $50. Lansing, Midi. 

Harmon, William 24, sin.; farmer; Selina, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 30 May 65 St. 
Andrews Parish, S. C; dis. $50. 

Harrison, Isaiah 19, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 18 Oct 65 
New York; dis. $50. Mercersburg, Pa. 

Hockins, Henry E. 19, sin.; laborer; Cresson, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Sep 65 Bos- 
ton. Wounded 20 Feb G4 Olustee, Fla. $50. 

Howard, Charles. Corpl. 26, mar. ; waiter; Carlisle, Pa. 29 Apl 63, 20 Aug 
65. $50. 

Jackson, Francis 23, Rockingham, Vt. 16 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65- 

Jackson, George 19, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; killed 9 Oct 63 

in trenches before Ft Wagner. $50. 
Jackson, Levi 18, sin. ; laborer, Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $00. 30 

Mead st. Dayton, O. 
Johnson, David 22, sin.; farmer; Detroit, Mich. 23 Apl 63; died 5 May 64 

Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Johnson, Joseph 36, mar.; laborer; Hamilton, O. 28 Apl 63; died of wounds 

27 Jly 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 18 Jlv 63 Ft. Wagner. 

$50. 
Johnson, Peter 26, mar.; seaman; Marthas Vineyard 6 Dec. 63, 20 Aug 65. 

$325. Gay Head, Mass. 
Johnson, Stanley 18, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; died of 

wounds 21 Apl 64 Morris Id. S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Johnson, William H. 34, mar.; seaman; Brunswick, Me. 28 Nov 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Jones, Robert J. 20, sin. ; farmer, Hamilton, O. 28 Apl 63; missing 20 Feb 64 

Olustee, Fla. ; supposed died pris. $325. 
Jones, Samuel A. 19, sin.; laborer, Pittsfield. 17 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 

95 Beaver st, Pittsfield 
Lee, John 35, laborer , Harrisburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63; 12 Jly 65 Charleston, 

S. C; dis. $325. 
Lee, William 23, sin.; farmer; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Lewis, Lorenzo T. 19, sin.; woodman; Dearborn, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Lipscomb, George Sergt. 23, sin.; boatman; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Reported dead. 
Lyons, Robert Corpl. 21, sin.: farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; missing 

18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner ; supposed died pris. $50. 
Madrey, George 19, sin.; farmer; Hamilton, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Rochester, 111. 
Mayho, Varnale W. 29, mar.; laborer; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; 13 May 64 

Davids Id, N. Y.; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
McNally, James 21 Brattleboro, Vt. 26 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



McPherson, Alvus. 37, sin.; laborer; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; died 1 Sep 63 

Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Means, Emsly B. 19, sin.; farmer; Abington. 10 Oct 63; died 31 May 64 

Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 



FIFTY-FOUKTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 381 

Mero, Charles W. 22 Rutland, Vt. 12 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Milton, William P. 24, mar.; farmer; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63; 25 Feb 64 

Portsmouth Grove, R. I; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Flint, O. 
Monde, Akistide 24, sin.; machinist; N. Orleans, La. 9 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

New Orleans, La. 

Montgomery, John H. 28, mar.; laborer; Hillsboro, Md 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Morse, George. 26, sin. ; blacksmith; Fayetteville, Pa 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Murphy, Charles 18, sin.; boatman; Detroit, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Murray, Horace YV 32, mar.; laborer; Harnsburg, Pa. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Myers, John 33, mar.; teamster; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Nelson, Charles E. 21, Bristol, Vt. 9 Dec 63; killed 20 Feb 64 

Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Parker, William 21, sin.; farmer; Martinsburg, Pa. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Parks, Edward 43, mar.; hostler; Carlisle, Pa. 29 Apl 63; died 3 Oct 63 

Morris Id. S. C. Dysentery. $50. 

Parks, Henry 39, — Woodstock, Vt. 24 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Pillow, William 23, sin.; farmer; Hamilton, O. 13 May 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Powell, Allen 25, sin. ; blacksmith; Front Royal, Va. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Price, John E. 27, sin.; farmer; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; died of wounds 28 

Aug 63 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Ragens, George 18, sin.; chimney sweep; Chambersburg, Pa 22 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Rideout, Charles 22, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 27 Apl 63; died 17 Feb 

65 Gen. Hos. Beaufort S. C. Typhoid Fever. $50. 
Rideout, James 17, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

Mercersburg, Pa. 

Roberts, Mark 43, Bristol, Vt. 16 Oct 63 ; 16 Je 65 St. Andrews 

Parish, S. C; dis. Worcester. 

Rolls, Jeremiah 1st Sergt. 22, sin.; boatman; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Reported dead. 
Russell, Henry 21, sin.; laborer; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63: 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Scott, William 42, Rutland, Vt. 2 Dec 63; 30 May 65 St An- 
drews Parish, S. C; dis. 

Shrewsbury, John 21, mar.; boatman; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; 25 Feb 64 

Portsmouth Grove, R. I. ; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Simmons, John Corpl. 24, mar. ; foundry man; Kalamazoo, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Simms, Abram C. Corpl. 20, sin.; farmer; Oxford, O. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Oxford, O. 
Slider, John 21, sin.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; died 28 Jly 65 

Charleston, S. C. Diarrhoea. $50. 
Smith, Baltimore 41, sin.; carpenter; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; missing 18 
Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 



382 ROSTER OF THE 

Smith, Grimms Z. 23, mar.; artist; Boston. 7 Sep. 63; deserted 11 Jly 65 

Charleston, S. C. $00. 
Smith, Henry 22, sin.; farmer; Niles, Mich. 23 Apl 63; died 27 Dec 63 Morris 

Id. S. C of disease. $50. 
Smith, James H. Corpl. 22, sin. ; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. ?G Apl 63; 20 Aug 

00. SOD. 
Smith, Louis 20, mar. ; painter; Columbus, O. 28 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 05. $50. 
Smith, William Corpl. 22, sin.; laborer; Morgan Co. Va. 29 Apl 03; 20 Aug 

65. §50. 
Stevens >n, William 18, sin. ; laborer; Fayetteville, Pa 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Washington, D. C. 
Stoner, Thomas 18, sin.; laborer; Medford. 22 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner ; supposed died pris. $50. 
Taylor, Willis. 21, sin.; drummer; Kalamazoo, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Teale, Jefferson 31, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Mercersburg, Pa. 
Terry, Stephen B. 24, sin.; seaman; Middleboro. 8 Sep. 63; died 21 Apl 65 

Gen. Hos. Charleston, S. C. Small-pox. 

Thompson, Freeman 36, mar. ; farmer; Hinsdale. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $325. 
Till, Benjamin A. 19, sin.; laborer; Hadley. 30 Nov 63; died 9 Apl 64 Jack- 
sonville, Fla. $325. 
Tiptin, Samuel 18, sin. ; farmer; Battle Creek, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

"Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. Pardee, Kan. 
Tolbert, George W. 22, mar.; farmer; Cecil Co. Md. 22 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

850. 
Townsend, James M. 20, sin.; farmer; Oxford, O. 29 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Tucker, C. Henry 18, sin.; farmer; Battle Creek, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 29 Mav 

65 Beaufort, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 July 63 Ft Wagner. $00. 
Turner, Henderson 22, sin. ; farmer; Martinsburg, Pa 29 Apl 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Valentine, Andrew H. 21, sin.; farmer; Chambersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. 
Vinson, Joseph. 43, Barrington, Vt. 14 Dec 63; 15 Sep 65 New 

York. Pittsfield. 

Wade, Benjamin 25, sin.; laborer; Murphreesboro, Tenn. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50 
Walley, William W 34, fireman; 15 Jly 63; 10 Mch 65; 

illegally drafted. 

Waterman, Henry 22, mar.; farmer; So Gardiner, Me. 9 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. So Gardiner, Me 
Waterman, Ira. 10, sin. ; farmer; Sheffield. 12 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. $320. 
Watson, Anderson 26, mar. ; boatman; Memphis, Tenn. 28 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 
Watson, Hezekiah Corpl, 18, sin.; quarrvman; Mercersburg, Pa. 22 Apl 

63; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Watt, Charles 19, sin.; shoemaker; Cincinnati, O. 28 Apl 63; 2 Jly 64 

Black Id. S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $00. 

Weeks, John 36, Rutland, Vt. 10 Doc 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wentworth, William H. 23, Woodstock, Vt. 11 Nov 63; 20 

Aug 65. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 383 

Whiting, Alfred Sergt. 23, mar.; waiter; Carlisle, Pa. 22 Apl 63; wounded 

and captd 18 Jly 63 ; ex. 4 Men 65 Goldsboro, N. C. ; died 26 Je 65 Alexandria, 

Va. Typhoid Fever. 
Williams Edward H. 34, mar.; laborer; Gt Barrington. 30 Nov 63; 20 Aug 

65. $325. 
Williams, Ezekiel 20, sin.; laborer; Harrisburg, Pa. 26 Apl 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Williams, Henry B. 18, sin.; farmer; Chester Co. Pa. 22 Apl 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Williams, Richard E. 21, sin. i brick layer; Detroit, Mich. 23 Apl 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Williamson, John 19, sin.; laborer; Hamilton, O. 28 Apl 63; missing 18 Jly 

63 Ft Wagner; supposed died pris. $50. 
Wilson, George A. 23, 14 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Pittsfield. 
Wilson, Henry 19, sin.; laborer; Pittsfield. 17 Dec 63; died 31 Jly 65 

Charleston, S. C. Dysentery. $325. 
Woods, Stewart W 27, sin. ; laborer; Carlisle, Pa 29 Apl 63; died 15 Mch 

65 Gen. Hos. Wilmington, N. C. Captd 18 Jly 63 Ft Wagner. $50. 



Company K. 

Addison, Henry 25, mar. ; mason ; Shippensburg, Pa. 6 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Ampey, Isom 21, sin. ; farmer ; Newport, Ind. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Goblesville, Mich. 
Ampey, Thomas R. 26, sin. ; laborer ; Newport, Ind, 5 May 63 ; killed 18 Jly 

63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Artist, Joseph 23, sin.; laborer; Urbanna, O. 5 May 63; missing 20 Feby. 

64 Olustee, Fla; died of wounds 25 Feb 64. $50. 

Barrett, William 20, sin.; laborer; Salem, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65 

$50. 
Bayard, Joseph 28. sin. ; turnkey ; Lockport, N. Y. 5 May 63; 24 Aug 65 Gen. 

Hos. Worcester. Wounded and captd 18 Jly 63; ex. 4 Mch 65 Goldsboro, N. C. 

$50. Nat. Sol. Home, Dayton, O. 
Bradish, Elisha 31, laborer; Woodstock, Vt. 1 Dec 63; died 13 Aug 

65 Post Hosp. Charleston, S. C. of disease. 

Brady, William 21, sin.; barber; Salem, O. 5 May 63 ; killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. £50. 
Bronson, David 20, sin. ; laborer ; Berry ville, Pa. 5 May 63 ; 10 Jly 65 

dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner and 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 

$50. 
Brown, Henry 37, sin.; laborer; Toledo, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Toledo, O. 
Brown, Isaac 21, sin.; waiter; Pittsburgh, Pa. 5 May 63; 4 Je 65 

dis. $50. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Brown William H. Corpl. 22, sin.; student; Wilberforce, O. 12 May 63 ; 

20 Aug 65. $50. New Brighton, Pa. 
Burgess, William 20, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 



384 ROSTER OF THE 

Burgess, William II. 25, mar. ; farmer ; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63 ; 25 

Aug Co New York. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Warner. $50 
Bush, James W- 1st Scrgt. 20, mar.; student; Xenia, U. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Butler, Aluekt 27, mar.; engineer; Peekskill, N. "i . 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

S50. ' 
Carroll, Samuel. Corpl. 26, sin.; barber; Nashville, Tenn. 5 May 63; 

died 3 Mch 64 Jacksonville, Fla. of disease. $50. 
Cu-.son', Arthur 25, mar.; laborer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 20 Aug 05. 

S50. 
Champion, John Battis. 22, sin.; laborer; Dominique, W. I. 3 Dec 63; 20 

Aug 65. $325. 
Ciiamplin, Jason 30, sin.; farmer; Shutesbury. 13 Jly 63 ; missing 20 Feby 

64 Olustee, Fla; supposed killed. 

Churchman, John 19, sin. ; laborer; Carthagenia, O. 5 May 63 ; deserted 8 

Mch 65 Savannah, Ga. $50. 
Cooper, Lloyd. 27, mar.; laborer; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63; 13 Sep 65 

Boston. $50. 
Cotton, Asa. Sergt. 21, sin.; farmer; Xenia, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Craig, Henry 47, sin. ; boatman ; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63 ; killed 18 Jly 63 

Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Crosier, Silas 18, sin.; farmer; Bristol, Vt. 15 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Daniel, Pleasant 21, sin. ; drayman; Memphis, Tenn. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Darks, Charles H. 18, sin. ; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. Mercersburg, Pa 
Darks, Edward 25, mar.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; found dead 

9 Jly 65 No 2 Market st. Charleston S. C. cause unknown. $50. 
De Baptist, Benjamin B. 20, sin.; plasterer; Mt. Pleasant, O. 5 May 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Detroit, Mich. 
Demus, David 22, mar.; farmer; Medford. 6 May 63; 4 Je 65 ; dis. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Demus, George 18, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Dunlap, Cyrus 25, sin.; laborer; Pittsburg, Pa. 5 May 63; 4 Je 65 ; 

dis. $50. 
Edrington, William 21, sin.; laborer; Centerville, Ind. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Everson, William S. 22, sin. ; farmer; New York. 3 May 63; killed 16 Jly 

63 James Id. S. C. $50. 

Field, Henry A. Corpl. 36, sin.; painter; Xenia, O. 12 May 63; died 25 

Sep 64 Morris Id, S. C. of disease. $50. 
Floyd, Thomas 20, sin.; barber; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63; deserted 30 Nov 

64 Hnney Hill. S. C. $50. 

Ford, Samuel 26, mar.; laborer, Lancaster, Pa. 8 May 63; killed 18 Jly 63 Ft. 

Wagner. $50. 
Freeman, Aaron N. 36, Ferrisburg, Vt. 4 Jan 64; 20 Aug 

65. Reported dead. 

Fuller, John C. 21, Woodstock, Vt. 5 Jan 64; 20 Aug 65. 

Rutland, Vt. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 385 

Gaines, Alexander 20, sin.; porter; Pittsfield. 14 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 20 Feb 6-4 Olustee, Fla. $325. 
Gordon, Daniel 34 Burlington, Vt. 11 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Richmond, Va. 

Green, Frank W- 17, sin.; laborer; Woburn. 28 Sep 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Hamilton, Henry 24, sin.; farmer; Pittsfield. 15 Dec 63; died 4 Aug 65 Post 

Hos. Charleston S. C. accidental gunshot wound. $325. 
Harper, John W. Corpl. 23, mar.; barber; Zanesville, O. 5 May 63; 20 

Aug 65. $50. Fort Meade, Dak. 
Harris, Moses. 22, sin.; laborer; Lancaster, Pa. 8 May 63. ; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Hazard, William 23, mar. ; farmer; New York. 3 May 63 ; 2U Aug 65. $50. 

New York. 
Henderson, William H. 28, sin.; laborer; Quincy, 111. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Heuston, Joseph. 21, sin.; teamster; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Hewett, James. Sergt. 21, sin; farmer; Xenia, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Brenham, Tex. 
Hewett, Thomas. Corpl. 19, sin.; farmer; Xenia, O. 12 May 63; 20 Aug. 

65. Wounded 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. 

Holloway, Charles M. Corpl. 24, sin.; student; Wilberforce, O. 12 May 

63; killed 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. 
Jackson, Franklin 37, sin. ; farmer; Northampton. 20 Jly 63; died 11 Apl 

64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort. S. C. 

Johnson, William 21, sin.; sailor; Baltimore, Md. 7 May 63; 20 Augt. 65. 

$50. 
Jones, William 22, sin.; farmer; W. Chester, Pa. 3 May 63; died 23 Feb65 

Morris Id. S. C. of disease. $50. 
Keith, William 38, mar.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa 6 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
King, George 30, sin. ; laborer; Toledo, O. 5 May 63; died of wound 1 Sep 

63 Post Hos. Morris Id. S. C. Wounded 1 Sep 63 in trenches before Ft. Wag- 
ner. $50. 
Krunkleton, Cyrus. 19, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; killed 16 

Jly 63 James Id. S. O $50. 
Krunkleton, James 19, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 29 Je 65 

; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 

Krunkleton, Wesley 24, sin.; farmer: Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id, S. C. $50. Mercersburg, Pal 
Krunkleton, William 21, sin.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6Mav63; died 14 

Apl 65 Regtl. Hos. Georgetown, S. C. Pneumonia. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James 

Id. S. C. '$50. 
Langley, Lewis W. 40. Ferrisburg, Vt. 4 Jan 64; 7 Sep 65 

Hilton Head, S. C. Dead. 

Lawson, Jesse 31, sin.; farmer; Franklin, Pa. 5 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

Jly 63 . $50. Lansing, Mich. 

Lewis, Alfred Corpl. 26, mar. ; laborer; Spartanburg, Ind. 5 Ma}' 63 ; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Lewis, Daniel D. H. 21, sin.; laborer; Richmond, Ind 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Lewis, George 23, sin.; barber; Richmond, Ind. 5 May 63; died 1 Jly 65 
Post Hos. Charleston, S. C. of disease. $50. 

- 25 



388 ROSTER OF THE 

Locard, Lewis J. 32, mar. ; boatman ; Newcastle, Pa. 5 May 63 ; killed 16 

Jly 63 James Id. S. 0. $50. 
Lomack, Samuel. 24, sin.; laborer; Columbus, 0. 5 May 63.; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Mahan, Jesse 22, sin.; blacksmith; Xenia. 0. 12 May 63; wounded and 

missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
McCowan, David 24, sin.; laborer; Morning Sun, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
McCowan, George T. 23, sin. ; farmer; Richmond, Ind. 12 May 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. 
McCowan, Pleasant Corpl. 19, sin. ; laborer; Richmond, Ind. 5 Mar 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
McCullar, Thomas 22, mar.; farmer; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 25 Aug 

65 New York. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. C. $50. ' Mercersburg, 

Pa. 
McJohnson, Robert 27, sin.; laborer; Preble Co, O. 5 May 63; killed 20 

Feby64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Milbury, Augustus 26, sin.; hostler; Boston. 16 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Moore, David 30, sin.; laborer; Richmond, Pa. 5 May 63; 25 Aug 65 New 

York. $50. 
Morgan, Colonel 19, sin.; tobacconist; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63; missing 18 

Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Morris, William H. 22, sin.; seaman; New Bedford. 1 Aug 63; missing 20 

Feb 64 Olustee, Fla ; supposed killed. 

Munroe, Lewis G. 35, mar. ; blacksmith ; Toledo, O. 12 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Toledo. O. 
Myers, Francis 23, mar.; laborer; Paterson, N. J. 5 May 63; 7 Feb 64 ; 

dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Nelson, Robert. 19, mar.; laborer; Niles, Mich. 5 May 63.; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. and 9 Jly 65 at street fight, Charleston, 

S. C. $50. Norwich, Conn. 
Netson, William J. 27, sin.; laborer; Niagara, N. Y. 4 Apl 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Norwich, Conn. 
Nokes, Jeremiah 42, mar.; laborer; Monterey. 15 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Palmer, Ishmael 25, sin.; laborer; Springsborough, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. and 20 Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 

Niobrara, Neb. 
Palmer, Joseph A. Sergt. 23, sin. ; barber; Dayton, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65 

Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Parkis, Francis 40, mar.; laborer; Russell. 24 Nov 63; died of wounds 2 

Dec 64 Gen. Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. 

$325. 
Phcenix, James 24, sin.; laborer; Pottsville, Pa. 5 May 63; died 8 Jly 65 

Post Hos. Charleston S. C. of disease. Wounded 10 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. 

$50. 
Prince, Abel 35, sin.; farmer; St. Albans, Vt. 22 Jly 63; 20 Aug 65. 

St. Albans, Vt. 
Pritchet, Robert 18, sin.; laborer ; Pontiac, Ind. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 
Quin, James C. 23, Rutland, Vt. 5 Dec 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

Worcester. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 387 

Redmond, William H. 21, mar.; farmer; Newport, Ind. 5 May 63; 28 Sep 

65 Boston. $50. 
Rickman, James M. 19, sin.; laborer; Greensville, 0. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Robinson, Frank 28, sin.; laborer; E Liberty, Pa. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Ross, Benjamin 21, mar.; laborer; Boston. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 

Fredericksburg, Va. 
Rouse, Elias S. 22, sin.; laborer; Chatham, Can. 5 May 63; 4 Oct 65 New- 
York. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Rudolph, Francis J. 19, mar.; farmer; W Chester, Pa. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 

65. $50. 
Scott, William H. 22, mar.; waiter; Ypsilanti, Mich. 5 May 63; 

Boston. Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Shaw, Thomas Corpl. 23, mar.; boatman; Cincinnati, O. 5May63;20 Aug 

65. Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Shirk, John 20, mar. ; farmer ; Shippensburg, Pa. 6 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, George 27, sin.; laborer; Cincinnati, O. 5 May 63; died 23 Feb 65 

Morris Id, S. C. of disease. $50. 
Smith, George W 19, sin.; laborer; Toledo, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Smith, Richard R. 22, sin.; farmer; Unionville, Pa. 3 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Smith, William J. 24, sin.; laborer; Salem, O. 5 May 63; killed 20 Feb 64. 

Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Stevenson, Allen W- 21, mar.; tobacconist; Cincinnati, O. 5 Maj' 63; 

wounded and missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Stevenson, Samuel Corpl. 27, sin. ; laborer; Washington, D. C. 3 May 63; 

20 Aug 65. Wounded 30 Nov 64 Honey Hill, S. C. $50. 
Stone, Edward 26, sin.; blacksmith; Toledo, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. Toledo, O. 
Story, Samuel P. jr. 18, sin.; laborer; Russell. 24 Nov 63 ; 20 Aug 65. 

$325. 
Sugland, John G. 21, Vernon, Vt. 14 Dec 63; 20 Aug 65. 



Thompson, David E. Corpl. 20, sin.; farmer; Shippensburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 

20 Aug 65. $50. 
Tobias, Ezra 27, mar. ; laborer; Montgomery. 30 Nov 63; died 15 Je 65 Gen. 

Hos. Beaufort, S. C. Typhoid Fever. $325. 
Washington, Josiah 18, sin. ; farmer; Boonsboro, Md. 6 May 63; 20 Aug. 65. 

$50. 
Watson, Jacob Sergt. 20, mar.; butcher; Mercersburg, Pa. 6 May 63; 20 

Aug. 65. $50. 
Weaver, George 29, mar.; laborer; Mt. Healthv, O. 5 Mav 63; 29 Jly 64 

Morris Id, S. C. dis. Wounded 16 Jly 63 James Id. S. C. $50. " Mt. Healthy, O. 
Wentworth, Charles B. 21, Woodstock, Vt. 14 Dec. 63; 

20 Aug 65. 

White, Harvey 21, sin.; laborer; Toledo, O. 5 May 63 ; 20 Aug 65. Wounded 

18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Williams, Cyrus. 18, Rutland, Vt. 20 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. 

Rutland, Vt. 



S88 



ROSTER OF THE 



Williams, Edward 18, sin. ; laborer; New York. 3 May 63; 1 Jly 64 Morris 

Id, S. C; dis. Wounded 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Williams, Neff 21, sin.; laborer; Paris, Tenn. 5 May 63; 1 Sep 65 New 

York. Wounded 18 Apl 65 Boykins Mills, S. (J. $5 'J. 
Williams, Norman B. 29, Woodstock, Vt. 20 Nov 63; 3 Oct 

65 New York. 

Wilson, George 20, sin.; laborer; Toledo, O. 5 May 63; 20 Aug 65. 

$50. 
Wilson, John H. 22, sin.; blacksmith ; Richmond, Ind. 5 Mav 63; wounded 

and missing 18 Jly 63 Ft. Wagner. $50. 
Wilson, Joseph 27, sin.; blacksmith; Newport, Ind. 12 May 63; 20 Aug 05. 

Wounded Jly 63 . $50. 

Wilson, Robert E. 35, mar.; barber; Cambridge. 10 Jly 63; 2'J Je 65 ; 

dis. So. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Wilson, Uriah Corpl. 22, sin.; laborer; Poutiac, Mich. 5 May 63; killed 20 

Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. Wounded Jly 63 . £50. 

Winslow, John W 24, sin.; laborer; Louisville, Ind. 5 May 63; killed 20 

Feb 64 Olustee, Fla. $50. 
Wright, John 31, sin.; farmer ; E. Chester. 19 Nov 63; 20 Aug 65. $50. 



UN ASSIGNED RECRUITS. 

Transferred to 55th Mass. Infantry. 



Allen, William 21 Nov 64 $325. 
Anderson, Joseph 19 Jan 65 $50. 
Ball, Thomas 28 Jan 65 $325. 
Barrows, John 12 Dec 64 $325. 
Beach, Samuel F. 9 Jan 65 $154.66. 
Brown, Charles 24 Aug 64 $100. 
Brown, David 30 Jan 65 $190.66. 
Brown, John 18 Je 64 $325. 

Brown, John 2d 28 Dec 64 

Brown, Peter 3 Dec 64 

Caldwell, Charles. 15 Feb 65 

$325. 
Cardarone, Donald 17 Nov 64 



Cassell, Charles C. 2 Sep 64. 

$238-66. 
Cassell, John M. 3 Sep. 64. $237.99. 
Champlin, Dennis V. 28 Dec 64 

$325. 
Chase, Jacob O 1 Sep 64. $239.33. 
Clark, Theodore 26 Jly 64 $325. 
Coleman, George B. 3 Sep 64 

$237.99. 
Crooks, Joseph 26 Nov 64 $232. 
Davis, Jefferson H. 15 Feb 65 

$325. 



Davis, William 16 Nov 64. S325. 
Deiiois, Jacob 21 Jan 65 $325. 
Duggin, Frank 2 Feb 65 $325. 
Duncan, Orren 17 Aug 64 $325. 
Fairchild, Lewis L. 16 Aug 64 

$325 

Fletcher. Isaac 20 Dec 64 — 

Flora, Samuil 17 Aug 64 $299.33. 
Fountain, John W 1 Sep 64 $239.33. 
Freeman, Abraham 1 Feb 05 

$189.33. 
Gibbs, William 3 Sep 64 $178.66. 
Creen, Henry 27 Dec 04 $325. 
Grekn, John A. 29 Jly 04 $325. 
Hall, Edward 6 Jly 04. $378.66. 
Hamilton, Jami-s 27 Jly 04 $312.00. 
Haskell, James 12 Aug 04 $325. 
Hazard. Naiiim G. 27 Apl 63 $100. 

Hazard, ^amuei, 10 Jan 05 

Henderson, Samuel 3 Feb 65 $100. 
Herbert, Philip 27 Aug 04 $325. 
Holm is, Charles 22 Aug 04 $295.99. 

James, John 11 Jan 05 

King. Antony L. 24 Aug 64 $185.33. 
Lew, Zimri 11 Jan 05 $100. 
Madison, Leonard E. 15 Feb 65 $100. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



389 



McLane, Charles 6 Feb 65 $184.66. 

Miner, Thomas 27 Je 64 

Mitchell, Perky 7 Jly 64 $260.66. 
Montgomery, John W. 5 Jan 65 

$207.33. 
Morey, Benjamin 29 Aug 64 $100. 
Munroe, Piker F. 20 Aug 64 $297.33. 

Nichols, John 30 Nov 64 

Owans, John 25 Jan 65 $325. 
Paine, William 23 Jly 64 $325. 
Patterson, Robert T. 15 Nov 64 



Pernell, George 23 Nov 64 $325. 
Perky, C. O. 21 Nov 64 $325. 
Peters, Daniel P. 1 Sep 64 $100. 
Porter, Edward 19 Sep 64. $168. 
Kome, George B. 3 Sep 64. $237.99. 
Eutter, Daniel 23 Aug 64 $244.66. 
Sampson, David H. 16 Jan 65 $325. 
Sherman, William 3 Sep 64 $237.99. 
Silvers, William 5 Jan 65 $100. 
Slaughter, Simon 31 Aug 64 $239.99. 
Smith, Peter 8 Je 64 $325. 
Smith, Thomas F. 5 Jan 65 $100. 
Smith, William A. 1 Sep 64 $239.33. 
Snowdon, John 2 Feb 65 $243.33. 



South, Edward 7 Sep 64 

Stanley, Romulus 31 Oct 64 

Stevens, George 22 Jly 64 $315.99. 
Stuart, Latimer 5 Sep 64 $236.66. 
Thomas, James W. 17 Nov 64 $325. 
Thompson, William 11 Nov 64 



Thorne, James P. 26 Aug 64 $325. 
Tillman, Henry 3 Feb 65 $137.99. 
Toney, Henry 24 Aug 64 $244.66. 
Toppin, Elisha 12 Aug 64 $252.66. 
Walker, Daniel 1 Sep. 64 $289.33. 
Wallace, Samuel, jr. 26 Jly 64 

$325. 
Washington, George 5 Dec 64. 

$325. 
Whipple, George E. 18 Aug 64. 

$298.66. 
White, Alexander 1 Feb 65. $325. 
White, George S. 31 Aug 64. 

$239.99. 
Wiggins, Albert 26 Jly 64. $325. 
Williams, Benjamin 18 Je 64. $325. 
Williams, George 6 Sep 64. $235.99. 
Wilson, Thomas C. 1 Aug 64. $325. 



Transferred to Various Organizations. 



Boyer, James 8 Dec 63; 2 Ap 64 trsfd to U. S. Navy. $325. 

Cross, Jerome B. 1 Dec 63 ; 16 May 64 trsfd to U. S. Navy. $232.66. 

Foutz, Jake 15 Feb 64; trsfd to 68th U. S. C. T. 



Discharged. 



Bright, Alfred 8 Dec 63; 19 Dec 63. 

Cornish, Russell 28 Nov 63; 20 Dec 63 — - 
Foster, Charles 8 Feb 65 ; 22 Sep 65. $325. 
Grant, John T. 14 Dec 63 ; 24 Dec 63. 



Jackson, James W. 19 Dec 63; 23 Dec 63. 

Laws, William 25 Jan 65 ; 8 Sep 65. $325. 
Lee, William H. 15 Nov 64; 22 Sep 65. $325. 
Meads, Thomas 8 Feb 65; 8 Sep 65. $325. 
Tyler, William 17 Feb 65; 15 May 65. $325. 
Washington, John S. 1 Sep 64; 15 May 65. $170. 
Wheatland, Simeon J. 2 Sep 64; 15 May 65. $169 33. 



890 FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



Died. 

Bennett, William 22 Jan 64; 24 Apl 64 Ft. Leavenworth, Kan. 

Edwards, John 15 Feb 64; 20 Mcli 64. 

Freeman John II. 1 Feb 64 Beaufort S. C. of disease. 

Henry, Thomas 17 Jan 65; 11 Mch 65 Hilton Head, S. 0. $325. 

Newport, Fitz Hejsry 22 May G4 New York. 

Smith Henry 25 Dec 63 Morris Id. S. C. Fever. 



Final Record cannot be Established. 

Dickerson, Wesley 15 Feb 64 

Harper, Henry 30 Jan 64 



Jackson, William 28 Nov 64 
Johnson, George 26 Apl 63 — 
Kaine, William 12 May 63 — 
Lewis, George W 20 Oct 63 - 
Lewis, Richard 21 Jan 64 ■ 



Lightfoot, William 15 Feb 64 ■ 

Logan, Samuel 15 Feb 64 

Malory, William 15 Feb 64 — 



Mason, Charles 2 Nov 64 $325. 

Mayhugh, Isaiah 29 Apl 63 

McCormick, Andrew 19 Feb 64 

Mitchell, Thomas 24 Nov 63 

Morris, James 20 Oct 63 



Murray, James 21 Jan 64 

Owen, William 24 Dec 64 $50. 

Perry, Thomas R. 21 Jan 64 



Phillips, Anderson 28 Jan 64 

Powers, Francis 28 Dec 64 $325. 

Price, William 28 Jan 64 

Riley, George 29 Jan 64 

Sanders, Nathan 28 Jan 64 

Stimpson, Royal 30 Oct 63 $325. 

Tyler, John 25 Jan 64 

Wakefield, Clinton 19 Feb 64 

Weathers, Albert 15 Feb 64 

White, Peter 12 Feb 64 • 



Williams, John 18 Jan 65 $325. 

Wilson, Alfred 14 Jly 63 

Wilson, Bonaparte 3 Feb 65 $50. 

Woodson, Samuel 12 Feb 64 



Deserted. 

Buck, William W- 19 Nov 63; deserted 22 Dec 63 Boston. $325. 
McCrawford, William 19 Jly 64; deserted 28 Jly 64. Boston. $325. 



FIFTY-FOURTH MASSACHUSETTS INFANTRY. 



391 



RECAPITULATION OF ROSTER. 





•a 

2 


3 
P 

O 

n 
S 


Died in Captivity. 


o O 

3 


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8 
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13 
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4 
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6 
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1 

10 
5 
6 

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13 

12 

4 

9 

13 
11 


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8 
7 

5 
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12 
6 


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17 

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19 

24 

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22 

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15 

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121 
139 
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127 
131 
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32 


19 


94 


57 


158 


11 


855 1 


7 


17 


36 


1354 



1 Includes 8 enlisted men, exchanged prisoners, discharged as by expi- 
ration, in 1865. 

Unassigned Recruits. 

Died, 6; discharged.il; deserted, 2; transferred, 91 ; unaccounted for, 
32, — total, 142. 



392 



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APPENDIX. 



TREATMENT OF FIFTY-FOURTH PRISONERS. 

"NT OT to cast aside passion and vindictiveness when dealing 
■*■ * with a captive foe, especially during the prevalence of 
civil war, is, in modern times, a relapse into barbarism. Sub- 
mitted to this crucial test of civilization, the conduct of the 
Confederate government, as well as the individual acts of many 
in authority, toward the unfortunate Union soldiers and loyal 
citizens whom they captured and incarcerated, is an indelible stain 
upon the record of a people gallant in battle, if not wise in council. 
The twelve hundred pages of reports, orders, and testimony, 
relating to the Special Committee of Five appointed by the House 
of Representatives, July 10, 1867, to investigate " the subject of 
the treatment of prisoners-of-war and Union citizens held by the 
Confederate authorities, " cannot be read without indignation and 
shame. Therein will be found the fearful record which indispu- 
tably convicts the Confederate authorities of wilful neglect of the 
dictates of a common humanity, as well as of the setting aside of 
international law, the violation of cartels, and the suspension of 
exchanges to compel the United States government to abandon to 
the merciless adversary a class of persons it had taken into its 
armies. 

Stripped of necessary clothing, robbed of their valuables and 
of priceless mementos, the unfortunate captives, often wounded, 
were marched for miles over the roads or crowded like cattle 
into cars that bore them to this or that prison pen. Shrinking 



394 APPENDIX. 

with horror at the sight of the terrible misery which met their 
eyes, they were thrust into the midst of the inferno from which 
in most cases they were only to emerge as corpses or physical 
wrecks throughout the remainder of life. Starved, left to dig into 
the ground for shelter like wild beasts, maltreated, reviled, shot 
at if in misery or diseased mind they wandered to the dead-line, 
reeking in filth, covered with vermin, shaking with fever or 
cold, stricken with scurvy, the hapless victims lived on as best 
they could, but to endure until hope of release grew faint with 
waning strength, while their captors strove to sap their loyalty 
by offers of freedom, would they but enlist in their ranks, or 
labor on their works. 

That such barbarous treatment of our prisoners and their con- 
dition was made known to the Confederate officials cannot be gain- 
said, for the archives which fell into our hands furnish ample 
proof. On Sept. 22, 1862, the Confederate Secretary of War 
received a report from the chairman of a committee of their 
Congress, which, speaking of the deplorable condition of the 
hospitals in which our soldiers were treated when captives, said: 
" The honor of our country will not permit us to bring this matter 
to the attention of Congress, thereby making the matter public." 
When Gen. John H. Winder was sent from Richmond to 
Andersonville prison to take charge, the Richmond " Examiner " 
said : " Thank God that Richmond is at last rid of old Winder ! 
God have mercy upon those to whom he has been sent! " Of 
this Winder, Col. D. T. Chandler, Inspector-General, wrote in 
his report of Andersonville to his department of the Confederate 
army on Aug. 5, 1864 : — 

" My duty requires me to recommend a change in commander of the 
post, Brigadier-General Winder, and the substitution in his place of one 
who unites both energy and good judgment with some feeling of humanity 
and consideration for the welfare and comfort (so far as is consistent with 
their safe keeping) of the vast number of unfortunates placed under his 
control ; some one who at least, will not advocate deliberately and in cold 
blood the propriety of leaving them in their present condition until their 
number has been sufficiently reduced by death to make the present arrange- 
ment suffice for their accommodation." 



PKISONERS OF WAR. 395 

To enumerate briefly the marked phases of the relations of 
the contending forces during the Civil War in relation to the 
exchange of prisoners it is found — ■ 

1st. That the Federal Government at the very commencement 
of the struggle ordered the trial of rebel privateersmen for piracy, 
but from fear of retaliation receded from its determination to 
inflict capital punishment upon them. 

2d. That on July 22, 1862, a general exchange was agreed 
upon by properly authorized commissioners of the two contending 
parties, which cartel was first violated by the Confederates, in the 
case of the United States troops in Texas, for nine months. 

3d. That Jefferson Davis and the Confederate Congress in 
1862 and 1863 declared acts of outlawry against all negroes and 
mulattoes and their officers taken in arms, the former " to be put 
to death or otherwise punished at the discretion of the Court;" 
the latter " to be delivered over to the authorities of the State in 
which they were captured, to be dealt with according to the 
present or future laws of such State." President Lincoln, on 
July 30, 1863, issued his proclamation declaring that for every 
United States soldier without regard to color who should be put 
to death in violation of the laws of war a rebel soldier should be 
executed, and for every one enslaved a rebel soldier would be 
placed at hard labor on the public works. Forced by this retali- 
atory measure to refrain from openly carrying out the acts of 
outlawry passed, the Confederate authorities resolved that there- 
after they would refrain from reporting the colored prisoners in 
their hands, and would refuse to exchange them. This discrimi- 
nation was not tolerated by the United States, and in consequence 
the cartel was suspended for blacks and whites. 

4th. That the Confederates, having failed to compel the ex- 
change of white prisoners only, maintained their position until Aug. 
10 1864, when they agreed to exchange officer for officer and man 
for man. The terms of the cartel under which exchanges had at 
first been made required the delivery of the excess on either side. 
Our government waived, apparently, all other questions, and in 
the fall of 1864 exchanges were resumed. But we find no record 
of the release of our colored soldiers till months after. 



396 APPENDIX. 

Toward the end, on Feb. 8, 1865, by joint resolution the 
Confederate Congress amended the act of May 1, 1863, by 
striking out all but three sections, leaving the commissioned 
officers of colored troops to be dealt with by the Confederate 
States, and only negro slares reported captured to be amenable. 

In the action at James Island, S. C, July 16, 1863, the 
Fifty-fourth Mass. Infantry was the only colored regiment which 
sustained losses. The Confederates reported fourteen negro pris- 
oners captured. Our own reports, however, give but thirteen men 
as missing, who are all accounted for as captured in the roster 
compiled for this history, from data gathered since the reports 
were made. The list is as below: — 

Blake, Lemuel. Private, Co. B ; exchanged March 4, 1865, at Golds- 

boro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, June 7, 1865. 
Caldwell, James. Private, Co. H ; exchanged March 4, 1865, at Golds- 

boro, N. C. ; discharged, May 8, 1865, at Boston. 
Counsel, George. Private, Co B ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at Golds- 

boro, N. C ; returned to regiment, June 7, 1865. 
Dickinson, John W Private, Co. H; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged with regiment. 
Harrison, William Henry, 1st. Private, Co. H ; died a prisoner, Jan. 

26, 1865, at Florence, S. C, of typhoid fever. 
Jeffries, Walter A. Sergeant, Co. H ; exchanged March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged with regiment. 
Leatherman, John. Private, Co. H, wounded ; exchanged March 4, 

1865, at Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged with regiment. 
Proctor, Joseph. Private, Co. H; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at Golds- 
boro, N. C. ; discharged, June 23, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. 
Smith, Enos. Private, Co. H; died a prisoner, Feb. 20, 1865, at 

Florence, S. C. 
Wallace, Frederick. Private, Co. H, wounded; exchanged, March 

4, 1865, at Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged, June 7, 1865, at Saint 

Andrews Parish, S. C. 
Williams, Armistead. Corporal, Co. H ; died a prisoner, July 21, 1864, 

at Charleston, S. C, of typhoid fever. 
Williams, James O. Private Co. H, wounded ; exchanged, March 4. 

1865, at Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged with regiment. 
Worthington, Hknry W Private, Co. H, wounded ; died a prisoner, 

Jan. 12, 1865, at Florence, S. C. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 397 

An account of the action published in the Charleston " Tri- 
weekly Courier " of July 18, 1863, says : — 

" Fourteen blacks fell into our hands, including a sergeant and corporal. 
Five claimed to be free, the remainder finally confessing they were run- 
away slaves. One hailed from Michigan, two or three from Massachusetts, 
one from Missouri, one from Maryland, and several from Kentucky. One 
rascal, running up with his musket, exclaimed, ' Here, mossa, nebber shoot 
him off — tak urn!' showing evidently his low country origin, but unfor- 
tunately somebody's gun went off about the same time, and the fellow was 
killed. They received no tender treatment during the skirmish, and the 
marsh in one place was thick with their dead bodies. The prisoners 

believe they are to be hung, and give for a reason for fighting as well as 
they did, that they would rather die of bullet than rope. It is a nice 
question whether they are to be recognized as belligerents or outlaws ; and 
the indignation of our troops is not concealed at the thought that a white 
man may, by virtue of these captures, be one day exchanged for a negro. 
The suggestion I have heard on the subject is that we may be compelled 
to respect the free blacks as recognized citizens of the North taken in arms, 
but that when a runaway slave is recaptured, he should be turned over 
to his master, and by him to the civil authorities, to be disposed of accord- 
ing to law." 

Our captured men were taken to Charleston, and imprisoned in 
Charleston jail. The next day the following telegram asking for 
instructions regarding them was sent to Richmond : — 

Charleston, S. C. July 17, 1863. 
S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General, Richmond, Va. 

Enemy still actively constructing batteries on Morris Island. Since 
our reconnoisance of yesterday he has evacuated James Island, concentrat- 
ing his forces on Little Folly and Morris Islands. His loss yesterday was 
about forty negroes killed and fourteen prisoners ; several of latter claimed 
to be free from Massachusetts. Shall they be turned over to State authori- 
ties with the other negroes ? 

G. T. Beauregard. 

At the assault of Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863, the Fifty-fourth 
was the only colored regiment engaged. The regimental report, 
made Nov. 7, 1863, gives one hundred enlisted men as missing. 
In the roster compiled from official information to date, the 
number of missing is reduced to fifty-two. But in a list of Fifty- 



398 APPENDIX. 

fourth prisoners, under date of June 13, 1864, which is given 
hereinafter, the names of three men — Baltimore Smith, of Co. I, 
John Gray, of Co. F, and Samuel 11. Wilson, of Co. B — 
appear as then living and prisoners. There is no question as to 
the authenticity of this list, and these three men should be, and 
are, here taken up as captured. The list of those captured, known 
to us, is therefore increased to twenty-nine, and embraces — 

Allen, James. Private, Co. A; died a prisoner, Dec. 20, 1864, at 

Florence, S. C. 
Anderson, Solomon E. Private, Co. B ; died a prisoner, in Jan. 1865, 

at Florence, S. C. 
Bayard, Joseph. Private, Co. K, wounded; exchanged, March 4, 1865, 

at Goldsboro, N. C ; discharged, Aug. 24, 1865, at General Hospital, 

Worcester, Mass. 
Brown, Jesse H. Private, Co. B, wounded ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, 

at Goldsboro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, June 8, 1865. 
Butler, Morris. Private, Co. E ; died a prisoner, Feb. 12, 1865, at 

Florence, S. C. 
Cogswell, George E. Private, Co. D ; died a prisoner, June 17, 1S64, 

at Charleston, S. C. 
Elletts, James. Private, Co. B ; died a prisoner, at Charleston, S. C. ; 

no date. 
Ellis, Jefferson. Corporal, Co. F; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, June 6, 1865. 
Gardner, Ralph B. Corporal, Co. A ; exchanged, April 13, 1865, at 

Wilmington, N. C. ; discharged, July 27, 1865, at General Hospital, 

Annapolis, Md. 
Grant, George. Private, Co. B; exchanged, March 4, 1S65, at Golds- 
boro, N. C. ; discharged, June 24, 1805, at Annapolis, Mil. 
Gray, John. Private, Co. F; roster says: "Captured, supposed died," 

and nothing further. Name in list of prisoners, June !■>, 1864, at 

Charleston, S. C. 
Green, Alfred. Private, Co. B ; exchanged, March 4, 1805, at Golds- 
boro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, July 9, 1865. 
Hardy, Charles. Corporal, Co. B; died a prisoner, March 18, 1865. 
Henron, Cornelius. Private, Co. C ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged, July 8, 1865, at Boston. 
Hill, William F. Private, Co. A ; died a prisoner, Feb. 20, 1865, at 

Florence, S. C. 
Hurley, Nathaniel. Private, Co. E ; died a prisoner, in Feb. 1865, at 

Florence, S. C. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 399 

Kirk, Henry. Private, Co. H ; wounded ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, 

at Goldsboro, N. C. ; discharged, July 27, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. 
Moshroe, George IV. Private, Co. F ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C ; discharged, Sept. 30, 1865, at Boston. 
Prosser, George T. Private, Co. D; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, June 7, 1865. 
Rigby, William. Private, Co. B ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at Golds- 
boro, N. C. ; discharged, June 24, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. 
Simmons, Robert J. 1st sergeant, Co. B, wounded ; died a prisoner, in 

Aug. 1863, at Charleston, S. C. 
Smith, Baltimore. Private, Co. I ; roster says : " Missing," and nothing 

further. Name in list of prisoners, June 13, 1864, at Charleston, 

S. C. 
Stanton, Charles. Private, Co. G, wounded ; died a prisoner, in Feb., 

1865, at Florence, S. C. 
States, Daniel. Private, Co. B, wounded ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, 

at Goldsboro, S. C. ; returned to regiment, June 7, 1865. 
Thomas, George W Private, Co. F ; exchanged, March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C. ; returned to regiment, May 8, 1865. 
Whiting, Alfred. Sergeant, Co. I, wounded ; exchanged, March 4, 

1865, at Goldsboro, N. C. ; died, June 26, 1865, at Alexandria, Va., of 

typhoid fever. 
Williams, Charles. Private, Co. B ; died a prisoner, in January 1865, 

at Florence, S. C. 
Wilson, Samuel R. Private, Co. B ; roster says : " Missing, supposed 

died prisoner," and nothing further. Name in list of prisoners, June 

13, 1864, at Charleston, S. C. 
Woods, Stewart W Private, Co. T ; exchanged ; died, March 15, 

1865, at General Hospital, Wilmington, N. C. 

In the foregoing and following lists of men captured, the record 
of each is extracted from the roster, except where otherwise noted. 
Individual records are not continued beyond the date of returning 
to the regiment; hut where that fact is not found in the roster, 
the date of discharge is given, as well as the place. That all 
information regarding each individual be presented, it is proper 
to say that Daniel States, one of the survivors, has given the fol- 
lowing items regarding his comrades, as his best recollection : — 

Brown, Jesse H., wounded in hip. 
Hardy, Charles, lost a leg. 
Hurley, Nathaniel, leg amputated. 



400 APPENDIX. 

Rigby, William, wounded in leg. 
Simmons, Robert J., lost an arm. 
Smith, Baltimore, lost an arm. 
Wilson, Samukl R., wounded in Lip. 

States also says that fifteen other prisoners of the Fifty-fourth 
were released at the same time as himself, and Baltimore Smith 
was of the number. In perusing the list, it will appear that 
all of the twenty-nine are accounted for as having died or been 
exchanged except Baltimore Smith, John Gray, and Samuel 
K. Wilson. Accepting States' recollection regarding Smith as 
released, and in default of other information regarding Gray 
and Wilson, the last two may be supposed to have died pris- 
oners. The information that Corporal Hardy of Company B 
was wounded, given by States, is confirmed by the statement of 
Alfred Green, another of the prisoners, who lived to be released. 

States' account of his capture is that he was in the front cross- 
ing the ditch, and gained the parapet. Later, he lay in the ditch 
awaiting the reserves, and firing when he saw any one in the 
fort. After a long time, the rebel officers called to those who 
were wounded to come in as they had thrown out their pickets 
beyond, and they were being hurt unnecessarily. States was 
wounded, and was the first colored man taken prisoner. The 
Confederate officer who took him from the men who secured him, 
placed States in charge of several soldiers, whose names the officer 
took, ordering them to keep him as a prisoner-of-war, and from 
being killed, which some of the men in the fort wished to do. 
While in and about Wagner, he did not see the bodies of any of 
the Fifty-fourth officers killed in the charge. 

The next morning, that of July 19, the Fifty-fourth pris- 
oners, numbering twenty-nine, hereinbefore named, and pos- 
sibly others reported as missing, of whom no other record is 
found, were taken by their guards to the city of Charleston, 
where, upon their arrival, they were greeted by the jeers and 
taunts of the populace as they passed to the provost-marshal. 
Then, after examination, the badly Avounded were taken to a 
hospital common both to the white and colored sufferers. Of it 
the " Charleston Courier " said, on July 23 : — 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 401 

" A chief point of attraction in the city yesterday was the Yankee hos- 
pital in Queen Street, where the principal portion of the Federal wounded, 
negroes and whites, have been conveyed. Crowds of men, women, and 
boys congregated in front of the building to speculate on the novel scenes 
being enacted within, or to catch glimpses through the doorways of the 
long rows of maimed and groaning beings who lined the floors of the two 
edifices, but this was all tbey could see. The operations were performed 
in the rear of the hospital, where half a dozen or more tables were con- 
stantly occupied throughout the day with the mutilated subjects. The 
wounds generally are of a severe character, owing to the short distance at 
which they were inflicted, so that amputations were almost the only oper- 
ations performed. Probably not less than seventy or eighty legs and arms 
were taken off yesterday, and more are to follow to-day. The writer saw 
eleven removed in less than an hour. Yankee blood leaks out by the 
bucketful. The surgeons and physicians in attendance and at work 

were Doctors J. L. Dawson in charge of the hospital, T. M. Robertson, 
Ancrum, Kinlock, Coleman, Mood, Davega, Elliot, two Fitches, Ravenel, 
Bellinger, Raoul, Brown, and probably two or three others whose names 
are not now recalled." 

In view of the fact that our white prisoners exchanged on the 
next day reported that the Confederates neglected their wounds, 
that the surgeons were unskilful, and that unnecessary amputa- 
tions were suffered, the ahove account is quoted. 

States says, that being wounded, he was taken to hospital, 
where the colored prisoners were somewhat separated from the 
whites, and received treatment last. He was well treated by 
the surgeons, and was furnished with good food while there. 
Continuing, he says that the colored prisoners, not wounded, 
were taken to Castle Pinckney; and in this lie is corroborated 
by Alfred Green of Company B, also a prisoner, who says that 
he was taken there, locked up in a room with his companions, 
and fed on mush. These statements regarding the confinement 
of our unwounded in Castle Pinckney, immediately, are however 
contradicted by Assistant-Surgeon John T. Luck, U. S. Xavy, 
and Chaplain H. C. Trumbull, Tenth Connecticut Infantry, who 
were both unjustifiably made prisoners on the morning of July 
19 1863, at Morris Island, and were brought in contact with our 

men. 

Chaplain Trumbull says that he and Adjutant Camp of his 

26 



402 APPENDIX. 

regiment, also captured, were marched through the streets with 
the Fifty-fourth prisoners to the provost-marshal ; " thence they 
were taken to the gloomy jail, and at ten o'clock at ni^ht thrust — 
twenty in all — into a small and filthy room without furniture, 
lighted with but four panes of glass over the door, and not large 
enough to find a place for all to lie on the floor. By special 
orders of General Ripley, the friends were to pass the night with 
the colored privates instead of the white officers" captured. It 
seems most probable that the chaplain's account is correct, and 
that possibly the Fifty-fourth men may have been confined in 
Castle Pinckney for a short time, after their surrender to the 
State authorities, but to be again returned to the jail. 

Assistant-Surgeon Luck says that he was in attendance upon our 
wounded in the hospital. He states that, " Regarding the priv- 
ates of that regiment, fifty-five of those captured were wounded. 
Many of them died in the hospital at Charleston both before and 
after being attended to. They were much dejected, and yet bore 
their sufferings with great bravery. When I was taken from the 
hospital about thirty-five were yet alive and doing well." Speak- 
ing of the unwounded he says : " They were taken first to 
Charleston Jail; then the rebel government gave them to the 
State of South Carolina. While the State of South Carolina 

held them, they were kept in Castle Pinckney. The negroes 

were again taken possession of by the rebel government, and when 
I left Charleston, S. C. (Nov. 9, 1863), they were all in Charles- 
ton Jail." 

Accepting the figures of Assistant-Surgeon Luck as correct, that 
there were fifty-five wounded of the Fifty-fourth, and those of 
Chaplain Trumbull that twenty were placed in the jail, including 
himself and Adjutant Camp, leaving eighteen negro soldiers, we 
find that the captured of the regiment, wounded and unwounded, 
numbered at least seventy-three men. The roster accounts for 
seventy-eight men missing or captured ; deducting the seventy- 
three accounted for as above, we have a remainder of five men we 
may suppose to have been killed. 

Charleston Jail, for many months the prison of the Fifty-fourth 
men, stood in about an acre of ground enclosed with a brick wall 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 403 

some twelve feet high. The jail was an octagonal brick structure, 
five stories high, with a forty foot octagonal tower raised above 
the main building. Adjoining it could be seen the Workhouse, 
Medical College, and Roper Hospital, which were also used for 
the confinement of Union prisoners. The interior of the jail con- 
tained rooms and corridors on each story, guarded by grated iron 
doors] the staircases were of massive stone. This building still 
stands, but, being damaged by the earthquake of some years ago, 
was reduced in stories. In it our men were confined with Union 
officers, rebel deserters, negro and white murderers and criminals, 
and even prostitutes. Their rations were hardly other than corn- 
meal and water, eked out by food given them for cooking to 
supply others. They were compelled to do menial and often 
repulsive work about the prison, or elsewhere about Charleston 
whither some were sent. We shall get glimpses of their life 
from the testimony of others confined there. 

Upon their entrance into the jail, the Wagner prisoners met 
those of their regiment captured on James Island, and for the 
first time learned who had survived of their comrades reported 
missing. They also found confined four colored men belonging 
to the gunboat " Isaac Smith, " which was captured in the Stono 
River by the Confederates, early in 1863. 

By arrangement, on July 24, 1863, truce boats met in Charles- 
ton harbor, and one hundred and four of our white soldiers who 
had been wounded at Wagner were delivered up. The Confeder- 
ate commissioner, Colonel Edward C. Anderson, reports that 
" an effort was made to bring under discussion the prisoners of 
the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, but in compliance with 
instructions, all information or conversation upon these troops 
was declined. " This silence was maintained until the very last. 
In a correspondence Gillmore accused Beauregard of breach of 
faith in not exchanging his wounded colored soldiers. Beauregard 
in reply said that in the arrangements for exchange General 
Vodges ignored the negroes. He wrote, " You chose, sir, to ig- 
nore your negro ally after having given him the right or head of 
your storming column on the 18th of July. " 

In its issue of August 12, 1863, the Charleston " Mercury " made 



404 APPENDIX. 

certain comments and criticisms regarding the treatment of the 
colored prisoners. This drew from General Beauregard, through 
his chief of staff, the following letter, which sets forth important 
information : — 

Headquarters Department of South Carolina. 
Charleston, S. C, August 12, 1863. 
Colonel K,. B. Rhett, Jr., Editor of " Mercury." 

In the " Mercury " of this date, you appear to have written under a 
misapprehension of the facts connected with the present status of the 
negroes captured in arms on Morris and James Islands, which permit me 
to state as follows : — 

The proclamation of the president, dated December 24, 1862, directed 
that all negro slaves captured in arms should be at once delivered over to 
the executive authorities of the respective States to which they belong, to 
be dealt with according to the laws of said States. 

An informal application was made by the State authorities for the 
negroes captured in this vicinity ; but as none of them, it appeared, had 
beeu slaves of citizens of South Carolina, they were not turned over to the 
civil authorities, for, at the moment, there was no official information at 
these headquarters of the act of Congress by which " all negroes and 
mulattoes who shall be engaged in war, or be taken in arms against the 
Confederate States, or shall give aid or comfort to the enemies of the Con- 
federate States," were directed to be turned over to the authorities of 
" State or States in which they shall be captured, to be dealt with accord- 
ing to the present or future laws of such State or States." 

On the 21st day of July, however, the commanding-general telegraphed 
to the Secretary of War for instructions as to the disposal to be made of 
the negroes captured on Morris and James Islands, and on the 22d 
received a reply, that they must be turned over to the State authorities, by 
virtue of the joint resolutions of Congress in question. 

Accordingly, on the 29th of July, as soon as a copy of the resolution 
or act was received, his Excellency, Governor Bnnham, was informed that 
the negroes captured were held subject to his orders, to be dealt with 
according to the laws of South Carolina. 

On the same day (29th of July) Governor Bonham requested that they 
should be retained in military custody until he could make arrangements 
to dispose of them; and in that custody they still remain, awaiting the 
orders of the State authorities. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

Thomas Jordan, 

Chief of Staff. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 405 

General Jordan's recollection, as given the writer, is that 
J. W- Hayne, the attorney-general of the State, made an argu- 
ment demanding the prisoners in behalf of South Carolina; that 
W H. Trescott was also present, and by request made answer 
against the demand made upon the military authorities. 

Meanwhile the friends of the regiment appealed to the gov- 
ernment for the protection of those captured. It drew forth 
President's Lincoln's proclamation of July 30, 1863, quoted on 
page 96, and the following letter : — 

War Department, Washington City. 
August 4, 1863. 

Dear Sir, — Every effort has been made and will be made by this 
Department to obtain the release of Captain Russel, Captain Simpkins, and 
the other gallant officers and soldiers, black and white, who fell into the 
hands of the enemy at Fort Wagner. You will perceive by the papers an 
order from the president, determining what the action of the government will 
be, for the purpose of affording all the protection in its power against the 
barbarism of the enemy. 

Yours truly, 
Hon. Charles Suiixer. Edwin M. Stanton. 

Boston, Mass. 

M. L. Bonham, the governor of South Carolina, on Aug. 10, 
1863, ordered the provost-marshal's court for Charleston district 
to be convened, for the trial of such slaves as had been captured 
on James and Morris Islands " in arms against the lawful authority 
of South Carolina, and free negroes of any of the Southern States 
connected with such slaves." Governor Bonham appointed the 
attorney-general, J. W Hayne, and A. P Aldrich to prosecute, 
and Xelson Mitchell and Edward McCrady, lawyers of eminent 
ability, to defend the prisoners. 

Meanwhile, Jordan, representing General Beauregard, satisfied 
that should the prisoners be enslaved or executed, retaliation 
would fall alone upon the military forces of the Confederacy, was 
active in impressing this view upon others. His statement is 
that the provost-marshal was an army officer, and that he (Jor- 
dan) sought him out and informed him that, having consulted 
Nelson Mitchell, the latter held that the captives were not 



406 APPENDIX. 

amenable to the State, and also his (Jordan's) own views regard- 
ing retaliation. 

Nelson Mitchell, who became their counsel, the prisoner States 
remembers, and says : — 

" A lawyer named Mitchell came to the jail and offered to defend us 
before the court. He did a good deal for us, and talked with Sergeant 
Jeffries and Corporal Hardy, who went to trial as the two test cases. 
Mitchell did this without pay, and was very kind to us at all times. He 
worked hard and won the case, coming to us at midnight and called up to 
Jeffries, 'All of you can now rejoice. You are recognized as United 
States soldiers.' Before the trial, gallows had been erected in the jail-yard, 
and, as we understood, were to be used for hanging all our colored boys." 

Sergt. Eobert Johnson and Private Edward S. Logan, of Com- 
pany F, Fifty-fifth Mass. Infantry, were captured at Botany 
Bay Island, S. C, on Nov. 12, 1863, and narrowly escaping 
being killed when first made prisoners, were taken to Charleston 
Jail to join the Fifty -fourth men. Johnson died a prisoner; but 
Logan lived to be released. The following statement, most inter- 
esting to the survivors of both the regiments, is made by W S. 
Glazier, a Union officer confined in the jail, in his book, " Capture, 
Prison Pen, and Escape. " 

" The ground-floor of the jail was occupied by civil convicts ; the 
second story by rebel officers under punishment for military offences ; the 
third story by negro prisoners ; and the fourth by Federal and rebel 
deserters. Many of the negro prisoners were captured at our assault 

on Fort Wagner. I had a conversation with Sergeant Johnson (colored), 
Co. F, 55th Massachusetts Infantry; he was a full-blooded negro, but 
possessed of no ordinary degree of intelligence. He gave me an interest- 
ing history of the captivity and trial of the negro prisoners. Soon after 
their capture they were informed that they were to be tried by a civil com- 
mission, on a charge of having abandoned their masters and enlisted in 
the United States Army, and, if found guilty, they were told that they 
might make up their minds to stretch hemp ; and why should they not be 
found guilty ? To be sure, nearly all were from the North and had always 
been free; but they knew full well that this court was formed not to sub- 
serve the ends of justice, but to convict ; for the rebels had sufficiently 
illustrated their method of dealing with negro prisoners, — that is, when 
they designed to receive them as such, instead of murdering them in cold 
blood, in order to convince their comrades of the narrow chance of life, 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 407 

should they unfortunately fall into the hands of the enemy. The sergeant 
told me that they were surprised to find a friend in a relative of ex-Governor 
Pickens, of South Carolina. The governor himself was true to Southern 
principles ; but this friend to the oppressed remained firm to the 

cause of his country. He came to them and offered to plead their 

cause before the sham tribunal that was to decide their fate. When he 
first revealed his intention to act in their behalf, he was regarded as an 
impostor, a government detective, whose only object was to learn their 
history ; that is, to ascertain if they had been slaves, to whom they be- 
longed, and under what circumstances they had left their masters. But 
he persisted, and gave them money to purchase little necessities (for noth- 
ing but commeal was issued to them, and this in very small quantities), 
and left them with the promise that he would soon return and report the 
progress of his investigations; but when he came he found them still 
doubting and unwilling to place confidence in him. But calling them 
together, he related that before the war he himself was a slaveholder, and 
was known and respected throughout the State. But at the commence- 
ment of this intestine strife, having proved true to the old flag, his prop- 
erty had been swept from him, calling him traitor and an abolitionist, and 
that now he was an outcast among his friends, and in constant danger of 
being assassinated. He also told them that he knew that this must be 
his fate from the first, if he remained true to his convictions ; but that 
having counted the cost, it was as nothing when weighed in the balance 
against truth, and he was now prepared to do his work thoroughly and 
unhesitatingly, regarding only as friends those who were true to the cause 
of their country. 

" By this means he gained their confidence, for there is a higher language 
than the written. It is seen in the mute dropping of the tear, etc. 
As the sergeant related to me how untiring were the efforts of this friend 
during their prolonged and doubtful trial, in combating error with firm, 
convincing truth, in proving their innocence even under laws that were 
made but for white men, he seemed at times to be completely overcome 
by his feelings, so unused was he to sympathy or kind words ; but when 
their trial was over and their innocence was established, they returned to 
jail to be regarded as prisoners-of-war. It was after their return to the 
jail that their advocate and friend visited them for the last time. Their 
emotions were uncontrollable, and they seemed unable to give even a faint 
expression of their gratitude to him who had sacrificed so much for them. 
Their admiration for this devoted friend of the Union was so great that 
the mere mention of his name is sufficient to bring tears to the eyes of 
the swarthy sons, who have thus far had so little to be grateful for. This 
young man who thus came forward to defend innocent and unfortunate 
men, was to them, aud is to us nameless, because his memory will be green 



408 APPENDIX. 

in their simple hearts until their black faces go down to the grave. 
The stranger died shortly after." 

What was written on page 97 regarding Nelson Mitchell was 
gleaned largely from " Harper's Weekly " of April 8, I860, from 
which the following extracts are also taken. It is headed " A 
South Carolina Hero, " and certainly will serve to bear the his- 
torian out in what was written, as well as serving to give the 
reader another glimpse of the noble defender of the prosecuted 
negro soldiers. After reciting that the information is derived 
from a private letter written in South Carolina, it says: — 

" There was a man in Charleston, Nelson Mitchell by name, who died 
about eight months ago, leaving, I believe, a wife and two children, poor 
and uncared for. Prom the beginning he had reasoned with the 

people, and that openly about the matter. Twice he was sentenced to 
be hung by a secret military court, but the authorities never could find 
a man to do the work. [The article then goes on to say that he was 
the counsel for our men who were tried, and was successful in his efforts. 
It continues] To do this, you can imagine how fearlessly this brave soul 
must have worked. An intelligent quadroon told me that he was pres- 
ent during the last ten or twelve sessions, and that Mitchell's eloquence 
was perfectly startling. He has never been publicly mentioned at 

Charleston since then, except in very doubtful terms. They did not 
dare to touch him, he seemed to be so thoroughly in earnest; and he 
died from the effects of poverty and want. Every night, before going to 
bed, Nelson Mitchell took his wife and children to his room, and having 
locked the door and shut the blinds, hung an American flag out over his 
mantel, and sat there in conversation with his family. The evening that he 
died his home was struck by one of our shells from Cummings Point, and 
his family thus left more destitute than before. They are being well 
looked after now, and I don't think they will be allowed to suffer much 
hereafter. For all this service he had the displeasure of the authori- 

ties, and the coldness of the people ; but the way in which the negroes 
talk of him is very tender." 

It is disclosed by the correspondence of Bonham and Seddon 
that " the court, after hearing evidence and argument, decided 
that they had no jurisdiction of the case." It does not appear 
that they were tried by any other court, Governor I'onham sus- 
pending action. The correspondence referred to is as follows: — 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 409 

State of South Carolina, Executive Department. 
Columbia, August 23, 1864. 

Sin, — On the 10th of August, 1863, I ordered the provost-marshal's 
court for Charleston district convened for the trial of such slaves as had 
then recently been captured on James and Morris Islands, " in arms 
against the lawful authority of South Carolina," and "free negroes of 
any of the Southern States connected with such slaves." I appointed 
J. W. Hayne, attorney-general, and A. P. Aldrich, Esq., to prosecute, and 
two eminent lawyers, Kelson Mitchell and Edward McCrady, Esqrs., to 
defend the prisoners. The court, after hearing evidence and argument, 
decided that they had no jurisdiction of the case, the correctness of which 
decision may be questioned ; and on the same day I communicated to you 
the fact that I had ordered the trial, and also announced my purpose to 
delay any action for the present with regard to the free negroes from the 
Northern States. 

On 1st of September you replied to my communication of 10th August, 
giving me the president's views upon the subject-matter of the letter, and 
adding, " I venture to recommend further that the captured negroes be 
not brought to trial, or, if condemned, that your power of executive clem- 
ency be exercised to suspend their execution, to allow the possibility of 
arrangement on this question, so fraught with present difficulty and future 
danger." 

I fully appreciate the embarrassments surrounding this question, and 
accordingly suspended further action till something might be done. I more- 
over supposed it probable that the Congress would have amended its 
resolutions. 

I may here add that in cases of slaves of this State offending in like man- 
ner, which have occurred before other similar courts, the offenders have 
been executed. One case of a Florida slave convicted, I have reserved in 
accordance with your suggestion. 

I now bring this subject again to your attention, in order that something 
definite may be done if practicable ; and as my term of office expires in 
December, I should be glad to dispose of it, so far as I am concerned, 

before that period. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Hon. James A. Seddon, M. L. Bonham. 

Secretary of War. 

Confederate States of America, War Department. 
Richmond, Va., August 31, 1864. 
g IK) _ I have to acknowledge your letter of the 23d instant, relative to 
the disposition of negroes captured in arms from the enemy. 



410 APPENDIX. 

The embarrassments attending this question, and the serious conse- 
quences which might ensue from the rigid enforcement of the act of Con- 
gress passed on the subject, have co-operated with the objections which 
have been made by the authorities of some of the States to receive negroes 
directed to be turned over to them, and with the inability, when they have 
been turned over, to obtain criminal trials, to induce the department to 
assume the responsibility of modifying the proposed action in relation to 
such negroes. 

It has been considered best, in view of the whole subject, to make a dis- 
tinction between negroes so taken who can be recognized or identified as 
slaves, and those who were free inhabitants of the Federal States. The 
former are regarded and treated as recaptured slaves, under the provisions 
of the act approved October 13, 1862, which makes arrangement for their 
return to the owners establishing title. This, it will be observed, will not 
free them from the liability to criminal proceedings in the hands of owners, 
if it be deemed necessary for the vindication of the criminal justice of the 
States to which they belong, while at the same time it recognizes and 
secures the property of the owners. The free negroes of the North are 
held in strict confinement, not as yet formally recognized in any official 
dealing with the enemy as prisoners-of-war, but, except in some trivial par- 
ticulars indicative of inferior consideration, are treated very much in the 
same manner as our other captives. 

The decision as to their ultimate disposition will probably be referred to 
Congress, and, as far as I can judge from the prevalent opinion which has 
reached me, it is probable they will be recognized in some form as pris- 
oners-of-war. 

In relation to the negroes received by you, I would advise the delivery 
to their owners of such as are identified as slaves, and the return of those 
discovered to have been originally free to the Confederate authorities. 
Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

James A. Seddon, 

Secretary of War. 
His Excellency M. L. Bonham, Governor of South Carolina, 
Columbia, South Carolina. 

On the 8th of December, 1864, Bonham wrote Seddon that in 
accordance with the latter's suggestion in the letter of August 31, 
1864, he has ordered the negro prisoners in the custody of the 
sheriff of Charleston district to be turned over to General Samuel 
Jones, commanding the department. He remarks that he thinks 
that a few of said negroes are slaves ; but the State has no means 
of identifying them or their masters. 



PRISONERS OP WAR. 411 

From the time of their capture, therefore, until December, 1864, 
when Governor Bonham turned them over to the military authori- 
ties again, these poor prisoners were in constant uncertainty- 
regarding their fate, with the gallows standing in the jail-yard as 
a reminder of what that fate was to be. They did not know, as 
appears herein, that action was suspended in their case, for the 
statements of both Johnson and States indicate that they believed 
their trial, or at least their liability to be tried, extended over 
many months. 

Our captured men in Charleston were joined by — 

Grover, William. Private, Co. E ; captured Nov. 12, 1863, North 
Edisto, S. C. ; died a prisoner in Eeb. 1865, at Florence, S. C. 

Of the circumstances regarding his capture nothing has been 
found. It is a singular fact that the date of Grover's capture is 
the same as that of Johnson and Logan, of the Fifty-fifth; and 
Botany Bay Island, where the latter were captured, forms one shore 
of the North Edisto, where the former is reported to have been 
made prisoner. 

Although the regiment was aware that many of the men were 
alive as prisoners, from reports of the enemy, the statements of 
deserters, contrabands, and other sources of information, the 
names of the survivors were not ascertained until, on Aug. 3, 
1864, a list was received under circumstances set forth on page 
218. This list is probably the one which appears in the " New 
York Tribune " of Aug. 10, 1863, in connection with the follow- 
ing letters : — 

COLORED SOLDIERS IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

To the Editor op the " I\ t ew York Tribune " : 

Sir, — While confined in Charleston Jail, S. C, in June last, as a 
prisoner-of-war, the following note was placed in my hands, and the accom- 
panying list. Massachusetts journals are requested to give them wide 
circulation. 

Respectfully yours, 

An Exchanged Officer. 
New York, August 9, 1861. 



412 APPENDIX. 

Sir, — I do in behalf of my fellow-prisoners earnestly hope and pray 
that this may be the means, through you, sir, of procuring our release. 
The privations of the while soldiers are nothing in comparison to ours 
and in our destitute condition, being as it were, without friends, and in the 
enemy's hands, with an almost hopelessness of being released, and not 
having heard from our families or friends since we were captured. 

Mass. 

List of colored soldiers and sailors, held as prisoners of war, at 
Charleston, S. C. June 13th, 1864: — 

Corporal Ralph B. Gardner. Co. A, 54th Mass. ; captured at Fort 

Wagner, July 18, 1863. 
James Allen. Co. A, 54th Mass.; captured at Fort Wagner, July 

18, 1863. 
William F. Hill. Co. A, 51th Mass. ; captured at Fort Wagner July 

18, 1863. 
Corporal Charles Hardy. Co. B, 51th Mass. ; captured at Fort War- 
ner, July 18, 1863. 
Lemuel Blake. Co. B, 54th Mass. ; captured at James Island, July 

11, 1863. 
George Counsel. Co. B, 54th Mass. ; captured at James Island, July 

14, 1863. 
George Grant. Captured at Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. 
Samuel Wilson. Jesse Brown. 

Wtlliam Rigsly. Alfred Green. 

Daniel States. Cornelius Henson, Co. C. 

George F. Prosser, Co. D. Nathaniel Hurley, Co. E. 

William Grover. William Butler. 

Jefferson Ellis, Co. F. George Mushroom. 

John Gray. George Thomas. 

Charles Stanton, Co. G. Solomon Anderson. 

Sergeant Walter A. Jeffries. Co. H, captured July 15, 1863, at 

James Island, S. C. 
Corporal A. Williams, Co. H. Wm. H. Kirk, Co. H. 

Wm. H. Worthington, Co. H. 
John W. Dixon, Co. H, 54th Mass. 
James Caldwell. Joseph H. Proctor. 

John Leatherman. Enos Smith. 

Wm. H. Harrison. Fred Wallace. 

ISARAEL WlLLTAMS. 

Sergeant Alfred Whiting. Co. I, captured at Fort Wagner, 
July 18, 1863. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 413 

Stuart Woods. Baltimore Smith. 

Joseph Beard, Co. K. 
Sergeant Robert Johnson, Jr. Co. F, 55th Mass.; captured at X. 

Edisto Island, S. C, Nov. 12, 1S63. 
Edward Logan. Co. F, 55th Mass. ; captured at N. Edisto Island, S. C, 

Nov. 12, 1863. 
Oren Brown. U. S. gunboat, " Isaac Smith," Feb. 1863. 
Wit. Johnson. U. S. gunboat, " Isaac Smith," Feb. 1863. 
Wji. Wilson. U. S. gunboat, " Isaac Smith," Feb. 1863. 
Wji. Taylor. U. S. gunboat, "Isaac Smith," Feb. 1863. 
James Mellet. U. S. Frigate Wabash ; captured at Fort Sumter. 

The foregoing list is given with all its errors of names, dates, 
etc., as printed; and although the fact is not known, from the 
arrangement, details, and imperfections which the printed list 
shows, it was probably signed by the prisoners. Editorially the 
" Tribune " said on the same date : — 

" We publish in another column a list of forty-six colored soldiers belong- 
ing to the Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts regiments, now held 
as prisoners in Charleston, S. C., sent us by a white officer of distinction 
recently exchanged, and who also had been confined in Charleston. Of its 
authenticity there can be no doubt, and the friends of these poor fellows, who 
have heard nothing of them for more than a year, will be greatly relieved 
to know that they are, at least, still alive. The number of colored soldiers 
taken prisoners in the department of the South during the last year is 
probably more than double the number here reported, but no doubt their 
numbers have been thinned by death. It is not impossible, however, that 
there may be other survivors than those whose names are given in this 
list, imprisoned either in Charleston or somewhere else in South Carolina. 
It is at any rate a relief to be assured that this number have been held as 
prisoners-of-war, and not summarily shot or sold into slavery." 

About the middle of July, 1864, the Confederates brought 
drafts of hundreds of Union officers, avowedly for the purpose 
of confining them under fire of the batteries before the city. 
Many were placed in Charleston Jail and the surrounding yard, 
enclosed by the high brick wall. There is frequent mention of 
the colored prisoners in the testimony given by some of these 
officers there confined, before the Congressional committee. 

Captain H. A. Coats, Eighty-fifth N". Y. Infantry, says that he 
was one of four hundred in the yard. They had no blankets and 



414 APPENDIX. 

had no shelter whatever. There was but one privy, never cleaned 
out. It was the most horrible place he was confined in. The 
stench was dreadful. The exposure, vile air, scanty clothing, 
and insufficient food made many sick. When protest was made 
they were told " it was good enough for damned Yankee sons of 

b s." In the Roper Hospital near by, to which the sick were 

taken, the room was sufficient, but rations were scanty. Both 
Union officers and Rebel guards had yellow fever there. Later, 
many enlisted men were brought and filled the jail-yard to over- 
flowing. In the hall of the jail was a sutler, who but tantalized 
the prisoners by a display of food held at prohibitory prices, 
except for a few fortunate ones. Only the visiting Sisters of 
Charity expressed any sympathy for the unfortunates, and they 
by acts, and not in words. In the yard the enfeebled, naked, 
and sometimes idiotic prisoners lay about under the few trees. 
The rebels did not try to do anything for the sufferers. " The 
only ones who did anything for them were the negroes who were 
captured on Morris Island and who were allowed to go there and 
take care of these men. They were the only ones who acted as 
nurses." The men died off very rapidly, and seemed to have no 
desire to live. The rebel surgeon in charge at Charleston was 
Todd (Mrs. Lincoln's brother). He acted badly towards them. 
The officers said he would come around among the men and kick 
and abuse them without trying to benefit their condition in the 
least. Later in his testimony, Captain Coats says that there were 
about twenty-five colored prisoners in the jail. They had nothing 
to eat but a small loaf of corn bread. They were compelled to 
clean out the jail and carry out all the filth from the prisoners, a 
work the whites were never made to do. One negro had charge 
of a ward where our officers were. Each ward had a kind of 
wash basin. One of our deserters confined there took out the 
basin, although the negro told him the doctor would not permit 
it. But the deserter took it out nevertheless. Later the deserter 
abused the negro who replied : " You have no right to talk in 
that way, — a man who deserted from the United Slates Service." 
Said he, " I am a soldier in the United States service, and you are 
a deserter." The deserter told Doctor Todd, who called up the 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 415 

negro, and he having told his story, it was corroborated by some 
of the officers. Doctor Todd said he did not care a damn, and 
had the negro taken out and given forty lashes. When the negro 
came back he said : " For God's sake, how long has this thing got 
to last ? " This Todd was considered the most degraded of all the 
rebels the prisoners had to do with. 

Capt. Frank E. Moran, Seventy-third 1ST. Y Infantry, was 
there in July, 1864, and testifies that there was a number of 
colored prisoners there. They were allowed to come into the 
yard once a day for water. One of them was murdered by the 
guard while coming for water. 

Lieut. Harvey G. Dodge, Second Penn. Cavalry, was taken 
there in August, 1864, and says that the water was miserable. 
There was a double row of tents then, extending around three 
sides of the yard, and four in a tent. It was almost impossible 
to keep clean; everything must be laid in the dirt; not a stone or 
piece of wood to lay anything on. Says there were about forty of 
the Fifty-fourth there, and some felons and convicts confined in 
the jail for desertion and other crimes. The captured colored 
soldiers had been there about a year, and were kept in close con- 
finement, except two or three who were made to do the work of 
the prison. 

Capt. Samuel C. Timson, Ninety-fifth New York infantry, was 
taken there Sept. 13, 1864. He says : — 

" There were twenty-one negro soldiers, most of them belonging to 
Colonel Shaw's Fifty-fourth Mass. regiment of immortal memory, among 
the number. They were never to be exchanged, but were to be reduced 
to slavery. They were all that were left of the colored troops captured at 
Wagner. The rest were bayoneted and shot after they surrendered. 
Their rations were bread and water; still they would sing Union songs, 
pouring their melody through their prison bars for the entertainment of 
the Union officers in the prison and below." 

He says there was no shelter for these officers. Filth, garbage, 
and \rrine were all about. The gallows were still in the jail-yard. 
Shells exploded about the jail. On Sept. 16 there was a 
great bombardment, but only two were injured, and slightly. 
No cooking utensils were provided. A lot of lean beef was 



41G APPENDIX. 

brought in and thrown down to divide. Sept. 17 the yard was 
so foul that no resting-place could be found. There was no 
shade. Night was welcome. Only salts were given as medicine. 
Sept. 20 the yard was submerged in consequence of two days' 
rain, and the filth was intolerable. Colonel -Junes, the com- 
mandant, did not reply to remonstrances for three days, and a 
second application brought answer that it was the best they could 
do. Capt. Timson's statement is to be found in the " Xew York 
Tribune " of March 15, 1865. 

Capt. C. W Brunt, First N. Y. Cavalry, was confined in 
hospital at Rykersville, four miles from Charleston, in September, 
1864. He testifies that Dr. George E. C. Todd was in charge, 
and claimed to be a brother of Mrs. Lincoln. He states that 
Todd was a profane, obscene, and brutal man. In his madness 
he would pound and kick the Union officers, and caused some 
to be bucked and gagged for spitting on the floor. Brunt testifies 
later as follows : — 

" One of the colored nurses (a soldier captured at Wagner) stopped to 
talk to me. Todd saw him and ordered the guard to have him whipped. 
Soon the screams of the poor fellow convinced me the order was being 
executed." 

In the "New York Times," of May 10, 1891, there appeared 
the following account of our men in Charleston Jail : — 

" On the third floor were confined a number of our colored soldiers who 
had been captured at Wagner and different points along the coast. They 
were lean, dirty, and ragged ; not a few had repaired their trousers and 
coats with pieces of canvas purloined from the tents in the yard, and the 
effect was very odd. Our colored comrades were not only the 'innocent 
cause of the war,' but, they were also the cause of the suspension of the 
cartel agreed to for the exchange of prisoners. Yet I never heard a 
decent Union soldier say a word against them, and I can bear evidence 
to the fortitude with which they bore their privations, and their simple 
faith in the ultimate triumph of the Union cause. Often after nine 
o'clock at night, when by the rules we were confined in our quarters, 
I have been aroused from a doze by the singing of the colored prisoners. 
At such times the voices coming down from the upper floors of the jail 
sounded very sweet, and there was a certain weird, indescribable sadness 
in the minor key melodies, that told of camp-meeting days and the 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 417 

religious hope that seemed to be confined exclusively to these poor 
fellows." 

We are again indebted to Glazier's account for tbe following : 

" At the close of the day the negro prisoners made a practice of getting 
together in the jail, and singing their plaintive melodies till late in the 
evening. The character of their songs was universally mournful, and it 
was often affecting to listen to them, — always embodying as they did those 
simple childlike emotions and sentiments for which the negro is so justly 
celebrated. The harmony and the rich melody of their voices are rarely 
surpassed. One song, which appeared to be a special favorite with 

them, was written by Sergeant Johnson, whom I have before mentioned. 
He intended it as a parody on ' When the cruel war is over.' I give 
this song as he furnished it to me: — 



" When I enlisted in the army, 

Then I thought 't was grand, 
Marching through the streets of Boston 

Behind a regimental band. 
When at Wagner, I was captured 

Then my courage failed ; 
Now I 'm dirty, hungry, naked, 

Here in Charleston Jail. 

CHORUS. 

Weeping, sad and lonely, 

Oh, how bad I feel ! 
Down in Charleston, South Carolina, 

Praying for a good, square meal. 

II. 

If Jeff Davis will release me, 

Oh, how glad I '11 be ! 
When I get to Morris Island, 

Then I shall be free. 
Then I '11 tell those conscript soldiers 

How they use ns here ; 
Giving us an old corn dodger, — 

They call it prisoners' fare. 

— Chorus. 
27 



418 APPENDIX. 



III. 



We are longing, watching, praying, 

But will not repine, 
Till Jeff Davis does release us, 

And send us in our lines. 
Then with words of kind affection 

How they '11 greet us there ! 
Wondering how we could live so long 

Upon the dodger fare. 

CHORUS. 

Then we will laugh, long and loudly. 

Oh, how glad we '11 feel 
When we arrive on Morris Island 

And eat a good, square meal ! " 

Glazier adds that the colored soldiers sang this song with great 
zest, as it related to their sufferings and hopes, and was just 
mournful enough to excite our sympathy. 

In these several accounts we notice different statements regard- 
ing the number of colored prisoners in the jail, and of the number 
allowed to visit the yard. This may be accounted for by the 
necessities of the work required there, or elsewhere in and about 
Charleston. 

Only one contemporaneous statement of a colored prisoner has 
been found. It is a letter of Sergeant Johnson of the Fifty- 
fifth Mass., previously referred to, published in the Boston " Lib-« 
erator " of Oct. 7, 1864. He says : — 

" I was captured by Confederate cavalry, Nov. 12, 1863, and have been 
a prisoner-of-war ever since. My treatment has been very humane con- 

sidering the circumstances of the case. The Confederate authorities show 
a disposition to release all free men, and as we come under that head, we 
hope a movement in that direction will be soon made. About fifty of the 
colored troops are at the jail in Charleston. They are not confined in 
cells, but volunteering to work they are permitted to go into the yard. 
Most of the men have hardly enough clothing to cover them. Tlieir food 
consists of one pint of meal each day. They receive nothing else from the 
Confederate authorities but this meal, and some of them say they never 



PEISONERS OF WAR. 419 

have enough to eat. Others do cooking for persons confined in the jail, 
and in this way get more to eat. The men speak of the treatment in other 
respects as not very harsh compared with the treatment they expected." 

It will be observed that the sergeant's statement of their treat- 
ment indicates less harshness towards them than has been gleaned 
from others' statements embodied herein. This may be explained 
by the fact that the " Liberator, " or rather the extract in our pos- 
session, does not give the source or means by which this letter was 
received, and if it came through the enemy's hands, subject to 
their scrutiny, possibly its statements were tempered to pass the 
Confederate authorities. 

Bonham wrote that on Dec. 8, 1864, he had turned over the 
colored prisoners to General Jones. On or about that date they 
were sent to Florence. States says they were taken there about 
December 1. Owing to the confinement of several hundred 
Confederate officers by us under fire on Cummings Point, Morris 
Island, the Confederates removed most of the Federal prisoners 
from the city of Charleston by the middle of October. This we 
heard of Oct. 13 from a Federal officer who escaped from 
Charleston and reported, " Our prisoners, with the exception of 
the colored soldiers captured at Wagner, have been removed from 
Charleston. " 

Florence Prison, Anderson County, South Carolina, was a 
stockaded enclosure surrounded by a ditch, comprising about 
twenty-three acres, some two miles from the town of Florence. 
"Through the enclosure ran a stream of water the banks of which 
were bordered by a swamp. From the upper point of this stream 
water for drinking was obtained; the lower part carried off the 
filth. The prisoners had no other shelter than they themselves 
constructed, — generally little dirt huts partly built of wood, some 
covering holes in the ground. No pots or pans were provided 
for cooking, which was done if at all by themselves. A rough 
frame-work situated in the northwest corner, inside the stockade, 
served as a hospital. For rations, generally about a pint of corn 
meal, a few spoonfuls of beans, and sometimes small pieces of 
beef were provided. Salt was very scarce. Strong guards 



420 APPENDIX. 

watched the prisoners from a platform upon the stockade, and 

artillery was posted on each corner. Lt.-Col. J. F. Iverson, 

of the Fifth Georgia, was commandant of the prison, and is 

favorably spoken of, so far as personal intercourse with the 

prisoners is concerned. But his subordinate, a red-headed fellow 

named Barrett, a lieutenant, was another fiend of the Wirz 

type, ferocious, brutal, and unmerciful. He made life a torment 

to all. Let us see what a resident of the South thought of 

Florence Prison : — 

Statesburg, South Carolina. 
October 12, ISM. 

Deak Sik, — Inclosed you will find an account of the terrible sufferings 
of the Yankee prisoners at Florence, Soutli Carolina. 

In the name of all that is holy, is there nothing that can be done to 
relieve such dreadful suffering? 

If such things are allowed to continue, they will most surely draw 
down some awful judgment upon our country. It is a most horrible 
national sin, that cannot go unpunished. If we cannot give them food and 
shelter, for God's sake parole them and send them back to Yankee-land, 
but don't starve the miserable creatures to death. 

Don't think I have any liking for the Yankees ; I have none. Those 
near and dear to me have suffered too much from their tyranny for me to 
have anything but hatred to them ; but I have not yet become quite brute 
enough to know of such suffering without trying to do something even for 
a Yankee. 

Yours respectfully, 

Sabina Dismukes. 

The indorsement upon this letter, referring it, shows that 
President Davis, J. W- Campbell, acting Secretary of AVar, 
General Winder, and other high officials saw it. It covered an 
article from a correspondent of the " Sumter Watchman " from 
which the following is taken : — 

" The camp we found full of what were once human beings, but 
who would scarcely now be recognized as such. In an open field [tins 
was just before the stockade was erected], with no inclosure but the living 
wall of sentinels who guard them day and night, are several thousand 
filthy, diseased, famished men, with no hope of release but death. A few 
dirty rags stretched on poles give them a poor protection from the hot 
sun and heavy dews. All were in rags, and barefooted, and crawling with 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 421 

vermin. As we passed around the line of guards I saw one of them 
brought from his miserable booth by two of his companions and laid upon 
the ground to die. He was nearly naked. His companions pulled bis 
cap over his face and straightened out his limbs. Before they turned to 
leave him he was dead. A slight movement of the limbs and all was over. 
The captive was free ! The commissary's tent was near one side of the 
square, and near it the beef was laid on boards preparatory to its distri- 
bution. This seemed to excite the prisoners as the smell of blood does the 
beasts of a menagerie. They surged up as near the lines as they were 
allowed, and seemed in their eagerness about to break over. While we 
were on the ground a heavy rain came up, and they seemed greatly to 
enjoy it, coming out a puris naturalibus, opening their mouths to catch 
the drops, while one would wash off another with his hands and then 
receive from him the like kind office. [From the camp of the living the 
visitor passed to the camp of the dead, the hospital.] A few tents, cov- 
ered with pine tops, were crowded with the dying and the dead in every 
stage of corruption. Some lay in prostrate helplessness ; some had crowded 
under the shelter of the bushes ; some were rubbing their skeleton limbs. 
Twenty or thirty of them die daily, — most of them, I am informed, of the 
scurvy. The corpses lay by the roadside waiting for the dead-cart, their 
glassy eyes turned to heaven, the flies swarming in their mouths, their 
big toes tied together with a cotton string, and their skeleton arms folded 
on their breasts." 

During their stay at Florence the lot of our colored prisoners 
seems to have been that common to all confined there, in all its 
misery, despair, and wretchedness. While there even their light- 
heartedness seems to have been subdued to the level of that of 
their white comrades ; the upraising of their voices in song, if voice 
remained, would have been a mockery. When the soul fled from 
their skeleton forms the colored men were laid away apart from 
the other dead. During the winter the cold at times was intense, 
for ice formed and many prisoners were frost-bitten. The prison- 
ers, half naked, burrowed in their underground holes, and with 
broken health, despairing of release, bore as best they could the 
days and nights of torture and despair. The thinned and sluggish 
blood, vitiated by disease, poisoned their whole systems. Scurvy, 
diarrhcea, and gangrene set in, the forerunner of death in many 
cases. As at other prisons, their loyalty was tempted ; and 
the hearts of the stanch and true were wrung by the sight of 



422 APPENDIX. 

several hundred of their number, who, to relieve their sufferings, 
availed themselves of the frequent offers made to enlist them in the 
rebel army. Those who incurred the displeasure of their guards 
were mercilessly punished by whipping, put into torturing hand- 
cuffs, or strung up by the thumbs. Rubbers, of their own number, 
stole from the incautious or weak the shreds of blankets, clothes, 
or pans used for cooking. Old diseases long dormant asserted 
themselves in consequence of their privations and exposure. 

At one time some 15,000 prisoners were in Florence stockade. 
In January, 1865, 7500 were confined there. During its occu- 
pancy the number buried was about 3000, of Avhom all but about 
200 are unknown. The mortality reached eleven per cent a 
month. 

With the oncoming of Sherman's army in February, 1865, 
threatening the release of prisoners, it became necessary to remove 
them. The rebel armies of Lee and Johnson were being driven 
into more contracted lines. Under these conditions the prisoners 
had to endure increased privations; so that when forced to march 
away in droves, or taken into railroad cars packed like cattle, the 
suffering was dreadful, causing the death of hundreds while 
moving, or immediately after release. The Florence prisoners 
were taken in various directions, and it is hard to gain any clear 
account of the colored prisoners. 

Daniel States says: — 

"From July IS, 1S63, were in Charleston. Were taken from there to 
Florence stockade about December 1, 1S04. There were some fifty-four, 
and all went to Florence. Were two months and nineteen days at Florence. 
On March 4, 1865, the last lot were paroled ; some had left before." 

The number of prisoners mentioned, "fifty-four," doubtless 
refers to all colored prisoners removed, and not Fifty-fourth men 
alone. When he says that the last lot were paroled March 4, 
he probably means at the parole ground where they were at the 
time. This we know to have been at Goldsboro, N. C. 

Alfred Green, of Co. I!, also a Fifty-fourth prisoner, makes 
a more detailed statement of his experience and says, — 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 423 

" We were taken to Florence Stockade and remained over winter, and 
from there we were brought to Raleigh, N. C, and were then taken to 
Wilmington, N. C, and from there to Goldsboro, N. C. We were then 
brought back to Wilmington, and remained until the night before it was 
taken. We were then removed to a wood the other side of the railroad 
bridge between Wilmington and Goldsboro. We were there when our 
army came up. We heard our guns. We were then taken back to 
Goldsboro, and there remained until we were paroled. The paroling 
grounds were between Wilmington and Goldsboro." 

We must depend upon other testimony than that of our own 
men regarding the Florence prisoners just before release. Captain 
John G. B. Adams, Nineteenth Mass. Infantry says, — 

"At Goldsboro I saw about fifteen hundred of our enlisted men, and 
they were in the worst possible condition. They had been in the cars 
three days, and, in my opinion, not twenty-five of them were able to stand 
on their feet. When they unloaded the cars three men were dead, and 
they threw them on the side of the railroad like so many dogs. I saw 
men of my company who did not recognize me, — they were idiotic. 
Some had lost their sight completely, and were covered with vermin. 
They could not possibly keep themselves clean, and men died from vermin. 
This was in the month of February, and they had no shoes, and some had 
their feet badly frozen, so that blood flowed from them when they attempted 
to walk." 

Julius H. Marvin, Fifth Vermont Infantry, testifies, — 

" We were next taken to Wilmington and camped on the beach under 
guard, and were there issued a pint of raw meal, the first that we had to 
eat for three days. When we left Wilmington some of our sick men were 
confined in a log hut, and the lieutenant in command, a one-armed mail, 
ordered the shanty to be set on fire, and two men were unable to get out, 
and were burned to death. From there we were taken about the country 
in various directions. Some of the prisoners became moon blind, and the 
other prisoners were made to put a rope around their necks and draw 
them alon°\ Others that lagged behind were driven up by cavalry, who 
were ordered to shoot them if they did not come along. We finally 
reached Goldsboro, N. C., and were confined in the woods. It was wet 
and damp, and the prisoners made large fires to keep themselves warm 
and dry. But the smoke made many blind. I felt the effect of this 
smoke in my lungs many months after I got home, and have been troubled 
ever since from it. At Goldsboro, five thousand of us were paroled 
February 26, 1865." 



424 APPENDIX. 

Out of thirty-nine Fifty-fourth men supposed to have been taken 
to Florence from Charleston, we have record of twelve who died 
before, and two immediately after release, — a fearful mortality in 
less than three months, and nearly four times as great as sustained 
in seventeen months at Charleston. 

Official reports give the loss of the Fifty-fourth at the battle of 
Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864, as eight enlisted men missing, besides 
the killed and wounded. The First North Carolina Infantry 
(afterwards the Thirty-fifth U. S. colored troops) and the Eighth 
TJ. S. colored troops were also engaged, and sustained losses in 
prisoners. 

The roster in this history names eight men as captured. But 
in a list of Federal wounded prisoners, signed by J. S. Morrell, 
surgeon C. S. A., dated at Lake City, Fla., March 31, 1864, and 
copied in the " New York Herald " of Apr. 13, 1864, are found 
the names of Jason Champlin and William H. Morris, of the 
Fifty-fourth, who in the roster are reported as missing. These 
names are added, therefore, to the list, which is as follows : — 

Champlin, Jason. Private, Co. K ; roster says, " missing, supposed 

killed, " and nothing further ; name in list of wounded prisoners 

at Lake City, March 31, 1864. 
Gooding, James H. Corporal, Co. C, wounded; died a prisoner, 

July 19, 1864, at Andersonville, Ga. 
Hawkins, Isaac S. Private, Co. D ; exchanged March 4, 1865, at 

Goldsboro, N. C ; discharged June 20, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. ; name 

in list of wounded prisoners. 
Johnson, Edward. Private, Co. G, wounded; discharged July 16, 1865, 

at Beaufort, S. C, for disability. 
Mitchell, William. Private Co. F; roster says, "wounded and pris- 
oner," and nothing further ; name in list of wounded prisoners, 

March 31, 1S64, at Lake City, Fla. 
Morris, George. Corporal, Co. B, wounded ; exchanged March 4, 1865, 

at Goldsboro, N. C. ; returned to regiment June 7, 1865. 
Morris, William H. Private Co. K ; roster says, " missing, supposed 

killed," and nothing further ; name in list of wounded prisoners, 

March 31, 1864, at Lake City, Fla. 
Rensellaer, Charles M. Private, Co. C ; died a prisoner, June 8, 1864, 

at Andersonville, Ga. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 425 

Stewart, George H. Private, Co. G; exchanged March 4, 1865, at 
Goldshoro, N. C. ; discharged Oct. 7, 1865, at General Hospital, 
Alexandria, Va. 

Vanalstyne, William D. Private, Co. B ; died a prisoner, Sept. 10, 1864, 
at Andersonville, Ga. 

Besides these ten men of the Fifty-fourth, the following named 
is reported in roster under circumstances as below stated, and 
his name is included for the purposes of this writing with our 
prisoners : — 

Cook, William. Private, Co. G, " missing ; Peb. 21, 1864 ; left sick at 
Barber's Pork., Pla." and no further record. 

Attention is directed to the fact that the prisoners released are 
reported to have been exchanged at the same place and date as 
their comrades captured before Charleston. Whether they met 
the latter then or at some earlier date, does not appear. They 
were certainly removed from Andersonville before that prison was 
closed. All the Olustee prisoners or missing in the roster are 
accounted for, except Corporal Robert J. Jones, of Co. I, — of 
whom the record says, " missing, supposed died prisoner, " and 
nothing further. 

Our wounded appear to have been first taken to Lake City, 
Fla., and later to Tallahassee, Fla. In an article published in 
the "Philadelphia Weekly Times" of Sept. 19, 1885, Captain 
Eobert H. Gamble, who commanded the Leon Light Battery 
in the engagement, says, — 

" I have a distinct recollection of there being many wounded negroes ; 
and the next morning my colored servant, by my order, devoted himself 
to caring for them, I telling him, at the time, that he was released from 
duty, so that his time could be given to his color, which he cheerfully did. 
Afterwards many colored wounded prisoners were brought to Tallahassee, 
and placed in the Masonic Lodge as a hospital, where they were carefully 
cared for." 

But another account, in the " Charleston News " of July 21, 1884, 
written by Florida Saxon, of Clarendon Co., S. C, says that — 

" The public buildings [in Tallahassee] were converted into temporary 
hospitals for the prisoners. The wounded negro prisoners were taken to 
the seminary." 



426 APPENDIX. 

Unfortunately we have no statement of their capture or impris- 
onment from any of the Olustee men who fell into the enemy's 
hands, and the accounts of them given must perforce be gleaned 
from other sources. 

Those of them who survived up to that date were taken, 
according to the testimony of Thomas "Walsh, 74th N. Y Infan- 
try, given before the Congressional committee, to Andersonville; 
for he says : " On the 14th March, 1864, a number of colored 
soldiers with their officers arrived; the officers remained some 
days at the stockade." Walsh was an intelligent and careful 
witness, who refreshed his recollection by reference to a Testament, 
in which, while imprisoned, he made entries of the principal 
events, as well as important statistics of deaths, etc., while paroled 
for duty in the office of the chief surgeon. 

Andersonville Stockade was an inclosed space of land cleared 
in the surrounding pine forest, at a point on the Southwestern 
Railroad, sixty-five miles south of Macon, Georgia. Outside were 
two lines of defence and protection against an uprising. The 
enclosure was in the form of a parallelogram, and as enlarged 
in July, 1864, gave a space of twenty-three and a half acres. 
Across this space, about one third of the distance from the south 
end, ran a sluggish stream, bordered on each side by a low swamp 
of about six acres. This swamp was the receptacle of the filth, 
offal, and waste of the prisoners, as well as of the cook-houses 
and camps outside of the stockade, and became a festering sink 
of corruption alive with maggots and vermin; from it arose 
malignant vapors deadly to human life. This stream, running 
through such a noisome sink-hole, and itself polluted by the 
filth of the guards who washed and bathed in it, and which like 
a sewer carried on its slowly moving surface a mantle of grease 
and sour refuse from the cook-houses, was the only source of water 
supply for the prisoners except from a few shallow wells and 
springs. 

Inside the stockade some twenty feet, was the dead-line, beyond 
which death came instantly to the ignorant prisoners' newly incar- 
cerated, the demented as he staggered about, the thirsty who but 
reached beyond it to secure a cup of somewhat less vitiated water, 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 427 

or the desperate to whom the life was no longer endurable and 
who desired their end. 

This pen, with all its misery, its despair and mingled hope 
endured for months, has been thus described : — 

" It would seem as if the concentrated madness of earth and hell had 
found its final lodgment in the breasts of those who inaugurated the rebel- 
lion and controlled the policy of the Confederate government, and that the 
prison of Andersonville had been selected for the most terrible human 
sacrifice which the world had ever seen. Into its narrow walls were crowded 
thirty-five thousand enlisted men, many of them the bravest and best, the 
most devoted and heroic of the grand armies which carried the flag of 
their country to final victory. For long and weary months here they suf- 
fered, maddened, were murdered, and died. Here they lingered unsheltered 
from the burning rays of a tropical sun by day, and drenching and deadly 
dews by night, in every stage of mental and physical disease, hungered, 
emaciated, starving, maddened, festering with unhealed wounds ; gnawed by 
the ravages of scurvy and gangrene, with swollen limbs and distorted visage ; 
covered with vermin which they had no power to extirpate ; exposed to 
the flooding rains, which drove them drowning from the miserable holes in 
which, like swine, they burrowed ; parched with thirst, and mad with hun- 
ger ; racked with pain or prostrated with the weakness of dissolution ; with 
naked limbs and matted hair; filthy with smoke and mud, soiled with the 
very excrement from which their weakness would not permit them to es 
cape ; eaten by the gnawing worms which their own wounds had engen- 
dered ; with no bed but the earth, no covering save the cloud or sky. And 
these men, these heroes, born in the image of God, thus crouching and 
writhing in their terrible torture, a loathsome, horrible sight, the mutilated 
victims of a cool and calculating barbarity, stand forth in history as a 
monument of the surpassing horrors of Andersonville, as it shall be seen 
and read in all future time, realizing in the studied torments of their 
prison-house the ideal of Dante's Inferno and Milton's Hell." 

Warren Lee Goss, Sergt. 2d Mass. Heavy Artillery, gave 
evidence regarding the colored prisoners to the committee, 
saying, — 

" Scarcely any of them but were victims of atrocious amputations per- 
formed by rebel surgeons. It was said that none of the prisoners were 
captured except the wounded. Those in the prison were mostly New 
England men. Some of them had been captured at the battle of 

Olustee, Florida. I observed in the negro prisoners a commendable trait of 
cleanliness. Indeed, I may safely say their clothes were, on an average, 



428 APPENDIX. 

cleaner and better patched than those of other prisoners of the stockade. 
Through exposure to the sun and rain tbey were much blacker than the 
common Southern negroes, and many were the exclamations of surprise 
among the guards at this fact. ' The blackest niggers I ever saw,' was 
the common expression on seeing them. I have said the negroes were 
mostly wounded and mutilated ; when there had been a case of amputation, 
it had been performed in such a manner as to twist and distort the limb 
out of shape. When a negro was placed in a squad among white men, it 
was usually accompanied with an injunction addressed to the sergeant of 
the squad, ' Make the d — d nigger work for and wait upon you ; if lie 
does not, lick him, or report him to me and I will.' I never knew an 
instance, however, where a sergeant required of the black any service not 
usually allotted to others, and that in drawing and distributing rations. 

With the exception of Major Bogle, there were no commissioned officers 
intentionally placed in Andersonville. Others were there by their own 
act; but the prison was intended for enlisted men only. Major Bogle 

at one time was engaged in a tunnelling operation, in which he plotted to 
release all the prisoners of the stockade. It failed through the treason of 
some one in the secret, though it came near being a success." 

The Major Bogle referred to by Goss was Archibald Bogle, 
major of the 1st North Carolina (colored) ; he was wounded and 
captured at Olustee. His wounds were a slight one in the body 
and a very severe one in the right leg, which fractured both bones. 
He says, — 

" On the 14th of March, 1864, I came to the stockade feeling very 
faint. I heard there was a hospital inside the stockade, and I got some 
men to help me up there. I was on crutches at the time. I went in, and 
one of our own men who was acting hospital steward, commenced to bind 
up my leg, and was binding it when Surgeon White came in and ordered 
him to desist, saying at the same time, ' Send him out there with his 
niggers ; ' or something to that effect, and using an oath at the same time. 
I said nothing, but merely looked at him. The hospital steward finished 
the dressing of my leg, and it was cared for by our men afterward. I was 
in full uniform. While I was there I demanded to have my rank 

recognized. I made several demands. I was used in every respect the 
same as private soldiers, only worse. When I got to Milieu an officer 

came to me and got my name, rank, and regiment. The officer command- 
ing at Millen, Captain Bowles, put me in the stockade again and refused 
to put my name on the register, saying at the same time that I should 
never be exchanged. I left Andersonville on the 18th of November, I 
believe." 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 429 

H. T. Blecky, 112th Penn. Infantry was there in June, 1864, 

and testifies, — 

" One colored soldier laid in the swamp with a wound in his abdomen, 
from which his bowels protruded ; he was perfectly helpless, and the lice 
and maggots were literally devouring him." 

William Davis, First Mass. Heavy Artillery, testifies that he 
was at Andersonville and that — 

"These colored soldiers that belonged to the 54th and 55th [?] Mass. 
regiments, who were prisoners there, were detailed to carry out the dead, 
and the dead were thrown into wagons outside and carried off." 

Elgin Woodlin, Eleventh Mass. Infantry, testifies that in the 
summer of 1864 there were colored prisoners at Andersonville. 

" Some of these men were wounded, and the rebels refused to do any- 
thing for them ; they received no medicine or medical treatment. They 
were compelled to load and unload the dead who died daily in the stockade. 
In the issue of rations they were counted in a squad with white prisoners, 
and received about the same. They were treated worse than dumb brutes, 
and the language used toward them by the rebels was of the most oppro- 
bious character." 

Henry C. Lull, sergeant One Hundred and Forty-sixth N. Y. 
Infantry, testifies, — 

" No medicine was given to colored soldiers, although they were sick 
with the scurvy and other diseases, and applied to the surgeon for them. 
I saw them take one of the colored soldiers, and strip him, and give him 
thirty lashes until the blood ran, and his back was all cut up. This was 
because he was not able to go out and work as he had been in the habit of 
doing." 

Oliver B. Fairbanks, ISTinth N. Y. Cavalry, testifies in answer 
to the question whether there were colored soldiers in Anderson- 
ville, — 

" There were a few, — I should say fifty altogether ; but most of them 
had lost a leg or an arm, or were badly wounded in some way. They 
seemed to have a particular spite toward the colored soldiers, and they had 
to go without rations several days at a time on account of not daring to go 
forward and get them." 



430 APPENDIX. 

Walter M. Mitchell, Tenth N. Y Infantry, says in his evidence 
that there were some fifty colored soldiers in Andersonville in 
May, 1864. He continues, regarding them, — 

" Some were able-bodied, some were wounded. One I know to have 
had his leg amputated. I saw the rebel guards come in one day, and at 
the point of the bayonet force all the colored soldiers they could find out- 
side the stockade. They told us they were going to force them to work 
upon the breastworks, which the colored soldiers refused to do until com- 
pelled to do it at the point of the bayonet." 

It has been estimated that 44, 882 Federal prisoners were con- 
fined in Andersonville during the thirteen months of the occu- 
pancy of the prison. Their jailer boasted that he was killing 
more Union soldiers there than Lee was in Virginia. The 
deaths numbered 12,462. Of the eleven Fifty -fourth men pre- 
sumed to have been there confined, three are known to have died 
in the place, four have no final record, the remainder were 
released. 

At the battle of Honey Hill, S. C, Nov. 30, 1864, there were 
no missing men, but the below-named man was captured. 

Harms, Hill. Private, Co. G, captured and wounded ; released 25th 
April, 1865 ; and discharged 30th Sept. 1865, at Boston, Mass. 

Harris' statement, in a pension application, is that he was 
taken to Charleston Jail, and after several months to Anderson- 
ville, thence to Montgomery, Ala., and finally to Annapolis, Md. 

The list of men known to have been captured is closed with the 
following, of whose capture or release nothing further is known 
than the record gives : — 

Crossler, Chattncey. Private, Co. F ; captured at Camden, S. C, 
18th April, 1865 ; escaped and returned 2d July, 1865. 

In conclusion, the following tribute to the class of troops of 
which our regiment was composed is extracted from the report 
of the Congressional committee : — 

" These troops entered the service and bore arms for the Union 
with the knowledge that the cold-blooded and infamous order of Jefferson 
Davis consigned them to death or slavery when captured, and that for 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 



431 



them as soldiers there was to be no quarter in field, camp, or prison ; that 
their rights as prisoners-of-war were to be denied and ignored, and they, 
if captured, sacrificed to the fell spirit of slavery. That this policy 

was carried out to the bitter end is very evident from the fact that only 
79 died while prisoners-of-war, 236 were exchanged, 77 escaped, and 384 
were recaptured by our forces; not one enlisted in the service of the 
enemy, or deserted the flag of the country. The balance of the colored 
troops captured in battle were inhumanly murdered according to the 
Confederate orders, or sold into slavery under a revival of the barbarous 
rules of war now unknown and unrecognized by civilized nations." 



STATISTICS OF FIFTY-FOURTH PRISONERS. 

(Compiled from individual records in appendix.) 































a 






t4 


tc 


cc 








p 


is 








P2 


o 
















S3 






WHERE CAPTURED. 


ri 
a. 




a 


5 




V 






<*S 

3 




























01 










<u 


3 




W 


PS 


R 


« 


Eh 


"" 


a 


« 


Pi 


James Island 


- 


9 


4 


- 


13 


4 


2 


7 




Fort Wagner 


- 


15 


11 


3 


29 


7 


7 


6 


2 


North Edisto 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Olustee . 


- 


4 


3 


3 


10 


7 


2 


2 


- 


Barber's 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Honey Hill 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


Camden 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Total 


1 


29 


19 


7 


56 


19 


12 


16 


2 



The table on page 392 of this history gives a total of 106 
enlisted men as missing or captured. Accepting the figures of 
the above table, accounting for 56 men, we have the balance of 
50 men missing, of whom 49 were lost at Fort Wagner and one at 
Olustee. The changes in this table from the one on page 392 
are, the transfer of three Olustee and three Wagner missing to 



432 



APPENDIX. 



those captured, and the separating of the man left at Barber's 
from the Olustee missing, and taking him up as captured. 

That those who desire to learn the names of the missing, 
remaining after taking up those men captured accounted for in 
this last writing, can do so without the labor of examining the 
roster name by name, the following list is given : — 

Missing at Fort Wagner. 



Co. A. 



Benton, Andrew, 1st. Sergt. 
Dugan, George W., Private. 
Ellis, George J. P., " 

Ford, Joseph, " 

Garrison, Silas, " 



Allison, George, Private. 

Bailey, David, " 

Brooks, John Henry, " 
Brown, Morris, " 



Campbell, Joseph R., Private. 
Hall, Joseph Lee, " 

Halsey, Ira E., " 

Johnson, Samuel, " 

Anderson, William, Private. 
Harris, Alfred, " 

Lopeman, Charles H., " 



Body, Charles, 
Myers, William, 
Nichols, Harrison, 



Private. 



Corp. 



Augustus, Charles, 

Brady, Randolph, " 

Freeman, James E., Private. 

Gaines, Noah, " 

Lyons, Robert, Corp. 



Jackson, James H., Private. 
Johnson, Peter B., " 

Lamb, Marshall, " 

townsend, ralsey r., " 
Waterman, George F., " 



Co. B. 

Glasgow, London, 
Snowdon, John A., 
Walls, Albert, 



Private. 



Co. C. 

Price, George, Private. 

Torrence, Abram P., " 
Turner, Treadwell, " 

Co. E. 

Proctor, Joseph J., Corp. 
Weeks, John, Private. 

Co. G. 

Stevens, John, Private. 

Tyler, William H., " 

Underwood, William, " 



Co. I. 

Pillow, William, 
Stoner, Thomas, 
Williams, Ezekiel, 
Williams, IIexry B., 
Williamson, John, 



Private. 



PRISONERS OF WAR. 433 

Co. K. 

Mahan, Jesse, Private. Stevenson, Allen W., Private. 

Morgan, Colonel, " Wilson, John H., " 

Missing at Olustee. 

Co. I. 

Jones, Robert J., Private. 

Of the foregoing the following named are reported wounded in 
the roster: Private James H. Jackson, Co. A; Private Jesse 
Mahan, Co. K; Private Allen W Stevenson, Co. K; and Private 
John H. Wilson, Co. K. In the individual records of the missing 
as given in the roster, it will be noticed that the words " missing " 
or " missing, supposed killed, " and sometimes " missing, supposed 
died prisoner" are used; but as the word or words used in tbe 
several cases run uniformly the same in the several companies, it 
seems probable that the words " supposed killed, " or " supposed 
died prisoner " were merely a choice of words used by the 
respective company commanders and but a supposition, without 
any positive proof of the killing or capture, and they have been 
so regarded throughout this writing. 



28 



INDEX. 



A. 

"A" Company, 9, 20, 34, 38, 39, 75, 83, 
90, 121, 144, "145, 148, 150, 158, 159, 172, 
173, 174, 176, 188, 198, 202, 204, 221, 
223, 232, 234, 237, 245, 254, 266, 286, 
291, 292, 293, 302, 303, 309, 310, 311, 
312, 316, 317. 

Abbott, Joseph C, 160. 

Abercrombie, John J., Jr., 207. 

Act for Deficit of Pay, 136, 142. 

Adams Express, 228. 

Adams, John — armed steamer, 40, 41, 
61. 

Adams' Run, S. C, 199, 208, 279. 

Adjutant-General, Mass., 33, 63, 126, 173, 
175, 318. 

Affray at the Battery, 313. 

Agassiz, Louis J. R., 16, 24. 

Age of officers, average, 6. 

Alabama Troops. 
Cavalry: 
Hannon's Brigade, 301. 

Alice, Confederate steamer, 107. 

Alston, Joseph, 290. 

Altamaha River, Ga., 41. 

Ames, Adelbert, 175, 178, 184, 185. 

Ames, Oakes, 15. 

Ames, William, 236. 

Amnesty Proclamation, 312. 

Anderson, Edward C, Jr., 107. 

Anderson, J., 249. 

Anderson, J. Patton, 178, 179, 183. 

Anderson, Peter J., 249. 

Anderson ville Prison, 173, 183. 

Andrew, John A., 2, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 17, 23, 
25, 31, 32, 36, 37, 43, 94, 107, 131, 132, 
135, 136, 137, 142, 149, 150, 181, 191, 
268, 319. 
Andrew, John A., letter to Francis G. 
Shaw, 3. 



Andrew, John A., letter to George T. 

Downing, 18. 
Andrew, Mrs. John A., 16, 23. 
Andrews, Samuel, 32. 
Anson, R. E., 282. 
Anti-Slavery Society, 180. 
Appleton, John W. M., 8, 9, 34, 39, 83, 90, 

92, 133, 144, 150, 152, 155, 159, 171, 176, 

195, 196, 197, 202, 205, 219. 
Appleton, Thomas L., 34, 55, 59, 85, 91, 

105, 133, 149, 150, 182, 183, 192, 193, 

201, 237, 247, 271, 291, 317. 
Appointments in Colored Regiments, 315. 
Archer, James J., 196. 
Arming Negroes, 1. 
Armistice, Sherman and Johnston, 307. 
Arms purchased, 317. 
Ashepoo, S. C, 193, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279. 
Ashepoo River, 276. 
Ashland, steamer, 317. 
Ashley River, S. C, 213, 280, 281, 282, 310, 

311. 
Assassination of Lincoln, 308. 
Association Fifty-Fourth Officers, 305. 
Atkinson, Edward, 16. 
Atlanta, Confederate ironclad, 46. 
Atlantic and Gulf Railroad, 155, 240. 
Attack on the "Marblehead," 144. 
Attempt against "Ironsides," 132. 
Attempts on Gregg, 119, 121. 
Attucks, Crispus, 32. 

B. 

"B" Company, 9, 20, 38, 54, 55, 59, 75, 
90, 92, 93, 97, 133, 145, 148, 150, 153, 
158, 164, 165, 166, 168, 176, 188, 190, 
198, 202, 217, 219, 221, 234, 283, 284, 
286, 291, 304, 309, 310, 311, 312, 315, 
316, 317. 



436 



INDEX. 



Balch, George B., 63. 

Baldwin, Fla., 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 173, 

182. 
Baird, George W., 241. 
Band of regiment, 15, 47. 
Baptist Society (Twelfth), 318. 
Barber's, Fla., 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 170, 

171, 172, 173. 
Barker, John, 249. 
Barnard, J. M., 15. 
Barrow, James, 173. 
Barquet, J. H., 144, 147. 
Barton, Battery, 139. 
Barton, William B., 155, 159, 161, 162, 163, 

179. 
Bates, Edward, 150. 
Battery Island, S. C, 52. 
Bayne, Dr., 10. 

Beacon house, 89, 106, 122, 189. 
Beard, Oliver T., 4. 
Beaufort, S. C, 36, 37, 38, 55, 105, 176, 

265. 
Beaufort National Cemetery, 173. 
Beauregard, G. T., 54, 55," 112, 120, 122, 

135, 150, 157, 178, 185, 264, 281, 282, 

313, 314. 
Becker, Theodore J., 34. 
Bee, Battery, 282, 314. 
Beecher, James C, 243, 247, 250. 
Belvedere Creek, S. C, 284. 
Bemis, George, 16. 
Benham,H. W., 54. 
Bennett, A. G., 201, 282, 283. 
Bennett, Horace, 302. 
Bennett, William T., 245, 247, 314. 
Benton, Samuel J., 309. 
Berry, William, 10. 
Big Rafting Creek, S. C, 304. 
Birnev, William, 193, 199, 208, 210, 212. 
"Black Committee," 11, 140, 181. 
Black Island, S. C, 129, 186, 187, 189, 191, 

192, 207, 213, 219, 234. 
Black River, S. C. 291, 292. 
Blair, Frank, 266, 271. 
Blair's Landing, S. C, 255. 
Blake, Charles, 98. 
Blau, Gustav, 211. 
Block House No. 1, 191, 192, 193. 
Blockade running, 194, 195. 
Bloody Bridge, S. C, 214, 215. 
Blue House, S. C, 277. 
"Bluff Battery," 129, 134. 



Boat Infantry, 119, 188. 

Boat reconnoissance of Sumter, 139. 

Bogle, Archibald, 167. 

Bohicket Creek, S. C, 209. 

Bolan's church, 239, 241, 242, 245, 247, 

250, 255. 
Bonaventure Cemetery, 287. 
Bonham, M. L., 97. 
Boston Brigade Band, 318. 
Boston, Departure from, 32. 
Boston "Journal," 8, 136. 
Boston, steamer, 64, 182, 193. 
Bounty from United States, 137. 
Bounty rolls, 24. 
Bowditch, William I., 11. 
Boyd's Landing, S. C, 238, 239, 241, 254, 

257. 
Boykin's Mills, S. C, 301, 305. 
Boynton, W. P., 244. 
Bradford Springs, S. C, 299. 
Bragg, Braxton, 135, 195. 
Branchville, S. C, 270, 272, 275. 
Brannan, J. M., 266. 
Brayton, C. R., 124. 

Bridge, Watson W , 10, 20, 34, 51, 133, 
164, 165, 192, 193, 202, 212, 233, 234, 
283, 291, 301, 302, 316. 
Bridgham, Charles B., 34, 51, 142, 164, 

166, 169, 172, 176, 196. 
Bridgham, Thomas S., 158, 164, 237, 291, 

308, 316. 
Brigaded with — 

Montgomery's, 46. 

Montgomery's, of Terry's Division, 
53. 

Third, of Terry's Division, 106, 138. 

Fourth, of Terry's Division, 114. 

Montgomery's, of Seymour's Divis- 
ion, 159. 

Third, of Ames' Division, 176. 

Hallowell's, of Provisional Division, 
290. 
Briggs, Charles E., 196, 202, 209, 237, 251, 

291, 317. 
Broad River, S. C, 237, 257, 263. 
Brock, Hattie, prize steamer, 182. 
" Brook gun," Battery, 207. 
Brooks, J. W., 15. 
Brooks, Thomas B., 117. 
Brown, Abraham F., 54. 
Brown, George, 56. 
Brown, Joseph E.,240. 



INDEX. 



437 



Brown, P. P., 231, 290, 308. 

Brown, William H., 304. 

Brown, William Wells, 12. 

Browne, Albert G., 16, 132. 

Browne, Albert G., Jr., 16, 132. 

Brunswick, Ga., 40. 

Brush, George W., 48. 

Buckle's Bluff, Fla., 184. 

Buffalo Creek, Ga., 40. 

Buffum, Charles, 16. 

Buist, Henry A.., 227. 

Bull's Bay, S. C, 141, 225, 275, 284. 

Burgess, Thomas, 92. 

Burial of Shaw, 98, 226. 

Burning of Darien, Ga., 42. 

Burns, Anthony, 32. 

"Burnt district," 139,284. 

Burr, Aaron, 290. 

Burr, Theodosia, 290. 

Butler, Albert, 140. 

Butler, Benjamin F., 1, 16. 

Butler, Lewis, 87. 

Butler, Pierce, 45. 

c. 

" C " Company, 10, 20, 38, 39, 40, 75, 90, 
92, 129, 145, 148, 150, 155, 164, 168,173, 
183, 186, 198, 207, 234, 237, 245, 247, 263, 
285, 286, 291, 300, 309, 310, 311, 312, 316, 
317, 318, 320, 321. 

Cabot, John H., 16. 

Cabot, Mary E., 16. 

Cabot, S., Jr., 15. 

Calcium lights, 117, 138. 

Callahan, Fla., 155. 

Caller, Daniel, 12. 

Camden, S. C, 297, 300. 

Camden Branch Railroad, 295, 297, 306. 

Cameron, Captain, 173. 

Camp Finegan, Fla., 153, 155, 174, 175. 

Camp Milton, Fla., 175, 178. 

Camp Shaw, Fla., 156. 

Camps, locations, 19, 38, 39, 46, 53, 105, 149, 
153, 155, 175, 176, 178, 186, 187, 205, 238, 
251, 254, 257, 262. 265, 269, 271, 274, 275, 
278, 279, 280, 284, 286, 290, 291, 293, 295, 
298, 299, 300, 305, 306, 307, 308, 310, 316, 
317. 

Campbell, J. B, 312. 

Canonicus, steamer, 186, 288, 290. 



Captured men, 95, 96, 97, 173, 183, 197, 
218, 311. See Appendix. 

Capturing railroad trains, 29G, 207. 

Carney Guards, 321. 

Carney, William H., 81, 84, 90. 

Carter, H. J., 249. 

Cary house, 284, 310. 

Casualties- -genera I — James Island, 63; 
assault Wagner, 88; siege Wagner, 126; 
attempt on Sumter, 128; Olustee, 172; 
James Island, 216; Honey Hill, 252; 
Devaux's Neck, 258. 

Casualties — in regiment — James Island, 
03 ; assault Wagner, 90, 91 ; siege Wag- 
ner, 126; Olustee, 173; James Island, 
204, 205 ; Honey Hill, 252 ; Boykin's 
Mills, 304. 

Catskill, monitor, 111. 

Cedar Run, Fla., 175, 176, 178,183. 

Celebration of Emancipation, 144. 

Cezar, G. G., 163, 232. 

Champlin, Jason, 183. 

Chandler, Peleg W., 8. 

Chaplains, 118, 149, 232. 

Charleston, S. C, 36, 54, 109, 112, 113, 114, 
120, 133, 135, 139, 141, 143, 145, 190, 
194, 195, 199, 207, 215, 219, 222, 225, 
226, 227, 228, 230, 232, 233, 235, 240, 
264, 267, 270, 275, 277, 279, 280, 281, 
284, 288, 289, 295, 305, 309, 310, 311, 
312. 

Charleston and Savannah Railroad, 52, 193, 
199, 238, 240, 256, 258, 259, 202, 264, 
270, 274, 275, 277, 281. 

Charleston bombarded, 112, 133, 139, 141, 
143, 145, 190, 225, 233. 

Charleston, Confederate ironclad, 281. 

Charleston " Courier," 285. 

Charleston evacuated, 279, 281. 

Charleston Jail, 97, 285. 

Charleston "Mercurv," 268, 285. 

Charleston Neck, 281, 284, 310, 311. 

Chase, Salmon P., 23. 

Chasseur, steamer, 51. 

Chatfield, Battery, 134, 139, 143. 

Chatfield, J. L., 88. 

Chenev, Mrs. E. D.. 23. 

Cheraw, S. C, 281, 285, 289. 

Chestnut, James, 254. 

Cheves, Battery, 129. 

Chicora, Confederate ironclad, 120, 281. 

Childs and Jenks, 318. 



438 



INDEX. 



Chipman, Charles G., 133, 164, 183, 202, 

205, '237, 250, 252, 288, 291, 303, 317. 
Chipman, H. S., 248, 305. 
Christ Church lines, 284. 
Christmas days, 143, 264. 
"Christy Minstrels," 142. 
Citadel, Charleston, 283, 311, 312. 
Claflin, William, 16. 
Clarendon "Banner," 293. 
Clark, Lewis, 300. 
Clark, Newcomb, 274. 
Clark, Thomas, 249. 
Clinch, D. L.,173. 
Coan, W. B., 161. 
"Coast Division," 236, 258, 269, 270, 

277. 
Coit, W W. steamer, 286, 288. 
Colcock, C. J., 240, 242, 266. 
Cole's Island, S. C, 55, 65, 200, 201, 212, 

214, 215. 
Collins, J. B., steamer, 148. 
Colored Soldiers, 1, 2, 6, 7, 11, 17, 24, 38, 
47, 48, 95, 96, 125, 138, 146, 148, 150, 
180, 181, 190, 199, 220. 
Colquitt, A. H., 56, 57, 160, 161, 162, 171. 
Columbia, S. C, 289. 
Combahee Ferry, S. C, 272, 275, 278. 
Combahee River, 37, 267, 272. 
Commissioning Officers, 3, 6. 
Comparison White and Colored Soldiers, 

125. 
Conant, John, 315, 316, 317. 
Confederate Government, 1, 7, 17, 96, 178, 

179. 
Confederate officers imprisoned, 196, 218, 

222, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 231. 
Confederate Troops. 

Hamilton's Battery, 301. 
Baker's Brigade, 254. 
(See also under respective States). 
Congdon, James B., 10, 11, 321. 
Connecticut Troops. 
Artillery : 

First Battery, 55, 61. 
Infantry: 

Sixth, 74, 76, 86. 

Seventh, 74, 110, 114, 119, 159, 161, 

163, 170. 
Tenth, 53, 54, 55, 56, 60, 63, 67, 74, 
85, 90, 106. 
Conscripts, 141. 
Contrabands, 37, 47, 49, 131, 228, 229, 232, 



264, 275, 279, 285, 296, 297, 298, 301, 
308, 309. 
Conyngham, John B., 138. 
Cooks, 21, 140. 
Cooper, John S., 293. 
Coosawhatchie, S. <_'., 238, 255, 261. 
Coosawhatchie Bridge, 256. 
Coosawhatchie Cross-road, 239, 245, 246, 

251. 
Coosawhatchie River, 256. 
Corps. 

Tenth, 129, 185. 

Eleventh, 110. 

Fifteenth, 271, 300. 

Seventeenth, 266, 269. 

Eighteenth, 193. 

Nineteenth, 287. 
Corson, Robert R., 9. 
Cosmopolitan, steamer, 107, 184, 218, 234. 
Cossack, steamer, 51, 222. 
Couper, James E., 45, 
Cousens, Joseph E., 196, 202, 209, 237, 284, 

291, 316, 317. 
Cranch, George, 315, 317. 
Crane, W. D., 244. 
Crawford, Daniel D, 173. 
Crescent, steamer, 221. 
Crespo house, 158. 
Crocker, George, 243, 248. 
Cross, Martin B., 220. 
Croton, steamer, 284. 
"Crow's Nest," 187, 202. 
Cuckwold Creek, S. C, 274. 
Culp, E. C, 293. 
Cumming's Point, S. C, 120, 123, 129, 133, 

145, 189, 192, 199, 219, 224, 225, 282. 
Cumston, William, 16. 
Cuthbert, John A., 271. 
"Cyclops," 292, 293. 



D. 

"D" Company, 10, 20, 38, 54, 75, 145, 

148, 150, 155, 163, 164, 165, 183, 188, 

198, 202, 204, 205, 219, 222. 223, 231, 

232, 234, 237, 245, 261, 280, 288, 291, 

298, 302, 303, 309, 310, 311, 312, 315, 
316, 317. 

Dahlgren, John A., 46, 52, 114, 128, 151, 

189, 192, 199, 211, 213, 236, 270, 274, 
313. 



INDEX. 



439 



Dale, William J., 19, 21, 23, 24. 

Dancy, R. F., 173. 

Darby's, Fla., 173. 

Darien, Ga., 41. 

Darlington, S. C, 289. 

David, Confederate torpedo boat, 132. 

Davis, Jefferson, 17, 37, 135, 313. 

Davis, W W H., 37, 52, 53, 55, 63, 64, 

146, 187, 188, 208. 
Dawhoo River, S. C, 208. 
Dawson, Dr., 100. 
Deep Creek, Fla., 182. 
"Defences of Charleston," 310. 
" Defences of Lighthouse Inlet," 191. 
Deford, Ben, steamer, 46. 
Dehon, Dr., 278, 279. 
Delany, Martin R., 12. 
De Lorme, T. M., 200. 
Demand for pay or muster-out, 191. 
De Molay, steamer, 33, 35, 37, 39. 
De Mortie, sutler, 108. 
Department of the South, 1, 31, 48, 172, 

185, 193, 229, 231, 267. 
Departure from Boston, 32. 
De Pass, William L., 242. 
Deserters, Execution of, 48, 143. 
Deserters from enemy, 182, 249, 256, 260, 

264, 265. 
Destroving railroad trains, 295, 297, 298, 

306." 
Dexter, Benjamin F., 34, 84, 92, 105, 149. 
Devaux's Neck. S. C, 256, 257, 261, 263, 

264, 265, 267, 269. 
Devendorf, Charles A , 170. 
Dickison, J. J., 155. 
Dingle's Mill, S. C, 294. 
Discharge of Regiment, 318. 
Dislike to Colored Soldiers, 6, 146, 217. 
Doboy Sound, Ga., 41. 
DorseV, Thomas, 298. 
Douglass, Frederick H., 10, 12, 14, 24, 33, 

34. 
Douglass, Lewis H., 12, 34. 
Dow, J. B., 16. 
Downing, George T., 12, 17. 
Dragoon, Brig, 196. 
Drums received, 230. 
Duer, A. P., 103. 
Duncan, JohnB., 261. 
Dupont, S. F., 46. 
Duren, Charles M., 145, 164, 183, 202, 

219, 234, 276, 288, 316. 



Dwight, William, 16. 
Dye, P. E., 313. 



E. 



"E" Company, 20, 38, 54, 75, 131, 145, 
148, 150, 153, 155, 159, 166, 168, 172, 
173, 174, 176, 186, 188, 191, 192, 198, 
200, 202, 210, 219, 221, 222, 223, 231, 
234, 237, 245, 249, 263, 273, 275, 280, 
285, 286, 291, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312, 
316, 317. 
Edisto Island, S. C, 272. 
Edmands, Benjamin B., 192, 196, 234, 283, 

316, 817. 
Edmands, J. Willey, 15. 
Edwards, A. C, 257. 
Elder, Samuel S., 154, 160, 161. 
Elliott, Stephen, Jr., 120, 128, 134. 
Ellsworth, Oliver, 15. 
Ellsworth, Thomas F., 244. 
Ellsworth Zouaves, 58. 
Emancipation Proclamation, 1, 144, 314. 
Emerson, Edward B., 53, 83, 85, 92, 105, 

133, 145, 237, 249, 288, 291, 316. 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 15, 16. 
Emery, John S., 16. 

Emilio, Luis F., 34, 51, 54, 79, 84, 85, 90, 92, 
93, 105, 114, 130, 132,146, 150, 176, 
178, 186, 192, 193, 202, 209, 210, 213, 
219, 231, 233, 257, 2G2, 2G6, 273, 275, 
280, 288. 
Emilio, Manuel, 16. 
Endicott, William, Jr., 15. 
"Enfans Perdus " (Les), 135. 
Engagements mentioned, at 

Morris Island, July 10, 1863, 53. 
•James Island, Julv 16, 1803, 57. 
Fort Wagner, July 18.1863,79. 
Ridge, Aug. 26, 1863, 115. 
Barber's, Feb. 10, 1864, 154. 
Lake Citv, Feb. 11, 1864, 154. 
Gainesville, Feb. 15, 1864, 155. 
Olustee, Feb. 20, 1864, 160. 
Cedar Run, March 1, 1864, 178. 
Cedar Run, April 2, 1864, 183. 
James Island, July 2, 1864, 200. 
Fort Johnson, July 3, 1864, 206. 
King's Creek, July 3. 1864, 208. 
James Island, July 4, 1864, 210. 
John's Island, July 7, 1864, 212. 



440 



INDEX. 



Bloody Bridge, July 9, 1884, 214. 

Honey Hill, Nov. 30, 1804, '241. 

Devaux's Neck, Dec. 6, 18GJ, 25G. 

Devaux's Neck, Dec. 7, 1864, 257. 

Devaux's Neck, Dec. 9, 18G4, 259. 

Eppes' Bridge, April 7, 18G5, 292. 

Dingle's Mill, April 9, 1805, 294. 

Round Hill, April 15, 1865, 200. 

Boykin's Mills, April 18, 1865, 301. 

Big Rafting Creek, April 19, 1805, 305. 

Statesburg, April 19, 1865, 306. 
Eppes' Bridge, S. C, 292. 
Escort, steamer, 109. 
Eutaw Springs, S. C, 295. 
Evacuation of Morris Island, 123. 
Evans, John W., 173. 
Examining Board for officers, 311. 
Exchange of prisoners, 107, 218, 221, 233. 
Executive document, 96. 
Explosion in Sumter, 141. 



"F" Company, 20, 38, 40, 54, 75, 90, 91, 
135, 145, 148, 150, 155, 164, 17G, 183, 
192, 198, 200, 202, 204, 234, 283, 284, 
286, 291, 296, 301, 302, 309, 310, 311, 
312, 315, 316, 317. 

Fenollosa, Manuel, 15. 

Fernandina and Cedar Keys Railroad, 155. 

Ferris, T. C, 135. 

Fessenden, C. B. H., 10. 

Fessenden, William P., 180, 181. 

Field, Henry A., 59. 

Field, James T., 16. 

Fifty-fifth Mass. organized, 24. 

Finegan, Joseph, 154, 157, 159, 171, 173, 
175. 

Firemen of Charleston, 194. 

Fisk, John B., 234. 

Flags of regiment, 24, 25, 73, 77, 81, 84, 
89, 131, 166, 202, 248. 

Fletcher, Francis H., 13. 

Flore, blockade runner, steamer, 233. 

Florence, S. C, 289. 

Florence National Cemetery, 305. 

Florence Prison, 97. 

Florida, 148, 184, 185, 186. 

Florida Expedition, 148, 150, 156. 

Florida House, 178. 



Florida Troops. 

Cavalry : 
Second, 154, 155. 

Infantry: 

Second Battalion, 161. 
Sixth Battalion, 161, 165. 
Folly Island, S. C, 48, 51, 52, 65, 108, 

110, 134, 141, 140, 197, 199, 221, 234. 
Folly River, 67, 186. 
Forbes, John M., 11. 
Foster, John G., 193, 194, 195, 196, 199, 

208, 211, 213, 217, 218, 230, 230, 238, 

253, 261, 262, 270, 272, 274. 
Foster, R. M., 247, 249. 
Foster, R. S , 175. 

Foundering of the Weehawken, 140. 
Four Hole Swamp, S. C, 275. 
Four Mile House, S. C, 285. 
Fox, Charles B., 191, 200, 243. 
Framton Creek, S. C. 203, 266. 
Fraser, steamer, 200, 237, 238. 
Frederica, Ga., 45. 
Freeman, Edgar A., 304. 
Fribley, Charles W., 161. 
Fulton Post Office, S. C, 307. 
Furlong, Wesley, 10. 
Furloughs, 129, 135. 



G. 

"G" Company, 20, 38, 75, 132, 145, 148, 
150, 158, 164, 183, 188, 198, 202, 215, 
221, 222, 223, 231, 234, 237, 238, 245, 
249, 260, 275, 286, 291, 302, 309, 310, 
311, 312, 317. 

Gainesville, Fla., 155. 

Gallop's Island, Mass., 317. 

"Galvanized Yankees,'' 255, 256. 

Gardner, Frank, 106. 

Gardner, John, 16. 

Gardner, W M., 175. 

Gardner's Corners, S. C, 267, 272. 

Garnett, H., 12. 

Garrison of Charleston, 311, 312. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 10, 23, 24, 32. 

Gartrell, L. II.. 250, 257, 258, 200. 

Gascoign's Bluff, Ga., 30. 

Gaul, Lewis, 318. 

Gearv, Edward C, 241. 

Georgetown, S. C, 192, 288, 289, 290, 291, 
307, 308. 



INDEX. 



441 



Georgia Troops. 
Artillery, Heavy : 

Twenty-Eighth Battalion, (Bo- 
naud's,) 161, 165. 
Artillery, Batteries: 

Chatham, 56, 161, 167, 203, 206. 
Guerard's, 161, 165. 
Cavalry: 
Fourth, 173, 208. 
Twentieth, 41. 
Infantry : 

First (Regulars), 161, 173, 208. 
Fifth, 256. 
Sixth, 56, 160, 162. 
Nineteenth, 56, 58, 160, 165. 
Twenty-Third, 161. 
Twenty-Seventh, 161, 178. 
Twenty-Eighth, 160, 173. 
Thirty-Second, 56, 87, 159, 161, 

162, 208, 210, 219, 257. 
Forty-Seventh, 25G, 257. 
Sixty-Third, 70. 
Sixty-Fourth, 160, 173. 
Cobb's Legion, 273. 
Reserves, 256. 
Militia: 
Athens Battalion, 242. 
Augusta Battalion, 242. 
First Brigade, 242. 
State Line Brigade, 242. 
Gifford, John L., 282. 
Gilbert, Shepard D., 102. 
Gillmore Medal, 134. 

Gillmore, Quincy A., 46, 51, 52, 55, 68, 71, 
72, 74, 101, 110, 112, 113, 114, 121, 127, 
128, 129, 133, 134, 138, 141, 146, 148, 
149, 150, 153, 155, 156, 157, 178, 185, 
189, 274, 289, 290, 314, 315. 
Gilmore's Band, 31, 318. 
Gilmer, J. F., 150. 
Glasgow, Abraham, 168. 
Glasseil, William T., 132. 
Golden Gate, steamer, 215, 237, 239. 
Gooding, J. H., 168, 173, 183. 
Goodwin, Frank, 201. 
Gordon, George H., 5, 109. 
Gospels, Copies of, 134, 
Gould plantation, 39, 44. 
Grace, James W., 9, 10, 34, 84, 105, 144, 

317. 
Graham's Neck, S. C, 262, 263, 264. 
Grahamville, S. C, 238, 239, 240. 



Grant, U. S., 140, 185, 288. 

Gray, W H. W., 129. 

Greek fire, 145. 

Green, A. M., 12. 

Green, Fort, 134, 191, 192, 219, 234. 

Green, John, 304. 

Green Pond, S. C, 275. 

Green, Samuel A., 64. 

Gregg, Fort, 70, 111, 119, 121, 123, 128,. 

134, 138, 139, 143, 194, 232, 314. 
Gregg, William, 312. 
Gregory's Landing, S. C, 262, 263, 264.. 
Gregor3''s Plantation, 258. 
Grimball, Thomas, 53, 56. 
Grimball's Causeway, 201. 
Grimes, William, 10,23, 25, 318. 
Grover, Cuvier, 287, 288. 
Guarding Confederate officers, 222. 
Guerillas, 275, 280. 
Gurney, William, 188, 189, 194, 206, 207.. 

311, 314. 



H. 

"H" Company, 20, 38, 55, 59, 75, 97,. 
119, 135, 144, 145, 148, 150, 158, 164,. 
183, 186, 190, 191, 192, 198, 207, 219,221, 
223, 234, 237, 238, 245, 249, 262, 263, 
266, 273, 275, 285, 286, 291, 292, 293,, 
304, 309, 310, 311, 312, 317. 

Habits, 22. 

Hackett, John, 2S2. 

Hagen, Dr., 293. 

Haggerty, Miss, 5. 

Hagood, Johnson, 55, 99, 100, 101, 102. 

Hale, George S., 16, 24. 

Hale, John, 205. 

Haliburton, Miss, 16. 

Hall, R. M., 156. 

Halleck, H. W., 148, 156, 236. 

Hallett, Charles O., 196, 202, 237, 249, 
276, 291, 303, 316. 

Hallowell, E. N\, 6, 9, 19, 34, 50, 54, 62, 67, 
72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 81, 89, 90, 91, 132, 135, 
136, 149, 150, 152, 153, 158, 162, 163, 164, 
165, 166, 168, 169, 174, 176, 177, 181, 
188, 190, 191, 194, 195, 217, 220, 222,229, 
230, 231, 234, 260, 262, 263, 265, 266, 
268, 269, 273, 277, 278, 287, 288, 290, 291, 
293, 294, 298, 309, 310, 311, 312, 315,317, 
319. 



442 



INDEX. 



Hallowell, E. N., letter to Rufus Saxton, 

228. 
Hallowell, E. N., report of Assault of 

Wagner, 88. 
Hallowell, Morris L., 3. 
Hallowell, N. P., 3, 6, 10, 14, 15, 24, 50. 
Hallowell, R. P., 11. 
Hallowell Union Association, 318. 
Halpine, Charles G-, 43. 
Hamilton, John, 159, 160, 161. 
Harbor obstructions, 140 
Hardee, W. J., 240, 253, 263, 264, 275, 281, 

284, 287. 
Harding, David, 302. 
Hardy, Charles, 97. 
Harleston, F. H., 139. 
Harrison, George, P., Jr., 208, 214. 
Harrison, Henry F., 321. 
Harrison, Robert, 154. 
Harrison, Samuel, 118, 144, 149. 
Hartwell, Alfred S., 24, 142, 158, 171, 172, 

200, 201, 209, 215, 236, 237, 240, 243, 295. 
Harvard College, 5, 6. 
Haskell, Battery, 203. 
Hatch, John P.", 183, 184, 189, 192, 193, 

199, 201, 208, 2C9, 211, 212, 213, 214, 

215, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241, 243, 

245, 246, 247, 249,251, 257, 261, 265, 269, 

270, 271, 274, 275, 279, 286, 288, 312. 
Haughton, Nathaniel, 259. 
Hauling cars, 174. 
Haulover Bridge, S. C, 208. 
Haviland, J. F., 282. 
Hawkins, Isaac H., 183. 
Hawley, Joseph R., 114, 159, 160, 161, 163, 

173, 174. 
Heckman, C. A., 195. 
Heine, William, 201, 204, 205, 209. 
Helman, Preston, 168. 
Henderson, Edward R., 218. 
Hendricks, H. W., 98, 101. 
Hennessy, John A., 282, 283. 
Henry, Guy V., 153, 154, 155, 159, 160, 

170,177,178,183. 
Hewlett, A. M.,318. 
Heyward, Daniel B., 272. 
Higginson, Francis L., 34, 75, 105, 114, 

118, 145, 176, 183. 
Higginson, George, 15. 
Higginson, J. A., 16. 
Higginson, T. W., 52, 100. 
Hill, Edwin R., 260. 



Hilton Head, S. C, 36, 37, 39, 46, 47, 51, 
108, 135, 146, 147, 148. 150, 176, 196, 233, 
234, 236, 237, 250, 257, 286, 288. 

Hoadly, Mr., 218. 

Holbrook, Henrv, 111. 

Holland, H N.,'l6. 

Holland, W. \\\, 173. 

Holt, Joseph, 180. 

Homans, William H., 34, 81, 90, 92, 164, 
165, 183, 191. 207, 221, 237.239, 248, 249, 
254, 274, 288. 

" Honev Hill," bv Soule, 251. 

Honey Hill, S. C, 240, 242, 248. 

Hooker, General, steamer, 234, 237, 262. 

Hooker, R. W., 15. 

Hooper, H. N., 132, 144, 153, 164, 168, 179, 
180, 191, 193, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 
227, 233, 234, 237, 238, 239, 245, 246, 
248, 249, 265, 272, 286, 288, 291, 296, 
297, 298, 299, 301, 302, 303, 304, 309, 
310, 311, 316. 

Houghton, Charles, steamer, 286. 

Housatonic, gunboat, 187. 

Howard, Oliver O., 267. 

Howard plantation, 263. 

Howard, Willard, 34, 55, 91, 105, 133,135, 
163, 164, 182, 202, 233, 237,248, 276, 291, 
314, 317. 

Howe, Samuel G., 23. 

Howell, J. B., 158. 

Howland, Cornelius, 10, 11. 

Hoyt, Henry M., 196, 206, 216. 

Huguenin, T. A., 123, 218. 

Hunter, Alexander, 119. 

Hunter, David, 31, 36, 39, 43, 44, 46. 

Hunter, David, letter to John A. Andrew, 
36. 

Hunter, General, steamer, 65, 66, 67, 150, 
151, 152, 184. 

Hurlbut, George P., 236. 

Huron, gunboat, 60. 

"Huts," The, S. C, 212. 

Hutson plantation, 263. 



I. 



' I " Companv, 20, 38, 54, 75, 92, 145, 148, 
150, 164, 188, 191, 198, 207, 234, 237, 245, 
254, 261, 262, 266, 273, 276, 285, 286,291, 
298, 302, 309, 310, 311, 312, 314, 317. 



INDEX. 



443 



Illinois Troops. 
Infantry : 

Thirty-Ninth, 123, 124. 
Island City, steamer, 309. 



Jackson, Levi, 300. 
Jackson, " Stonewall," 70. 
Jackson, William, 12. 
Jacksonboro', S. C, 52, 277, 279. 
Jacksonville, Fla., 151, 153, 155, 156, 157, 

175, 176, 177, 178, 182. 
Jacksonville, " Peninsula," 177. 
James, Garth W.. 34, 57, 62, 72, 75, 81, 90, 

176, 276, 316, 317. 
James Island, S. C, 52, 53, 54, 189, 194, 

197, 199, 200, 207, 208, 270,274, 275, 281, 

282, 283, 310, 311, 315. 

James Island batteries, 69, 107, 192. 

James Island Creek, 53. 

Jarvis, George, 297. 

Jay, Private, 304. 

Jeffries, Waiter A., 97. 

Jenkins, "Mike," 262. 

Jenning's Swamp, S. C, 299. 

Jewett, Charles, Jr., 183, 202, 205, 237, 

276, 316. 
Jewett, R. H. L., 23, 24, 55, 85, 90, 105, 

145, 164, 166, 196, 237, 316. 
Johassie Island, S. C, 193. 
John's Island, S. C, 52, 54, 144, 157, 199, 

201, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215. 
Johnson, Andrew, 313. 
Johnson, Edward, 196. 
Johnson, Fort, 114, 133, 141, 203, 206, 207, 

283, 315. 
Johnson, J. C, 293. 
Johnson, James, P., 302, 304. 
Johnson, Private, 304. 
Johnson, Robert, Jr., 12, 13. 
Johnson, Samuel, 16. 
Johnson, W. H., 321. 
Johnson's Swamp, S. C, 291. 
Johnston, Alexander, 34, 105, 145. 
Johnston, Joseph E., 307. 

Jones, Charles C, Jr., 252. 

Jones, Edward L., 34, 62, 90, 92, 145, 150, 

183, 188, 202, 204, 205, 233. 
Jones, Iredell, 95. 
Jones, Samuel, 100, 185, 195, 208, 212, 257. 



Jones, Samuel, letter to Braxton Bragg, 

195. 
Jones, sutler, 177. 
Joy, Charles F., 276, 291, 316, 317. 
Joy Street Church, 12. 
Junction with Western Army, 266. 



K. 



"K" Company, 20, 38, 54, 55, 73, 75, 91, 
118, 140, 145, 148, 150, 155, 164, 168, 
184, 188, 198, 202, 204, 206, 215, 221, 
222, 223, 231, 232, 234, 237, 245, 246, 
263, 286, 291, 297, 304, 309, 310, 311, 
312, 315, 316, 317. 

Kansas Troops. 
Infantry : 
First (Colored), 2. 

Keitt, L. M., 122, 123. 

Kelly, Rev. Mr., 10. 

Kemble, Fanny, 45. 

King, Private, 147. 

King, Robert, 243. 

King, T. Butler, 45. 

King's Creek, S. C, 208. 

Kingsbury, C. P., 317. 

Kingstree, S. C, 291. 

Kingstree Bridge, 292. 

Kingsville, S. C, 289. 

Kingsley, E. W., 16. 

Knight, A. A., 175. 

Knowles, Alfred H., 145, 176, 183, 202, 
237, 260, 288. 

Kurtz, John, 31, 319. 



"L" Company, 149. 

Labor besieging Wagner, 125. 

Ladies' Committee, 15, 23. 

Lake City, Fla., 154, 155, 157. 

Lamar, Battery, 54, 200, 201, 203. 

Lamar, G. B., 46. 

Landing at Jacksonville, 152. 

Lane, Joseph, 143. 

Lane, W- A., 41. 

Langdon, Loomis L., 161, 167. 

Langston, John M., 14. 

Laudonniere, Rene' de, 151. 

Lawler, Mr., 285. 



44-t 



INDEX. 



Lawrence, Amos A., 11. 

Lee, Arthur U., 34, 197. 

Lee, Francis L., 15. 

Lee, Henrv, Jr., 16. 

Lee, Robert E., 46, 53, 189, 288, 308. 

Left Batteries, 10G, 109, 217. 

Legareville, S. C, 54, 144, 211, 213. 

Lehigh, monitor, 138, 209. 

Lenox, Charles W., 202, 248. 

Leonard, Andrew W., 145, 104, 1G9, 183, 

188, 202, 206, 232, 237, 240, 201, 316. 
Levee at Chickering Hall, 15. 
Lewis, J. F., 210. 
Lewis, Mr. and Mrs., 217. 
Lighthouse Inlet, S. C, 52, 68, 186, 187, 

192, 193, 199, 215. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 1, 97, 148, 196, 233, 

308. 
Lincoln, Mayor, 319. 

Line formation, 38, 75, 145, 164, 202, 286. 
Little, Edward FL, 207. 
Little, George N., 207. 
Little, James L., 15. 
Little, John L., 207. 
Littlefield, Henry W., 34, 51, 133, 135, 

104. 166, 196, 234, 270. 
Littlefield, M. S.. 107, 117, 176. 
Lockwood, John B., 227. 
Long Island, S. C, 200. 
Loqueer, J. W., 12. 
Loring, C. G., 15. 
Loring, Mrs. William J., 16. 
Louisiana Troops. 

Infantry: 

Native Guards (Colored), 1. 
Loveridge, R. C, 168. 
Lowell, Charles R., Jr., 19. 
Lowell, John, 15. 
Lownde's plantation. 275. 
Loyalist, steamer, 309. 
Luck, John T., 99, 100, 101. 
Lynch, James, 50, 232. 



M. 

Mackav's Point, S. C, 258, 263. 
Mackey, Albert G., 283, 312. 
Magnolia Cemetery, 284, 310. 
Magrath, A. G., 204. 
Mahaska, gunboat, 177. 



Maine Troops. 
Infantrv : 
Ninth, 74. 
Eleventh, 110, 187. 
Manchester, S. C, 205, 290, 297, 298, 

007. 
Manchester and Wilmington Railroad, 295. 
Managault, Edward, 201. 
Mann, O. L., 123. 
Mann, Samuel Willard, 34, 54, 55, 56, 59, 

61, 79,81, 00, 133. 
Manning, S. C, 293. 
Manning, John L., 307. 
Manning plantation. 307. 
Manning, William C, 107, 100, 250. 
Maple Leaf, steamer, 150, 151, 152, 184. 
Marblehead, gunboat, 56, 60, 144. 
Marcy, John S., 210. 
Marsh. M. M.. 174. 
Marshall, George, 155. 
Mason plantation, 203. 
Mason, Samuel W., 93. 
Mason's Bridge, S. C, 257. 
Masonic Lodge. 129. 312. 
Massachusetts Legislature, 136. 
Massachusetts Troops. 
Cavaliy : 

Independent Battalion, 152, 154, 161. 
Reyiments : 

Second, 10, 24. 
Fourth, 236, 242, 273, 290. 
Fifth, 11. 
Infantry : 

Twenty-Fourth, 53, 63, 64, 74, 85, 

106, 115. 
Fortieth, 111, 143, 154, 155, 160, 178, 

183. 
Fifty-Fifth, 11, 22. 24, 37, 108, 122, 
125, 1-0, 142, 143, 158, 171, 170, 184, 
185, 101, 200, 213, 230. 230, 241, 243, 
244. 251, 255, 257, 200, 272,274,275, 
295, 315. 
Material of regiment, 21. 
Matthews, E. (.>., 250. 
Mav, John J., 16. 
May, Miss Ahby, 23. 
May, Mrs., 10." 
May, Samuel, 16, 24. 
Mayflower, steamer, 46, 61, 257. 
Maysville, S. C, 205. 
McAllister, Fort, 261. 
McClellansville, S. C, 314. 



INDEX. 



445 



McCullar, Thomas, 304. 

McDermott, William, 315, 317. 

McDonald, J. R., 226. 

McDonough, gunboat, 52, 201. 

McGirt's Creek, Fla., 174, 178. 

McGuire, P., 121. 

McKay, George F., 260. 

McLaws, Lafayette, 267, 272, 275. 

Medal of Honor, 134. 

Merceraux, Thomas J., 256. 

Metcalf, Henry, 161. 

Michie, P. S., 109, 118. 

Middleton Depot, S. C, 306. 

Military Situation, close 1862, 1. 

Mill Branch, S. C, 293. 

Miller, Andrew, 301. 

Milton, Governor, steamer, 52. 

Mingoe, gunboat, 237. 

Mitchel, John C, 190, 218. 

Mitchell, Charles L., 243. 

Mitchell, G., 15. 

Mitchell, Nelson, 97. 

Mitchell, William, 183. 

Moleneux, E. L., 287. 

Money for recruiting, 11, 15. 

Money sent home, 228. 

Monk's Corner, S. C, 295. 

Monohansett, steamer, 148. 

Montauk, monitor, 209. 

Montgomery, James, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 
43, 44, 46, 48, 51, 63, 114, 115, 130, 159, 
162, 164, 166, 168, 188, 193, 212, 214. 

Monument to Shaw and others, 229, 230. 

Moore, Henry, 161. 

Moorehouse, S. W., 166, 301. 

Morgan Guards, 10. 

Morgan, S. Griffiths, 10. 

Morris Island, S. C, 51, 52, 54, 55, 60, 66, 
68, 69, 70, 72, 140, 146, 186, 187, 188, 
196, 207, 216, 217, 234, 235, 270, 282, 
284. 

Morris, Robert C, 14. 

Morris, William H., 183. 

Mosquito Creek, S. C, 193. 

Moultrie, Fort, 116, 128, 141, 282, 314. 

Moultrie House, 138. 

Moultrieville, S. C, 128. 

Mount Pleasant, S. C, 282, 310, 311, 
316. 

Muckenfuss, A. W., 102. 

Mulford, JohnE., 233. 

Murrell's Inlet, S. C, 192. 



Muster of Colored Officers, 194, 233, 268, 

315. 
Muster-out, 314, 317. 
Myers, Frank, 91. 
Myers, Stephen, 12. 



N. 



Nahant, monitor, 139. 
Nantucket, monitor, 52. 
National holiday, 49, 209, 314. 
Naval assault, Sumter, 128. 
Navy Department, 114, 199. 
Neaie, Rev. Dr., 15, 24. 
Negro laborers in C. S. Army, 122. 
Netson, William J., 232. 
New Bedford Band, 323 . 
New Bedford, Mass., 9, 321. 
New Hampshire Troops. 
Infantry : 

Third, 74, 106, 112, 115, 124, 139, 

143. 
Fourth, 126. 

Seventh, 74, 86, 106, 160, 174. 
New Inverness, Ga., 41. 
New Ironsides, ironclad, 70, 112, 120, 121, 

138, 195. 
New Year's Da}', 144. 
New York, " Army and Navy Journal," 99. 
New York, " Evening Post," 94. 
New York, " Herald," 93. 
New York, "Tribune," 94. 
New York Troops. 
Engineers : 

First, 108, 117, 118, 155, 206, 290. 
Artillery : 

Third, 273, 295. 
Third {Batteries), 
B., 201, 236, 241, 243, 248, 256, 290. 
F., 236, 248, 250. 
Infantry : 
Independent Battalion (Enfans Per- 

dus), 135, 146. 
Regiments: 
Forty-Seventh, 161. 
Forty-Eighth, 4, 47, 74, 86, 87, 

161, 170. 
Fifty-Fourth, 201, 210, 211, 260, 

295, 314. 
Fifty-Sixth, 53, 64, 221, 234, 236, 
243, 256, 259, 290, 294. 



44G 



INDEX. 



One Hundredth, 74, 86, 106, 109, 

110, 111, 112. 
One Hundred and Third, 200, 

201. 
One Hundred and Fifteenth, 

161, 177. 
One Hundred and Twenty- 
Seventh, 188, 196, 206, 207, 232, 
236, 241, 243, 244, 246, 256, 259, 
277, 282, 311, 313, 314. 
One Hundred and Forty- 
Fourth, 214, 236, 243, 244, 255, 
259, 260, 272, 274, 275. 
One Hundred and Fifty-Sev- 
enth, 221, 231, 232, 236, 243, 239, 
290, 294, 298, 305, 308. 
One Hundred and Sixty-Ninth, 
183. 
Newell, Robert R., 145, 164, 183, 202, 205, 

209, 219, 234, 283, 291, 298, 316, 317. 
Nine Mile Run, S. C, 285. 
Non-Commissioned officers, 21. 
North Edisto River, S. C, 199, 207, 208, 

275. 
North Carolina Troops (Union). 
Infantry : 
First (colored), 108, 125, 158, 159, 
163, 164, 167, 169, 173. 
(See also Thirty-Fifth U.S. Color edTr oops.) 
North Carolina Troops (Confederate). 
Infantry : 

Thirty-First, 70, 71, 80, 86. 
Fiftieth, 265. 
Fifty-First, 70, 71, 80, 226. 
Sixty-First, 115. 
Northeastern Railroad, 281, 292. 
Norwich, gunboat, 151, 152. 
Nutt, William, 24, 244, 295. 



o. 

Oath for pay, 220. 

Ocean Pond", Fla., 160, 172. 

Officers outlawed, 7. 

Officers under fire, 195, 222. 

Oglethorpe, James E., 45. 

Ohio Troops. 
Infantry : 

Twenty-Fifth, 236, 243, 244, 255, 
259, 200, 270, 272, 274, 275, 290, 293, 
294, 296, 298, 299, 300, 305, 307. 



Sixty-Second, 74. 86, 87. 

Sixty-Seventh, 74, 86, 87. 

Seventy-Fifth, 183, 261. 

One Hundred and Seventh, 261, 
272, 275, 290, 293, 294, 297, 299, 300, 
301, 304, 305, 310, 311. 
Olustee Station, Fla., 157, 159, 160, 171, 

172. 
Orangeburg, S. C, 275. 
Order of Q. A. Gillmore, 126. 
Order of Abraham Lincoln, 96. 
Order of Truman Seymour, 156, 182. 
Order of Edwin M. Stanton, 2. 
Order of Alfred H. Terry, 117. 
Osborn, Francis A., 115. 
Otis, Mrs. Harrison Gray, 16. 
Otis, Theodore, 16. 
Ottawa, gunboat, 151, 177. 
Owen, Robert Dale, 23. 
Owendaw, Creek, S. C, 275. 
Ox Swamp, S. C, 293. 
Oyster Point, S. C, 132. 



P. 



Palfrey, J. G., 16. 

Palmer, Ishmael, 168. 

Palmer, Joseph A., 204. 

Palmetto State, Confederate ironclad, 

281. 
Parker's, S. C, 209. 
Parker's Ferry, S. C, 277. 
Partridge, David A., 20, 106, 114, 149, 

183. 
Paul Jones, gunboat, 41. 
Pawnee, gunboat, 52, 54, 56, 59, 60, 100, 

177, 209, 237. 
Pawnee Landing, S. C, 67, 186. 
Pay of Chaplain, 150. 
Pay of Fiftv-Fourth, 47, 48, 109, 130, 135, 
142, 179, 180, 181, 190, 191, 220, 227, 228, 
238, 288, 312. 
Payne, Lewis S., 109. 
Payne's Dock, 109, 206, 207. 
Pavson, Marv P., 16. 
Peal, Henrv F., 90, 164, 168. 
Pease, Giles M., Ill, 145, 164, 166, 183, 

196. 
Pease, W. B., 171. 
Pedee River, S. O, 289. 
Pemberton, Fort, 53, 199. 



INDEX. 



447 



Pennsylvania Troops. 
Infantry : 
Fifty-Second, 52, 63, 64, 139, 187, 

188, 196, 206, 217, 234, 282, 283. 
Seventy-Fourth, 201, 209, 215. 
Seventy- Sixth, 74. 
Eighty-Fifth, 111, 115, 116, 157. 
Ninety-Seventh, 53, 54, 63, 74, 103, 

106. 
One Hundred and Fourth, 52, 
118, 139, 187, 188. 

Perkins, James A., 115. 

Pet, prize schooner, 42. 

Philadelphia, steamer, 210. 

Philadelphia " Weekly Times," 251. 

Philbrick, E P., 15. 

Phillips, Wendell, 10, 13, 15, 24, 32, 180. 

Phillips, WillardP., 11. 

Phisterer's, " Statistical Record," 172. 

Pierce, Edward L., 13, 73, 78, 94. 

Pierce, R. A., 19, 23. 

Pike's Bluff, Ga., 39. 

Pilatka, Fla., 156, 179, 184. 

Pinckney, Castle, 283. 

Pineville, S. C, 295. 

Planter, steamer, 109. 

Platner, Thomas E., 316. 

Plummer, A., 16. 

Plummer, Averv, Jr., 16. 

Pocotaligo, S. C., 238, 262, 263, 265, 266, 
267, 269, 271, 272. 

Pocotaligo Bridge, 294. 

Pocotaligo River, 263, 267, 269, 274. 

Pocotaligo River (north), 293. 

Pocotaligo Swamp, 293. 

Pond and Duncklee, 16. 

Pontiac, gunboat, 237, 257. 

Pope, George, 34, 83, 90, 145, 164, 168, 
234, 237, 239, 245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 
263, 276, 285, 286, 288, 290, 291, 297, 
301, 302, 303, 308, 309, 310, 311, 316,317. 

Pope plantation, 149. 

Port Royal, S. C, 36, 193, 207, 236, 237, 
264. 

Port Royal Island, 266. 

Porter, Private, 152. 

Postlev, James, 302. 

Potter", Edward E., 233, 236, 239, 241, 
243, 250, 251, 255, 256, 259, 261, 275, 
281 283, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 
296, 298, 299, 300, 301, 303, 305, 306, 
307, 308. 



Potter's Raid, 289, 308. 

Pratt, James A., 34, 81, 90, 93, 133, 176. 

Pratt, Wheelock, 122. 

Preble, George H., 23G, 239. 

Presentation of flags, 24. 

Presentiments of death, 62, 67, 252. 

Presto, blockade runner, steamer, 187. 

Price, Alice, steamer, 103. 

Price, Cornelius, 204. 

Price, Isaiah, 103. 

Prices in Charleston, 194. 

Prince Hall Lodge, 312. 

Pringle, Battery, 202, 206, 210, 212, 213, 

214. 
Pringle, Motte A., 312. 
Pringle, William, 312. 
Prison Camp, 222, 223, 226, 227, 228, 

229, 231. 
Prisoners, Escaped, 219, 232, 275. 
Prisoners released, 107, 183, 218, 221, 

311. See Appendix. 
Promotion of officers, 50, 132, 133, 144, 

145, 183, 276, 288, 315, 316. 
Providence Post Office, S. C, 299. 
"Provisional Division," 290. 
Punishment by Col. Henry, 177. 
Purviance, Battery, 134", 191, 192, 193, 

234. 
Purviance, Henn' A., 116. 
Putnam, Fort, 134, 202. 
Putnam, George, 15 
Putnam, Haldimand S., 74, 86, 87, 88, 101. 



Q. 



" Quaker " guns, 264. 
" Quaker oath," 220. 
Quincy, Josiah, 16, 24. 



R. 



Racer, mortar schooner, 209. 

Radzinsky, Louis D., 233, 237, 316. 

Railway rolling-stock, 289. 

Randlett, James F., 115, 124. 

Rantowle's Bridge, S. C, 199. 

Rantowle's Ferry, 280. 

Ravenel, John, Confederate storeship, 282. 

Readville, Mass., 19. 

Reception at Boston, 318, 319, 321. 



448 



INDEX. 



Reception at New Bedford, 320, 321. 
Record of the Mass. Vols. 183, 184. 
Recruiting in Boston, 8, 12. 
Recruiting in New Bedford, 9. 
Recruiting in Philadelphia, 9. 
Recruiting in Western Mass., 10. 
Recruiting Stations, 12. 
Recruits, 19, 20, 21, 141, 117, 149, 197, 

230. 
Reed, Lewis, 145, 159, 169, 176, 183, 191, 

237, 245, 275. 291, 304, 310, 316, 317. 
Reed, William N., 167. 
" Reflector," newspaper, 60. 
Requa batteries, 106, 224. 
Reid, David, 34, 105, 145, 164, 202, 205, 

234, 239, 247, 249, 252. 
Remond, Charles L., 12. 
Remsley, George, 92. 
Report of Fifty-Fourth in Wagner Assault, 

88. 
Retreat to Jacksonville, 173. 
Return of captured men, 311. 
Return to Massachusetts, 317. 
Reviews, 23, 31, 114, 129, 150, 178, 228, 

287, 288, 290. 
Rhett, Alfred, 110, 113. 
Rhode Island Troops. 

Artillery : 

Third, 110, 111, 124, 146, 187, 206, 

217, 282. 283. 
Third (Batteries): 
A., 236, 260. 
B., 201, 212, 224. 
C, 40, 161. 
Ribaut, Jean, 151. 
Rice, Alexander H., 16. 
Ripley, Fort, 283. 
Ritchie, John, 34. 40, 64, 75, 104, 105, 108, 

147, 150, 164, 174, 176, 197, 202. 217, 218, 

227, 233, 234, 237, 263, 279, 287, 292, 316, 

321. 
Ritchie, W. and J., 16. 
Rivers' Causeway, 57, 200. 
Rivers' house, 56. 
Robertson, B. H., 208, 214, 249, 258. 
Robertsville, S. C, 265. 
Robinson, Thomas J., 231,314, 316. 
Robinson, Thomas J., letter to E. N. 

Hallowell, 231 
Rock, John S., 12. 
Rockwell, A. P., 55, 63. 
Rodgers, George W., 111. 



Rogers, Frederick E., 196, 276, 291, 292, 

293, 316. 
Rogers, W B., 16, 24. 
Rogers, Mrs. W B., 23. 
Roster of officers, 34, 317. 
Russel, Cabot J., 34, 55, 58, 59, 60, 07, 83, 

89,90,91,96,103. 
Russell, Judge, 13, 15, 23. 
Russell, Le Baron, 11. 
Russell, Thomas, 15, 24. 
Ryan, W.H., 88. 



Sabin, William A., 40. 

Salkehatchie Bridge, S. C, 270. 

Salkehatchie Creek, 269. 

Salkehatchie, Fort, 275. 

Salkehatchie River, 207, 271, 272. 273. 

Sammon, Simeon, 161. 

Sanderson, Fla., 154, 155, 157, 159, 109, 

170. 171. 
Sanford, O. S., 119, 121. 
Sanitary Commission, 131, 218, 261. 
Sanitary measures, 131, 197. 
Santee River, S. (.'., 298, 305, 307 311. 
Santee Bridge, 284, 289, 293. 
Sapping and Trenching, 113, 117, 118, 119 

121. 
Savage, James, 16. 
Savannah, Ga., 141, 150, 208, 239, 240, 253, 

261, 263, 286, 287, 289. 
Savannah "Republican," 252. 
Savannah River, 233, 286. 
Sawyer, Mr., 312. 

Saxton, Rufus, 1, 37, 105, 208, 221, 228, 
-229. 
Saxton, Rufus, letter to E. N. Hallowell, 

229. 
Scammon, E. P., 195, 228, 233. 
Schimmelfennig, A., 157, 189, 195, 199, 

201, 206, 211, 221, 274, 275, 283. 
Schmitt, Michael, 146. 
Schouler, William, 33. 
Schwabe, Leo B., 221. 
Scott, Charles, 304. 
Scudder, Marshall S., 15. 
Seabrook Island, S. C, 199. 
Sea Vovages, 35, 36, 39, 40, 51, 148, 151, 

184, 234, 286, 288, 309, 317. 



INDEX. 



449 



Secessionville, S. C, 53, 54, 56, 57, 189, 
192, 197, 199, 211. 

Secretary of War, 2, 31, 97, 190, 191, 220. 

Sentinel, steamer, 39, 40, 41, 44. 

Serrell, E. W., 108, 109. 

Seven Mile Bridge, S. C, 291. 

Severance, Mrs. C. M., 23. 

Seymour, Battery, 139. 

Seymour, Truman, 74, 86, 88, 133, 150, 152, 
153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 162, 163, 164, 
167, 169, 170, 172, 174, 175, 177, 181, 182, 
183, 195. 

Shaler, Alexander, 195. 

Sharpshooters, 108, 110, 118, 122, 133, 135, 
165, 166. 

Shaw, Fort, 134, 188. 

Shaw, Francis G., 3, 5, 11, 103. 

Shaw, Francis G., letter to Q. A. Gill- 
more, 102. 

Shaw Glee Club, 234. 

Shaw Guards, 318, 320. 

Shaw, R. G., 5. 

Shaw, Robert G., 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 15, 19, 20, 25, 
30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 
46, 47, 48, 49, 57, 62, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 
77, 79, 81, 88, 89, 90, 92,94, 95, 98, 99, 
100, 101, 102, 103, 107, 156, 226, 229. 

Shaw, Robert G., letter to Chas. G. Hal- 
pine, 43. 

Shaw, Robert G., letter to John A. An- 
drew, 47. 

Shaw, Robert G., letter to Geo. C. Strong, 
49. 

Shaw Monument, 229, 230. 

Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., 5, 134. 

Shaw, Sarah Blake, 5. 

Shaw School, 230. 

Sheridan, P. H., 288. 

Sherman, William T., 236, 253, 258, 260, 
261, 262. 264. 265, 267, 269, 270, 271, 
272, 275, 287, 288, 289, 307. 

Sherman's Western Armv, 253. 258, 260, 
261, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 
275, 286, 287. 

Shooting for insubordination, 190. 

Sick, 23, 35, 48, 51, 108, 116, 125, 131, 147 
151, 197, 261, 285. 307, 317. 

Sickles. Daniel E., 218. 

"Siege of Savannah," Jones. 252. 

Silliman, William, 212, 254, 257, 258, 250. 
260. 

Silva, Charles, 111. 

29 



Simington, Thomas H., 160. 
Simkins, Batten-, 108, 129, 141, 206. 
Simkins, J. C, 88. 
Simmons, Robert J., 59, 90, 93. 
Simpkins, William H., 7, 34, 55, 56, 57, 
59, 60, 61, 67, 73, 83, 89, 90, 91, 96, 
103. 
Sims, Thomas, 32. 
Singleton plantation, 296, 298, 299, 300, 

306. 
Slack, Charles W., 23. 
Smith, Carraway, 159, 171. 
Smith, Gerrit, 11, 16. 
Smith, Giles S., 269. 
Smith, Gustavus W., 240, 242, 244. 
Smith, J. B., 12. 
Smith, Orin E., 20, 34, 81, 90, 93, 103, 132, 

149, 183. 
Smith, Peter, 16. 
Smith, Washington, 197. 
Soldier's remains, 173, 305. 
Sonoma, gunboat, 237. 
Soule, Charles C, 251. 
South Carolina, 267, 272. 
South Carolina Railroad, 310. 
South Carolina Troops (Union). 
Infantry : 

First (colored), 1, 52. 
(See also 33d U S. Colored Troops). 
Second (colored), 36, 37, 33. 39, 40, 
42, 46, 48, 49, 53, 74, 114, 125, 149, 
175. 
(See also 3ith U. S. Colored Troops). 
Fourth (colored), 107, 111. 
(See also 21st U. S. Colored Troops). 
South Carolina Troops (Confederate). 
Artillery, Heavy : 

Lucas' Battalion, 203. 
Eighteenth Battalion (Siege Train), 
56, 203. 
Regiments: 
First, 69, 110, 139, 190. 
First (Batteries) A (Blake's), 56, 70, 

200, 203. 
Second, 203. 
Artillery, Light: 

Palmetto Battalion, 200. 
Palmetto {Batteries) G (DePass'), 

70, 242. 
German Battalion, 257. 
Batteries: 
Beaufort, 242. 



450 



INDEX. 



Lafayette, 242. 

Marion, 56, 61, 212. 
Cavalry : 

Third, 208, 238. 
Infantry : 

Charleston Battalion, 70, 71, 80. 
Regiments: 

First, 70, 218. 

Twenty-Fifth, 56, 57. 

Twenty-Seventh, 227. 

Reserves (State), 254. 

Citadel Cadets, 194, 257. 
Spanish Negro Troops, 45. 
Spear, Daniel G., 183, 191, 213, 237, 291, 

316. 
South Edisto River, S. C, 52, 270, 272, 

274, 279. 
Speech of John A. Andrew, 25. 
Speech of E. N. Hallowell, 319. 
Speech of James Montgomery, 130. 
Speech of Robert G. Shaw, 30. 
Speech of George C. Strong, 77. 
Spencer, Aaron, 121. 
Spivev. Lieutenant, 200. 
St. Andrew's Parish, S. C, 310, 311, 314. 
St. Helena Island, S. C, 46, 47, 48, 49, 

51. 
St. John's River, Fla., 151, 179, 184. 
St. Mary, Confederate steamer, 153. 
St. Mary's River, Fla., 154, 155, 172. 
St. Simon's Island, Ga., 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 

46, 47. 
St. Stephen's Depot, S. C, 284. 
Staggett's Mill, S. C, 308. 
Stanton, Edwin M., 2. 
State Road, 256, 263, 266. 
Statesburg, S. C, 296, 298, 299, 300, 306. 
Stearns, George L., 11, 12. 
Stearns, Marv E., 16. 
Stephens, George E, 12, 56, 92, 166, 315. 
Stephenson, J. H., 15, 23. 
Steuart, George H., 196. 
Stevens, Atherton H., Jr., 152. 
Stevens, Edward L., 184, 237, 276, 291, 292, 

293, 302, 303, 304, 305. 
Stevens, T. H., 128. 
Stevenson, Thomas G., 53, 63, 74, 85, 87, 

103, 106, 143. 
Stewart, Henry, 131. 
Stewart plantation, 263, 265, 266. 
Stiles, Joseph, 202. 
Sterling, J. R., 12. 



Stone, Lincoln R., 34, 64, 75, 103, 105, 109. 

145. 
Stono Inlet, S. C, 51, 141, 186, 197, 200, 

215, 234. 
Stono Kiver, 53, 56, 59, 197, 199, 208, 209, 

210, 211, 216, 270. 
Strahan, Charles G., 146. 
Strength of regiment, 105, 108, 149, 164, 

178, 202,228. 237, 261,291. 
Strong, Fort, 134. 

Strong, George C , 46, 48, 49, 66, 72, 73, 74, 

77, 86, 88, 89, 91, 94. 
Stroud, "William II., tug, 318. 
Sturgis, James, 142. 
Subscription for monument, 229, 230. 
Suffhay, Samuel, 217. 
Sullivan's Island, S. C, 54, 70, 138, 187, 

212, 217, 219, 233, 281, 282. 
Sulsey, Joseph, 188. 
Summerville, S. C, 310. 
Sumner, Charles, 14. 
Sumner, Mrs. Charles W., 16. 
Sumter bombarded, 106, 111,133, 141,190, 

218. 
Sumter, Confederate steamer, 116. 
Sumter, Fort, 69, 70, 106, 110, 111, 113, 

120, 128, 133, 135, 139, 141, 187, 19( 

192, 218, 220, 282, 314. 
Sumter, prize steamer, 182. 
Sumter, "Watchman," 295. 
Sumterville, S. C, 289, 294, 295, 296. 
Sunstrokes, 201, 205. 
Surrender of Lee, 308. 
Sutlers, 108, 115, 177, 215. 
Sutton, William, 32. 
Suwanee River, Fla., 155, 157. 
Swails, Stephen A., 91, 135, 165, 169, 176, 

179, 183, 193, 194, 202,233,208,291,296, 
298, 316, 317. 

"Swamp Angel" Battery, 108, 112, 114, 

225. 
Swayne, Wager, 272. 
Swift Creek, S. C, 300, 301. 
Sylvia, Samuel, 302. 



T. 

Talbird's house, 261. 

Taliaferro, William B., 70, 71, 94, 95, 99, 

203, 206, 208. 
Tanner, John, 217. 



INDEX. 



451 



Tatom, Battery, 203. 
Tatom, W. T., 88. 
Taylor, A., and Company, 10. 
Taylor, James H., 312. 
Taylor, Rev. Father, 15. 
Ten Eyck, Anthony, 184. 
Ten Mile Run, Fla., 153. 
Ten Mile Station, Fla., 174. 
Tennessee Troops. 

Cavalry : 
Lewis' Brigade, 301. 
Tenth Corps, 129, 185. 
Terry, Adrian, 117. 
Terry, Alfred H., 52, 53, 55, 61, 62, 63, 

101, 106, 114, 122, 143, 146, 157, 185, 

268. 
Thanksgiving Day, 139, 234. 
Thomas, C. F., steamer, 317. 
Thompson, Albert D., 315. 
Thompson, G. W., 88. 
Thompson, M. Jeff., 196. 
Thompson plantation, 38. 
Thorntree Swamp, S. C, 291. 
Threats of General Seymour, 177. 
Thunderbolt, Ga., 265. 
Thurber, James D., 201. 
Tiger Island, S. C, 200. 
Tilden, Joseph, 24. 
Tilghman, B. C, 155. 
Tilton, Theodore, 136, 138. 
Tomlinson, Ezekiel G., 133, 145, 164, 166, 

196. 
Tomlinson, Reuben, 131. 
Torpedoes, 119, 132,187, 191, 219. 
Townsend, E. D., 97. 
Tragedy in regiment, 309. 
Transfer of recruits, 230. 
Treadwell, Joshua B., 315, 317. 
Trenholm, George A., 312. 
Trotter, James M., 243. 
Truces, 101, 107, 112, 218, 221, 226. 
Tucker, Charles E., 34, 85, 90, 105, 133, 

183, 191, 219, 233, 237, 264, 266, 291, 

292, 297, 311, 317. 
Tudor, Frederick, 16. 
Tufts, William, 320. 
Tullifinny River, S. C, 256, 257, 258, 262, 

263, 269. 
Turkey Creek, S. C, 294. 
Turner, John W., 157, 185. 
Turtle River, Ga., 40. 
Tynes, Battery, 202, 213, 214. 



u. 



Uncle Sam, tug, 318. 
United States Troops (colored). 
Infantry : 

Third, 114, 117, 125, 126, 149, 155. 

Seventh, 210. 

Eighth, 149, 160, 161, 163, 171, 174, 

184. 
Twenty-First, 176, 188, 201, 222, 

231, 282, 310, 311, 312. 
Twenty-Sixth, 212, 236, 241, 254, 

255, 262, 263, 265, 315. 
Thirty-Second, 219, 236, 238, 241, 

244, 247, 255, 257, 259, 260, 272, 
274, 275, 290, 295, 298, 299, 300, 
305, 315. 

Thirty-Third, 196, 200, 211, 213, 

260, 262, 265, 266, 269, 274, 286, 

314. 
Thirty-Fourth, 188, 193, 210, 236, 

251, 255, 259, 261, 269. 
Thirty-Fifth, 210, 236, 243, 247, 

248, 250, 251, 255, 259, 311, 313. 
One Hundred and Second, 236, 

241, 248, 250, 255, 259, 269, 273, 

274, 275, 279, 280, 284, 286, 288, 290, 

292, 295, 301, 304, 305, 309, 315. 
One Hundred and Third, 316. 
One Hundred and Fourth, 316. 
[See also, First North Carolina (colored), 
and First, Second, and Fourth South 
Carolina (colored).] 
Regulars : 

Engineers, 109. 
Artillery: 
First, 110. 
First {Batteries), 

B., 154, 160, 161. 

M., 161, 167. 
Third (Batteries): 

E., 159, 160, 161. 
Marines, Detachment, 244. 
Naval Brigade, 236, 238, 239, 244, 

245, 251, 256, 259, 264. 
Urbino, Mrs., 16. 

Usher, Roland G., 130. 



Van Allen, Charles, 121. 

Van Wyck, Charles H., 221, 230, 270. 



452 



INDEX. 



Vanderpool, George, 119. 
Vermillion, Sergt., 1:2-1. 
Vermont, frigate. 37. 
Vessels destroyed, 219, 230, 233. 
Vincent's Creek, S. C, 08, lOti. 
Visitors in camp, 22, 23, 24, 131, 132, 217. 
Vogdes, Israel, 101, 175. 
Vogelsang, Peter, 58, 135, 169, 315, 316, 
317. 

w 

Wabash, frigate, 37. 

Waccamaw River, S. C, 290. 

Wagner, Fort, 52, 54, 68, 69, 120, 123, 125, 

128, 134, 146, 172, 186, 224, 225, 226, 

229, 232, 248, 314. 
Wagner, Theodore D., 316. 
Wagner, Thomas M., 69. 
Walcott, J. H., 15. 
Walker, Joseph, 118, 119, 121, 122. 
Wall, O. S. B., 12. 
Wallace's, S. C, 280. 
Walton, James M., 9, 34, 51, 132, 153, 183, 

201, 234, 283, 316, 317. 
Wampler, J. M., 111. 
Wanderer, yacht, 46. 
Wando River, S. C, 192. 
Wappoo Creek, S. C, 53. 
Wappoo Cut, 310. 
War Department, 2, 96, 141, 179, 181, 194, 

220, 268. 
Ward, R. C. A., schooner, 150. 
Ward, S. G., 15. 
Ward, W. H., 123. 
Wardens, 223, 226. 
Waring, P. H., 88. 
Warley, Charles, 278. 
Warlev, F. F. 120. 
Wateree Bridge, S. C, 289. 
Wateree Junction, 296, 306. 
Waters, R. P., 16. 
Waterston, Mrs. R. C, 16. 
Wav, C. H., 56. 
Webb, A. F., 111. 

Webster, Frederick H., 233, 237, 272, 318. 
Webster, Moses F., 291, 304. 
Weed, Harriet A., steamer, 41, 46. 
Weehawken, monitor, 46, 128, 140. 
AVelch, Frank M., 296, 315, 317. 
Weld, William F., 15. 
Weslev, John, 45. 
Wessells, Henry W., 195. 



Whaley plantation, 285,. 

Wheaton, John F., 167. 

White, Batterv, 290. 

White, J. H.,'293. 

White Point, S. C.,208. 

Whitemarsh Island, Ga., 158. 

Whitfield, sutler, 177. 

Whiting, William, 179. 

Whitney, Alonzo B., 255. 

Whitney, William L., Jr., 276, 291, 297, 

302, 305, 314, 316, 317. 
Wild, Edward A., 24, 108. 
Wildt, E. A., 201, 212, 241, 242. 
Wilkins, James H., 164, 166, 168, 291, 

298, 316. 
Willard (Mann), Samuel, 34, 54, 55, 56, 59, 

61, 79, 81, 90, 133. 
Williams, C. P., mortar schooner, 52. 
Williams, George W., 283. 
Williams, James M., 1. 
Williams, Preston, 59. 
Williams, Seth, 287. 
Willoughby, R. H., 311. 
Wilmington, N. C, 289, 311. 
Wilson, Ezra, 10. 
Wilson, George, 83, 90. 
Wilson, Henry, 32, 180, 181, 190, 319. 
Wilson, James D., 58. 
Wilson, John H., 249, 297. 
Wilson, William, 309. 
Winona, gunboat, 237. 
Winyaw Bay, S. C, 290. 
Winyaw Indigo Society, 290. 
Wissahickon, gunboat, 237. 
Woodbury, J. G., 111. 
Wounded, Care of, 64, 105, 173, 174, 176, 

251, 254, 272. 
Wright, A. R, 275. 
Wright, Elizur, 14. 
W right and Potter, 16. 
Wright's Bluff, S. C, 298, 299, 305, 307. 
Wyoming, steamer, 268. 



Yellow Bluff, Fla., 185. 
Yellow fever, 226. 
Young, P. M. B., 300. 



z. 

Zachry, Charles T., 178. 






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